Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/137001


Title: OTT浪潮下視訊平臺規管趨勢與法規架構調適之探討-以有線電視與中華電信MOD為重心
REGULATORY TREND OF VIDEO PLATFORMS AND THE ADAPTION OF THE REGULATORY FRAMEWORK UNDER THE IMPACT OF OTT-FOCUSING ON CATV AND CHUNGHWA TELECOM MOD
Authors: 黃睿迪
Huang, Juei-Di
Contributors: 劉定基
Liu, Ting-Chi
黃睿迪
Huang, Juei-Di
Keywords: 有線電視
數位匯流
MOD
OTT
OTT TV
規管趨勢
數位匯流
視訊平臺
管制調和
Date: 2021
Issue Date: 2021-09-02 17:11:48 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 在有廣法層層疊加而來各類型管制措施,以及主管機關經常以多項附負擔許可的有線電視系統股權轉受讓、經營權變更等案件,構築起極為嚴密的有廣法管制體系,但在總體的視訊平臺管制措施中,卻同時另外存在著經人為改造為開放平台、管制強度顯不相當的IPTV,也就是在既有的視訊平臺法規中,長期存在著管制錯置產生的空隙,同時OTT TV並未受法規規範的現象 ,也就是說,我國的視訊平臺法制規管措施,同時間存在著管制嚴防(有廣法)、管制錯置(電信法/電信管理法)與管制真空(OTT TV)的三種情形。

對於現行有廣法的法規調和,對於時移勢異之後黨政軍條款,就其管制目的與管制必要性而言,理應回歸政黨法與預算法的管理,從源頭節制政黨或政府不當介入媒體經營,並放寬適切比例容許上限,避免阻斷視訊平臺獲得正當資金挹注經營、引入活水的機會,並且不再無端讓有線電視系統經營者與管制者一再陷入無心落入違法與執法與否的困局,並且能夠讓有意進行有線電視產業間相互投資或併購整合者,能夠「開大門、走大路」,以系統經營者投資其他系統經營者身份向主管機關提出申請,不再需要為了避免誤觸黨政軍條款,致使正當投資受到無謂影響(有廣法第12條第1項第5款參照),設計繁複多層的投資架構,卻因而同時架空有廣法第24條第3項之水平結構等管制條文,同時解開黨政軍條款之束縛,亦有助解決同屬線纜視訊平臺的MOD被迫移往電信管理法、抽離其排頻權的人為干預機制設計,作為回歸線纜視訊平臺法制架構管理的第一步。

而長年規範有線電視產業的費率管制與頻道異動管制措施,在未來的法規調和上亦可考慮適時放寬。其中價格管制措施長年實施的結果,不僅造成有線電視產業與頻道事業營收規模受限,無法將市場營收擴大,同時管制價格措施,不易鼓勵業者自主提出創新服務,間接造成有線電視面臨業內競爭時,無心思考服務差異化作出市場區隔,競相以遠低於營運成本的價格競爭方式流血下殺,加劇有線電視產業的空洞化,因而無力再進行其他網路建設、頻道採購或發展創新服務等業務;同時,費率上限管制(600元門檻)的產業僵固化,更是影響內容產業無法取得足夠的營運資金,以及新進頻道事業難以與既有頻道競爭極為有限收視費收入的關鍵。本文建議,未來若經地方或中央主管機關認定某一有線電視經營區係屬有效競爭區域,基於費率管制目的係避免獨占或寡占市場者濫用訂價權,影響消費者權益之考量,如該經營區域已有足適競爭者,即可考慮以競爭代替管制,解除收視費之費率管制機制,鼓勵更多業者參進市場,提供消費者更多視訊平臺選擇,同時不再限制費率上限,開放業者自行評估其費率組合,自主提出各式收視組合,引入更多高價值頻道,亦可鼓勵內容業者投資優質節目。

而另一重大管制行政措施即為頻道異動管制,現行有廣法以營運計畫變更作為管制有線電視系統需經許可始得調整頻道組合的設計機制,容有節制視訊平臺業者不得任意變更頻道組合,而可在獨占寡占市場保護維持競爭秩序與保護消費者的本意,但長期以來也造成行政機關無可避免涉入商業談判的情形,因此,如未限制競爭疑慮或無不正競爭行為的前提下,應可開放業者自行評估推出頻道組合商品向市場銷售,短期內如考慮開放政策可能對既有頻道事業之家戶觸達率產生衝擊,而影響頻道事業廣告收益時,亦可考慮先行開放現行80頻位之後的基本頻道變更申請,改採備查制,待相關產業與交易市場逐漸熟悉與建立交易慣例後,逐步開放有效競爭區域之前80頻位由業者自行排頻,帶動市場活絡與競爭。

