Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Up-ended Masculinity: Male Weaknesses in Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre
|Issue Date:||2021-09-02 15:26:35 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||在浪漫時期，女性在兩性議題中通常都是被壓迫的那一方，而男性則是有權力的壓迫者。在維多利亞時代，女性已經有能力去反抗這樣的壓迫。而許多的評論家把夏綠蒂・勃朗特的《簡愛》視為是講述女性主義以及父權壓迫的小說。Sandra Gilbert 和Susan Gubar在 The Madwoman in the Attic (1979)的書中評論《簡愛》裡羅徹斯特對伯莎的壓迫是一種父權對女性的壓迫，女性像是永遠會被社會價值觀束縛只能掙扎存活。然而，我認為以上評論太過著重在男性對女性的壓迫，我們不能只看男性強壯以及有能力的那一面。我想著重男性在《簡愛》中男子氣概的展現。除了強壯的形象與父權之外，男性也能展現出脆弱、弱小的一面。在社會上，男性必需要成為一位完美的紳士、遵守各種社會規範，以符合社會大眾對男性的期待。在家庭中，男性還需要展現男子氣概(Masculinity)、身負養家活口的重任…等才能被稱為好男人。|
The gender issue is an important one in critical studies of Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre, and many critics have pointed out patriarchal oppression of women in their readings of the novel. For instance, in their influential "The Madwoman in the Attic" (1979), Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar believe that women seem to be everlastingly shackled by such a patriarchal socio-ideological chain. In this thesis, however, I argue that critics overemphasize the absolute male oppression of women. We can’t only focus on the powerful and strong figures of the male characters. I wish to revise this reading by suggesting the value of man in Jane Eyre. Instead of being endowed with absolute power and male chauvinism, men in the novel exhibit fragility and vulnerability. Men need to follow the rules of masculinity to be a wonderful man, and gentlemen also have their gentlemanly qualities to obey. In the domestic part, Men are expected to support the whole family and deal with the domestic things. Men, likewise, have great senses of stress by what society wishes them to be. They are forced to behave as wonderful gentlemen with masculinity to fit the social expectations. The family restrictions and social expectation to Mr. Rochester, which started from his childhood, caused his suffering today.
My thesis argues that Charlotte Brontë redefines the meaning of masculinity in Jane Eyre, and that she depicts men’s weakness and effeminacy. She uncovers the pressure which exists beneath the surface in Victorian men. This thesis examines the socio-ideological oppression of men, and offers a new value of masculinity in the Victorian era through Jane Eyre. Last but not least, it scrutinizes how Brontë’s characterizes her ideal(ized) man in the Victorian era, which follows a new idea of masculinity in the Victorian Period.
|Reference:||Austen, Jane. Emma. UK, Cambridge University Press, 2005.|
Adams, James Eli. Dandies and Desert Saints. New York, Cornell University Press, 1995.
Beattie, Valerie. “The Mystery at Thornfield: Representations of Madness in Jane Eyre.” Studies in the Novel, vol. 28, no. 4, 1996, pp. 493–505. ProQuest Central, login.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/login?url=https://www-proquest-com.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/scholarly-journals/mystery-at-thornfield-representations-madness/docview/212631982/se-2?accountid=10067.
Brinks, Ellen. Gothic Masculinity : Effeminacy and the Supernatural in English and German Romanticism. USA, Lewisburg PA. : Bucknell University Press, 2003. Brontë, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Edited by Margaret Smith, USA, Oxford University Press, 2008.
---. Shirley. New York, Oxford University Press, 1979. Brontë, Emily, et al. Wuthering Heights. Revised, Penguin Classics, 2002.
Castronovo, David. The English Gentleman: Images and Ideals in Literature and Society. First Edition, UNKNO, 1987.