此外,基於有線電視與MOD兩者屬於同一市場事實的特性,對於現行有廣法與電信管理法各自管理不同視訊平臺的既有管制措施,未來應將有線電視與MOD劃歸同一視訊平臺管制法規體系進行管理,作為再管制與視訊平臺法規調和的第一步,並給予有線電視與IPTV平臺更多的經營空間,讓視訊平臺法規在第一步能夠適度減輕管制力道、縮小至必要管制範圍,適時拆解有廣法設下重重阻絕措施的各式限制,減少不必要的干預行政後續引來更為高昂的行政管理成本。

管制機關對於「傳統」(legacy)的視訊平臺產業,雖然累積了豐富管制經驗,熟知如何管理既有的產業與既有管制架構的問題,但是科技變遷衝擊加速的市場急遽變化,帶來了產業界分不易的難題,管制機關也必須同時面對變動中的新興媒體,不斷衝擊既有管制架構,與凸顯出管制法規難以與時俱進適應難題,還有現有視訊平臺的被管制者,一再要求管制機關應該重視管制公平性等議題,都是凸顯了管制轉型的迫切性與必要性。
Reference: 參考文獻
一、中文部分

中央社. (2019). MOD揮別14年虧損 中華電:今年全年估轉盈. Retrieved from https://www.cna.com.tw/news/afe/201909180220.aspx
公平交易委員會處分書 公處字第 106064 號, (2017).
公平交易委員會. (2019). 公平交易委員會與國家通訊傳播委員會之協調結論. Retrieved from https://www.ftc.gov.tw/internet/main/doc/docDetail.aspx?uid=36&docid=11262&mid=36
公平交易委員會(2020) 大無畏全球投資控股股份有限公司擬透過大大數位匯流股份有限公司取得新加坡Dynami Vision Pte. Ltd.之65%股份,與杰廣股份有限公司及其從屬公司、泰羅斯股份有限公司及其從屬公司結合案件決定書 Retrieved from https://www.ftc.gov.tw/uploadDecision/57620db2-2481-4e41-8a84-e992234914fb.pdf
公平交易委員會. (2021/4/28). 公平交易委員會對於有線電視相關事業之規範說明. Retrieved from https://www.ftc.gov.tw/internet/main/doc/docDetail.aspx?uid=1353&docid=276&mid=1353
公視新聞網. (2020/8/5). 有線電視上下架 NCC:依科學數據分析調處. Retrieved from https://news.pts.org.tw/article/489667
王立達,名家評論-面對OTT TV, NCC別忘了匯流與競爭,《工商時報》2020/10/21,available at https://view.ctee.com.tw/technology/23955.html
王立達. (2017/11/18). 出人意料的有線電視轉捩點. Retrieved from https://tw.appledaily.com/forum/20171118/YOWPZGQEOAAXE6OPM7SAKPVALU/
王牧寰(2011),《美國有線電視之節目取得與載送命令研究》,元智大學資訊社會學碩士學位學程碩士論文
王牧寰(2020),〈有線電視萬年頻道之解方法論〉,收於:打破萬年頻道表 電視內容再升級」研討會》,頁51-52,東吳大學法律研究所。
王銘佐 (2020/10/30). 「花蓮好好看」介定模糊恐引發大亂鬥、大併購 NCC要開公聽會納意見. Retrieved from https://cnews.com.tw/134201030a02/
王怡惠、白卿芬(2019),〈由SSNIP檢測來看我國視訊服務市場界定〉,《中華傳播學會2019年年會論文》
台北市媒體服務代理商協會《2020媒體白皮書》
立法院(2018/5/9),〈立法院第9屆第5會期交通委員會第12次全體委員會議紀錄 〉,《立法院公報》,107卷58期,頁203。
立法院公報. (2002). 91卷66期3262號上冊. Retrieved from https://lis.ly.gov.tw/lglawc/lawsingle?000A533AC2AE000000000000000001E000000005000000^02409092120900^00006001001
立法院公報. (2011). 第101卷第42期.
立法院法律系統. (1999). 有線廣播電視法異動條文其理由. Retrieved from https://lis.ly.gov.tw/lglawc/lawsingle?003374ECCE00000000000000000001400000000400FFFFFD00^02409088011500^00038001001
全面真軍. (2016). 黨政軍條款修正與反媒體壟斷法─從多次中嘉投資案談起. 新社會政策(44), 29-33.
朱政庭. (2020/10/7). 台固巧稱「OTT」進花蓮搶有線電視生意 NCC坦言:苦思釐清中,. Retrieved from https://tw.appledaily.com/life/20201007/KW7GRYJNARHCVLPHLH2P3L67NY/
江耀國(2014),〈論水平架構之通訊傳播法制革新-層級模式、馬來西亞及英國法制與臺灣之革新草案〉,《月旦法學雜誌》,224卷
吳柏緯. (2019). 有線電視仲裁制度是否入法 業者意見不一. Retrieved from https://www.cna.com.tw/news/ahel/201911120114.aspx
吳柏緯. (2019). 有線電視訂戶續跌原因 鄭俊卿:OTT與短報用戶數. Retrieved from https://money.udn.com/money/story/5612/4175050
吳柏緯. (2019/10/5). 防有線電視斷訊潮 NCC:調處期間不得斷訊. Retrieved from https://www.cna.com.tw/news/ahel/201910050285.aspx
周延. (2020). MOD、OTT興起 台灣有線電視用戶流失 業者亡羊補牢策略為何?. Retrieved from https://www.digitimes.com.tw/iot/article.asp?cat=158&cat1=20&id=0000592128_YIR0372F3EMWWD7XOQJFB
林淑惠. (2019/9/6). 收視戶一直掉 CBIT:有線、MOD、OTT 應拉齊管制. Retrieved from https://ctee.com.tw/news/industry/141837.html
林淑惠. (2020/8/24). 有線電視業者拜會NCC 提3建言. 工商時報. Retrieved from https://www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/20200824000211-260204?chdtv
林淑惠. (2020/10/24). NCC若否決台固在花蓮提供寬頻服務 產學:是開數位匯流的倒車. Retrieved from https://www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/20201024000168-260202?chdtv
工商時報(2019/3/4),〈大陸OTT登台 業者剉咧等〉
施俊吉(2012),〈有線電視市場結構與經營區調整政策〉,《人文及社會科學集刊》第二十四卷第二期
徐揮彥(2009),〈聯合國教科文組織“保障及促進文化表現多樣性公約”對文化權及傳播權之影響:以2007年歐體視聽媒體服務指令為中心〉,《新聞學研究》,98期,頁93-137。
商業週刊. (2016). 有線電視敗亡的前兆?新進業者削價攬客、陸劇韓劇夾擊....NCC不管嗎. Retrieved from https://www.businessweekly.com.tw/business/blog/18434
張玉琦、林庭安. (2019/12/5). MOD 連賠 14 年,今年擺脫虧損!他靠兩大策略拉抬用戶數、提振營收. Retrieved from https://tw.news.yahoo.com/mod-%E9%80%A3%E8%B3%A0-14-%E5%B9%B4-%E4%BB%8A%E5%B9%B4%E6%93%BA%E8%84%AB%E8%99%A7%E6%90%8D-040000475.html
張美玲、王國樑、陳麗雪(2010),〈臺灣有線電視產業成本特性與壟斷力之探討〉,《公平交易季刊》,21卷1期
曹以斌. (2019/3/6). 霸主梟雄鬥-有線電視殺紅眼 蔡明忠、練台生大鬥法. 鏡週刊. Retrieved from https://www.mirrormedia.mg/story/20190305fin006/
莊春發、江耀國、陳錦烽、柯舜智、陳谷劦、陳志成(2010),《有線電視產業調查研究案》,NCC委託研究報告。
陳世昌. (2020/9/30). 三立iNEWS定頻遇阻 NCC否決大新店民主、屏南下架年代8頻道. Ettoday. Retrieved from https://finance.ettoday.net/news/1821717
陳志民(2020),〈有線電視產業引入多元競爭管道的可能與挑戰〉,《2020有線電視論壇-頻道交易秩序與上下架管理研討會》
彭心儀、陳俊榮(2007),〈對於通訊產業「技術中立」管制原則的反省與批判—以網路電話為核心〉,《月旦法學雜誌》,151卷92-144。
彭慧明. (2020/10/8). 下架頻道 富邦蔡明忠強槓年代練台生. Retrieved from https://money.udn.com/money/story/5612/4918484
經濟日報(2020/6/23),〈有線電視業陷入大亂鬥 恐掀起百萬用戶斷訊風暴〉