Crowhurst, Sylvia. The Victorian Man: Re-Defining and Re-Negotiating Masculinity in Brontë and Gaskell. USF St. Petersburg campus Master’s Theses (Graduate). 37., 2014. University of South Florida St. Petersburg Digital Archive, digital.stpetersburg.usf.edu/masterstheses/37.
Darwin, Charles. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. New York, Rand, McNally and Company, 1874.
DeLamotte, Eugenia. Perils of the Night: A Feminist Study of Nineteenth-Century Gothic. 1st ed., New York, Oxford University Press, 1990.
Freeman, Janet H. “Speech and Silence in Jane Eyre.” Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900, vol. 24, no. 4, 1984, pp. 683–700. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/450486.
Garofalo, Daniela. Manly Leaders in Nineteenth-Century British Literature. Albany, State University of New York Press, 2008.
Gilbert, Sandra, and Susan Gubar. The Madwoman in the Attic. Yale University Press, 2000.
Green, Dudley. “The Father of the Brontës.” The Brontës in Context, edited by Marianne Thormählen, United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press, 2014, pp. 36–43.
Hall, Donald E. “On the Making and Unmaking of Monsters: Christian Socialism, Muscular Christianity, and the Metaphorization of Class Conflict.” Muscular Christianity, edited by Donald E. Hall, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp. 45–65.
Jordan, Jennifer. “‘To Make a Man Without Reason’: Examining Manhood and Manliness in Early Modern England.” What is Masculinity? Historical Dynamics from Antiquity to the Contemporary World, edited by John H. Arnold and Sean Brady, UK, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, pp. 245–62, doi:10.1057/9780230307254.
MacDonald, Tara. “Class and Gender in the Brontë Novels.” A Companion to the Brontës, edited by Diane Long Hoeveler and Deborah Denenholz Morse, Hoboken, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2016, pp. 485–99. Wiley Online Library, doi:10.1002/9781118405543.
Mishou, Aubrey L. “Surviving Thornfield: Jane Eyre and Nineteenth-Century Evolutionary Theory.” Renascence, vol. 66, no. 4, 2014, pp. 255–72. ProQuest Central, www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/surviving-thornfield-jane-eyre-nineteenth-century/docview/1634452284/se-2?accountid=201395.
Quinn, Emma. Sexing the Male: Manifestations of Masculinity in Jane Eyre, Wuthering Heights, and Villette. Honor theses. 265, 2014. Bucknell Digital Commons, digitalcommons.bucknell.edu/honors_theses/265.
Roper, Michael, and John Tosh. “Introduction: Historian and the Politics of
Masculinity.” Manful Assertions: Masculinity in Britain Since 1800, edited by
Michael Roper, London, Routledge, 1991, pp. 1–24.
Rosen, David. “The Volcano and the Cathedral: Muscular Christianity and the Origins of Primal Manliness.” Muscular Christianity, edited by Donald E. Hall, Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp. 17–44.
Smith, Andrew. Gothic Literature. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press Ltd, 2007. Sophocles. Oedipus the King. New York, Oxford University Press, 1978.
Spenckens, Puk. The Men in Eyre’s Lives: A Study of Testosterone and Effeminacy. Radboud University Nijmegen Faculty of Arts, 2014. Radboud University Nijmegen Faculty of Arts Educational Repository, theses.ubn.ru.nl/handle/123456789/806.
Su, Yu-wen. Detached Sympathy in the Long Nineteenth Century: Frankenstein, Jane Eyre, and the Portrait of a Lady. Taipei, National Chengchi University, 2020.
Tosh, John. Manliness and Masculinity in Nineteenth-Century Britain. United Kingdom, Pearson Education Limited, 2005.
Warner-Gonzales, Avalon. “I Had Dreaded Worse. I Had Dreaded He Was Mad”: Reading the Intersections of Mental Illness and Masculinity in Jane Eyre. Honors Thesis, 2017, doi:10.17615/vfh0-k151.
|Appears in Collections:||[英國語文學系] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.