焦雄屏. (2012/6/15). 誰該管有線電視頻道大戰?. Retrieved from https://www.cw.com.tw/article/5035750?kgrec=1&ercamp=article_interested_9
黃仁俊(2020),〈黨政軍條款的再省思廣電法與政黨法之交錯〉,《教育法學評論》,6期,頁43-60。
自由時報(2018),〈「第四台」資費戰開打!平均月租已不到 100 元〉
黃銘輝(2018),〈「媒體壟斷與多元維護法」草案與媒金分離條款評析〉,《月旦法學雜誌》,276卷
黃銘輝(2020),《仲裁作為頻道授權與上下架爭度之解決機制》,2020有線電視論壇-頻道交易秩序與上下架管理研討會。
黃銘輝(2020),《數位匯流下視訊服務市場界定與法規調適》,傳播產業發展高峰論壇全媒體環境中的傳播產業發展法律框架秩序學術研討會。
經濟部. (2020/8/18). 預告:禁止為大陸地區之公司在臺代理、經銷或從事OTT-TV之相關商業行為. Retrieved from https://www.moea.gov.tw/Mns/populace/news/News.aspx?kind=1&menu_id=40&news_id=91016
葉志良(2015),〈我國線上影音內容管制的再塑造:從OTT的發展談起〉,《資訊社會研究》,29期,頁50。
資策會. (2019). 調查分析報告-影劇平台興起,電視仍是主流-線上影視內容觀看概況.
資策會(2011),《北美OTT線上影視服務發展分析》
資誠PwC. (2020). 2020-2024臺灣娛樂暨媒體業展望. Retrieved from https://www.pwc.tw/zh/publications/topic-report/2020-taiwan-enm-outlook.html
廖大穎(2013),〈關係企業之法規範與公司治理〉,《中正財經法學》,6卷28。
臺北市媒體服務代理商協會. (2019). 2019 年台灣媒體白皮書. Retrieved from https://maataipei.org/download/2019%E5%AA%92%E9%AB%94%E7%99%BD%E7%9A%AE%E6%9B%B8/
臺北高等行政法院. (2020). 臺北高等行政法院 108 年訴字第 1744 號判決. Retrieved from https://law.judicial.gov.tw/FJUD/data.aspx?ty=JD&id=TPBA,108%2c%e8%a8%b4%2c1744%2c20200722%2c1
劉定基(2014),〈有線電視頻道規劃的管制及其界限-以一般性頻道規劃與個別頻道載送決定的管制為比較分析中心〉,《東吳法律學報第26卷第3期》,
劉定基(2021),〈讓競爭取代管制──該是NCC放手的時候了〉,《月旦法學雜誌》,311卷33-44。
劉連煜(編)(2020),《現代公司法》,741:新學林。
鄭迪(2015),《論「平台中立」之管制概念─以OTT TV及付費電視之競爭為中心》,國立清華大學科技法律研究所碩士論文,新竹市。
鄭娙妤(2020),《論OTT-TV對我國影視平臺管制法制之衝擊》,國立政治大學法律學系碩士論文,台北市。
鄭景雯、朱則瑋、江明晏. (2017/11/12). 凱擘終止有線頻道代理 東森緯來抗議. Retrieved from https://www.cna.com.tw/news/firstnews/201711210268.aspx
賴祥蔚(2014年7月),〈電視平台之市場界定─以MOD與有線電視為例〉,《公平交易季刊》,22卷3期,頁
簡維克(2007),〈從科技匯流到管制匯流〉,《科技法學評論》,4卷2期,頁235-236。
簡維克(2010),〈通傳法與競爭法下拉拔下的有線電視管制圖像-論有線廣播電視法之訂戶數上限規範〉,《法學新論》,20期,頁105。
T. L. 關鍵評論. (2016). 500元看一年!有線電視削價搶客割喉戰. Retrieved from https://www.thenewslens.com/article/27822
蘇思云. (2020/9/3). NCC將針對新型態視訊服務與有線電視服務之界分,召開專家學者諮詢會議並舉辦公聽會. Retrieved from https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/news_detail.aspx?site_content_sn=8&cate=0&keyword=&is_history=0&pages=1&sn_f=45241
蘇思云. (2021/5/7). 有線電視MOD將被視為同一市場? 公平會:個案判斷. Retrieved from https://www.cna.com.tw/news/afe/202105070287.aspx?utm_source=site.facebook&utm_medium=share&utm_campaign=fbuser&fbclid=IwAR2M2kIup0zNFwz8v2g0SOHUxjuJTCsKGhAr9-ZLUDQYBjKNFp9rsYO-khM
NCC. (2007). 第73次委員會議紀錄. Retrieved from https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/files/07052/67_1540_110425_1.pdf
有線多頻道平臺服務管理條例草案, (2016).
NCC. (2017). 公告「有線廣播電視系統經營者資本額達新臺幣二億元以上者,應向證券主管機關辦理股票公開發行」. Retrieved from https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/law_detail.aspx?site_content_sn=3874&law_sn=2614&sn_f=2614&is_history=0
NCC. (2019). 有線廣播電視法第五十五條至第五十五條之四修正草案條文對照表. Retrieved from https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/files/19110/52_42194_191104_3.pdf
NCC. (2019). 國家通訊傳播委員會通過中華電信股份有限公司多媒體內容傳輸平臺服務營業規章修正案,以維持開放平台特性、因應市場發展、回歸適法性為基礎,維護多元選擇及鼓勵頻道供應商多元呈現,以提供民眾多元優質收視. Retrieved from https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/news_detail.aspx?site_content_sn=8&sn_f=40939
NCC. (2019). 傳播政策白皮書. Retrieved from https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/files/20032/5237_42741_200320_1.pdf
NCC. (2019/1/23). 國家通訊傳播委員會通過中華電信股份有限公司多媒體內容傳輸平臺服務營業規章修正案,以維持開放平台特性、因應市場發展、回歸適法性為基礎,維護多元選擇及鼓勵頻道供應商多元呈現,以提供民眾多元優質收視. Retrieved from https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/news_detail.aspx?site_content_sn=8&sn_f=40939
NCC. (2019/12/21). NCC通過有線廣播電視法修正草案,強化有線廣播電視系統經營者與頻道供應事業爭議處理機制. Retrieved from https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/news_detail.aspx?site_content_sn=8&sn_f=42343
NCC. (2020). 109年第4季有線廣播電視訂戶數及各行政區裝設數位機上盒普及率. Retrieved from https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/news_detail.aspx?site_content_sn=2989&cate=0&keyword=&is_history=0&pages=0&sn_f=45698
NCC. (2020). 三大有線電視股份有限公司違反黨政軍條款規定,NCC依法核處. Retrieved from https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/news_detail.aspx?site_content_sn=8&cate=0&keyword=%e4%b8%89%e5%a4%a7&is_history=0&pages=0&sn_f=43399
NCC. (2020). 有線廣播電視法第五十五條至第五十五條之四修正草案對照表. Retrieved from https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/files/19110/52_42194_191104_3.pdf
NCC. (2020/6/5). 2019年通訊傳播市場消費者使用概況. Retrieved from https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/news_detail.aspx?site_content_sn=3734&cate=0&keyword=&is_history=0&pages=0&sn_f=43236
NCC. (2020/7/9). 我國有線電視系統達成100%數位化,續促有線電視產業朝更優質、更多元發展邁進. Retrieved from https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/news_detail.aspx?site_content_sn=8&cate=0&keyword=&is_history=0&pages=2&sn_f=43404
NCC. (2020/7/22). 「網際網路視聽服務管理法」草案. Retrieved from https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/gradation.aspx?site_content_sn=5305&is_history=0
NCC. (2020/8/12). 國家通訊傳播委員會重為緯來電視網股份有限公司所屬3頻道換照許可處分,期盼未來黨政軍條款合理修正. Retrieved from https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/news_detail.aspx?site_content_sn=8&cate=0&keyword=%e9%bb%a8%e6%94%bf%e8%bb%8d&is_history=0&pages=0&sn_f=44678
NCC. (2020/10/28). 1091028 下午2:00 NCC第934次委員會議後例行記者會. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m03rgHTV_og&list=UUG8PKx2f2xISMz7INKePJUw&index=21
NCC. (2021). 109年廣電市場調查結果報告. Retrieved from https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/files/21021/5190_45724_210217_5.pdf
NCC. (2021). 2020年第4季有線電視訂戶數. Retrieved from https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/news.aspx?site_content_sn=2989&is_history=0
NCC. (2021). 中華電信MOD累計用戶數(戶). Retrieved from https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/opendata_item.aspx?menu_function_sn=306
NCC. (2021). 花蓮縣新型態影音服務之服務屬性及規管方式公開說明會. Retrieved from https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/news_detail.aspx?site_content_sn=52&cate=0&keyword=&is_history=0&pages=0&sn_f=45753
NCC. (2021/1). 直播衛星廣播電視服務事業基本資料. Retrieved from https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/files/21021/2025_45720_210217_1.pdf
NCC,NCC通過「有線廣播電視法」草案修正,盼能有效因應系統經營者與頻道供應事業間授權費用之紛爭,available at https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/news_detail.aspx?site_content_sn=8&cate=0&keyword=&is_history=0&pages=0&sn_f=45943
二、英文部分
P. Aubry. (2000). The'Television Without Frontiers' Directive, Cornerstone of the European Broadcasting Policy: European audiovisual observatory.
Aaron Heresco & Stephanie Figueroa, Over the Top: Retransmission Fees and New Commodities in the US Television Industry, 1 DEMOCRATIC COMMUNIQUE 20 19-45(2020).
M. Balderston. (2020/6/22). TV Affiliates Want FCC to Reexamine OTT Regulation. Retrieved from https://www.tvtechnology.com/news/tv-networks-want-fcc-to-reexamine-ott-regulation
D. Bloom. (2021). Cord-Cutting To Accelerate In 2021, With 27% Of Cable Households Disconnecting. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/dbloom/2021/01/12/cord-cutting-to-accelerate-in-2021-with-27-percent-of-cable-households-disconnecting/?sh=640b5c3a6ef4
B. Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communication. (2015). Retrieved from https://berec.europa.eu/eng/document_register/subject_matter/berec/download/0/5751-berec-report-on-ott-services_0.pdf
R. Brandom. (2019). The FCC is using streaming services as an excuse to raise cable rates. Retrieved from https://www.theverge.com/2019/10/25/20932391/fcc-charter-att-monopoly-order-raise-cable-rates
eMarketer, US adults will consume almost as much media in 2021, but TV viewing will backslide, available at https://www.emarketer.com/content/us-adults-will-consume-almost-much-media-2021-tv-viewing-will-backslide
Rob Frieden, et al., There's Probably a Blackout in Your Television Future: Tracking New Carriage Negotiation Strategies between Video Content Programmers and Distributors, 43 THE COLUMBIA JOURNAL OF LAW & THE ARTS(2020)

S. Broughton Micova. (2020). The Audiovisual Media Services Directive: Balancing liberalisation and protection (DRAFT). Forthcoming Handbook on EU Media Law and Policy, Elda Brogi and Pier Luigi Parcu (eds.) Edward Elgar Publishing.
E. COMMISSION. (2015). A Digital Single Market Strategy for Europe. Retrieved from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A52015DC0192
E. Commissions. (1998). Summary of the Results of the Public Consultation on the Green Paper on the Convergence of the Telecommunications, Media and Information Technology Sectors; Areas for Further Reflection. Commission Working Document. SEC (98) 1284 final. Retrieved from http://aei.pitt.edu/1874/.
the Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act, (2010).
M. Consult. (2019). Congress Must Act Now to Stop TV Blackouts for Nearly 900,000 Americans. Retrieved from https://morningconsult.com/opinions/congress-must-act-now-to-stop-tv-blackouts-for-nearly-900000-americans/
G. S. Crawford. (2014). Cable regulation in the internet era Economic Regulation and Its Reform: What Have We Learned? (pp. 137-193): University of Chicago Press.
CRTC. (1997). Broadcasting Distribution Regulations SOR/97-555. Retrieved from https://laws.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/SOR-97-555/FullText.html
D. DiFurio. (2019). AT&T, CBS end 20-day blackout in time for NFL's start. But is losing channels the new normal for pay TV customers? Retrieved from https://www.dallasnews.com/business/local-companies/2019/08/08/att-cbs-end-20-day-blackout-in-time-for-nfl-s-start-but-is-losing-channels-the-new-normal-for-pay-tv-customers/
ESPN. ESPN, Inc. Fact Sheet. Retrieved from https://espnpressroom.com/us/espn-inc-fact-sheet/
EU. (1989). Council Directive 89/552/EEC of 3 October 1989 on the coordination of certain provisions laid down by Law, Regulation or Administrative Action in Member States concerning the pursuit of television broadcasting activities. Retrieved from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A31989L0552
DIRECTIVE 2010/13/EU, (2010).
EU. (2018). DIRECTIVE (EU) 2018/1808 Retrieved from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32018L1808&from=EN
COMMUNICATIONS ACT OF 1934, (1934).
47 U.S.C.§ 548 Development of competition and diversity in video programming distribution, (1992).
Sky Angel U.S., LLC, (2010).
DoJ(2017), Justice Department Challenges AT&T/DirecTV’s Acquisition of Time Warner Retrieved from https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-challenges-attdirectv-s-acquisition-time-warner
U.S vs AT&T INC.(2018),Slip Opinion
FCC. (2014). Commission Adopts MVPD Definition NPRM. Retrieved from https://www.fcc.gov/document/commission-adopts-mvpd-definition-nprm.
FCC. (2014). FCC Invites Public Comment on Updating Definition of Multichannel Video Programming Distributor. Retrieved from https://www.fcc.gov/fcc-invites-public-comment-updating-definition-multichannel-video-programming-distributor
FCC. (2015). Cable Carriage of Broadcast Stations. Retrieved from https://www.fcc.gov/media/cable-carriage-broadcast-stations
FCC. (2016). Commission Approves Charter, TWC and Bright House Merger. Retrieved from https://www.fcc.gov/document/commission-approves-charter-twc-and-bright-house-merger.
FCC. (2019). Report on Cable Industry Prices (2018). Retrieved from https://www.fcc.gov/reports-research/reports/cable-industry-prices-reports/report-cable-industry-prices-2018.
FCC. (2020). FCC finds effective competition in parts of Hawaii and Masscchusetts. Retrieved from https://docs.fcc.gov/public/attachments/DOC-360428A1.pdf.
FCC Grants Charter Communications' Effective Competition Petition, (2020).
FCC moderinzes cable operator subscriber notice rules, (2020).
J. R. Feore. (202/6/18). Summary of a teleconference that representatives from ABC, CBS, Fox and NBC. Retrieved from https://ecfsapi.fcc.gov/file/1061857360645/Affiliates%20-%20Notice%20of%20Ex%20Parte%20Communications%206-18-2020.pdf
B. Fernandez. (2016). Why is your pay-TV bill rising? 'Free' TV now socks consumers with billions in fees. Retrieved from https://www.inquirer.com/philly/business/Free-TV-now-socks-consumers-with-billions-of-.html
T. Flew, F. Martin and N. Suzor. (2019). Internet regulation as media policy: Rethinking the question of digital communication platform governance. Journal of Digital Media & Policy, 10(1), 33-50.
R. Frieden, K. Jayakar and E.-A. Park. (2019). There's Probably a Blackout in Your Television Future: Tracking New Carriage Negotiation Strategies between Video Content Programmers and Distributors. Colum. JL & Arts, 43, 487.
L. Garzaniti. (2000). Telecommunications, broadcasting and the internet : E.U. competition law and regulation / L.J.H.F. Garzaniti. London: Sweet & Maxwell.
J. Gattuso. (2015). FCC: Over the Top on Internet TV. Retrieved from https://www.heritage.org/government-regulation/report/fcc-over-the-top-internet-tv
J. C. Goodale and R. Frieden. (2021). All about cable and broadband: Law Journal Press.
A. Heresco and S. Figueroa. (2020). Over the Top: Retransmission Fees and New Commodities in the US Television Industry. Democratic Communiqué, 29(1), 19-45.
J. Kang and A. Butler. (2016). Communications law and policy : cases and materials / Jerry Kang, vice chancellor-Equity, Diversity and Inclusion, professor of law, professor of Asian American Studies, Hanbook-Ilbo Endowed chair, University of California, Los Angeles; Alan Butler, senior counsel, Electronic Privacy Information Center (Fifth edition. ed.). Los Angeles, California: Direct Injection Press.
L. G. Kaplan. (1994). The European Community's Television Without Frontiers Directive: Stimulating Europe to Regulate Culture. Emory Int'l L. Rev., 8, 255.
M. Kelly. (2021/1/21). Biden appoints Jessica Rosenworcel as acting FCC chair. Retrieved from https://www.theverge.com/2021/1/21/22240827/biden-acting-fcc-chair-rosenworcel-net-neutrality-acting
KPMG. (2019). KPMG's annual cable and OTT survey. Retrieved from https://advisory.kpmg.us/articles/2019/kpmg-annual-cable-ott-survey.html
D. Kwak and M. Kim. (2020). Trade Negotiations in the Digital Era: The Case of OTT Video Streaming Services. Global Policy, 11, 14-22.
P. Larouche. (2003). Dealing with convergence at the international level. Sing. L. Rev., 23, 85.
J. Leventoff. (2019). Everything You Need to Know About STELAR. Retrieved from https://www.publicknowledge.org/blog/everything-you-need-to-know-about-stelar/
M. I. Meyerson. (1984). The Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984: A balancing act on the coaxial wires. Ga. L. Rev., 19, 543.
J. Middleton. (2002). The effectiveness of audiovisual regulation inside the european union: The television without frontiers directive and cultural protectionism. Denv. J. Int'l L. & Pol'y, 31, 607.
Nasdaq. (2020/9/19). Comcast Corporation Class A Common Stock. Retrieved from https://www.nasdaq.com/market-activity/stocks/cmcsa
Nasdaq. (2020/9/19). Netflix, Inc. Common Stock. Retrieved from https://www.nasdaq.com/market-activity/stocks/nflx
J. Newman. (2019). Spectrum TV Choice review: A la carte TV for cord-cutters, but at a cost. Retrieved from https://www.techhive.com/article/3341321/spectrum-tv-choice-for-cord-cutters-review.html
E. M. Noam. (2008). TV or Not TV: Three Screens, One Regulation? : Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission.
E. M. Noam. (2018). Managing media and digital organizations: Springer.
A. Pai. (2012). Pai Statement, Commission Adopts MVPD Definition NPRM. Retrieved from https://www.fcc.gov/document/commission-adopts-mvpd-definition-nprm/pai-statement.
A. Pai. (2019). Statement of chairman Ajit Pai. Retrieved from https://www.fcc.gov/document/fcc-grants-charter-communications-effective-competition-petition-0.
PwC. (2020). Global Entertainment & Media Outlook 2020–2024. Retrieved from https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/industries/tmt/media/outlook.html
M. Rimock. (2013). Regulatory issues concerning new media alternatives to television. Canadian Journal of Law and Technology, 11(2), 5.
J. Roettgers. (2020). Why cord-cutting more than doubled in 2019. Retrieved from https://www.protocol.com/cord-cutting-2019-numbers-stats
J. Scullion. (2015). Program Access and Program Carriage Nearly 25 Years in, Where Do the Fraternal Twins of Video Programming Distribution Stand. Ent. & Sports Law., 32, 2.
Television Viewer Protection Act of 2019, (2020).
K. Shobaki. (2004). Speech restraints for converged media. UCLA L. Rev., 52, 333.
statista. (2020). DIGITAL MEDIA REPORT 2020 - VIDEO-ON-DEMAND. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/outlook/206/100/video-streaming--svod-/worldwide
Statista. (2021). Number of commercial TV stations in the United States from 1950 to 2017. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/189655/number-of-commercial-television-stations-in-the-us-since-1950/
P. Suciu. (2019). What the CBS Blackout Means for the Future of Streaming. Retrieved from https://www.technewsworld.com/story/86149.html
N. Y. Times. (2020/4/21). Everyone You Know Just Signed Up for Netflix. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/21/business/media/netflix-q1-2020-earnings-nflx.html
E. Union. (2007). DIRECTIVE 2007/65/EC. Retrieved from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2007:332:0027:0045:EN:PDF
I. D. Video. (2018). Video Landscape Report. Retrieved from https://www.iab.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/IAB-Video-Landscape-Report-May-2018_-4th-Edition_Final.pdf
A. Vlassis. (2020). The review of audiovisual policy in Europe: Between cultural sovereignty and digital globalisation.
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
法學院碩士在職專班
107961043
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0107961043
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[法學院碩士在職專班] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
104301.pdf2142KbAdobe PDF0View/Open


All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


社群 sharing