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Title: 探討安置機構離院政策與離院生自立生活的脈絡性
Contextualising Care Leaving Policy and Independent Living of Care Leavers
Authors: 李偉禎
Lee, Wei-Chen
Contributors: 楊佩榮
Yang, Pei-Jung
李偉禎
Lee, Wei-Chen
Keywords: 家外安置離院政策
自立服務
自立生活經驗
自立少年轉銜成年期
out of home leaving care policy
after care service
independent living experiences of care leavers
transition to adulthood
Date: 2021
Issue Date: 2021-09-02 17:46:55 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本研究探討《兒童及少年福利與權益保障法》中的家外安置離院政策演變情境,分別從民間單位與離院少年的觀點,探究台灣離院政策的脈絡發展;並在此政策脈絡下,瞭解離院少年轉銜到自立生活的挑戰與經驗。採用質性研究方法,訪談三位參與自立服務方案十多年的民間單位或家外安置機構一線督導或管理者,並且訪談三位離院少年,瞭解他們在安置期間的自立預備,及離院後的自立生活經驗。

就民間單位觀點而言,他們認為離院政策是由下而上推進的政策:民間單位是主要推動離院政策的推力,他們倡議離院自立少年議題,並促使離院政策入法、修法;服務面則是由家外安置機構負責,負責離院前自立預備,落實安置生活照顧,離院後執行非正式追蹤,提供實質關懷陪伴。

在自立服務內容上,研究發現現行「至少一年」的離院追蹤輔導,難以觸及有需求的離院少年;且自立宿舍服務定位不明確,經常需接收高度困難的個案;當前自立預備與離院後服務的規劃內容,並未考量性別差異的個案需求。

身為服務使用者的離院少年則認為,安置期間的生活技能訓練課程僅停留於知識性的認識;地方政府社工在預備結束安置的轉銜階段,也未如政策預期,扮演扶持少年轉銜至社區的角色;且自立宿舍服務被定位為暫時性住宿空間,因此,不具備明顯陪伴關懷個案的角色。離院後,受訪者都經歷初期就業不穩定、人際關係疏離、心理狀態憂鬱與孤單感受,離院政策所推動的自立服務並未能協助少年順利轉銜,少年多對邁入成年期沒有充足信心。

針對離院政策,本研究提出三點建議:延長服務年齡;讓「少年自主」提出服務需求;與將家外安置兒少納入兒童及少年未來教育與發展帳戶服務。而針對自立預備,本研究認為「做中學」是最重要,不論是生活技能訓練,或職涯探索,均需讓少年從做中學;另外適時心理支援服務也是必須。至於地方政府,應在離院後服務階段,扮演明確離院追蹤輔導角色,且提供「少年自主選擇」之離院後服務模式;自立宿舍則需擴增服務內涵,不能僅框限於住宿;而負責自立服務的社工也需增加專業知能,以因應多元的少年狀態與需求。
This thesis mainly contextualises leaving care policy in the Protection of Children and Youths and Rights Act and independent living of care leavers. By means of conducting qualitative one to one in-depth interviews with three frontline supervisors and managers who involve in lobbying leaving care polices and also practicing through care independent living skills and after care programmes and three care leavers are interviewed, in order to get comprehensive understanding the impacts upon care leavers referring to developments of leaving care policy and after care services.

The findings of the research shed lights on a few dimensions including frontline supervisors and managers as perspectives of service providers in terms of policy and programme(service), and care leavers as points of views of after care service users. Regarding the development of leaving care policy, it shows bottom-up progress and regulates out of home residential child care not only to practise independent living skills but also as a crucial social network for care leavers. For after care service, it indicates no gender friendly service planned and also care leavers are hardly reached out.

Concerning with care leavers, while in out of home care placements, no practical independent living trainings are provided but lectured lead courses. The government social workers don’t play critical roles in the planning of transition to adulthood of care leavers. The after care services prove no much positive effects on independent living of care leavers. Finally, cares leavers between the early and late twenties do not regard themselves as adults based on legal age requirement and social expectations towards being an adult.

In the conclusion four implications of care leaving policy and through care and after care services are emphasised. Firstly, providing services care leavers least to 25 years old, to reduces the risks of chronical poverty of young care leavers and also “learning by doing” independent living skills, career exploration and gender-needed services are specially planned. Thirdly, youth-centred after service programmed, the diversity of independent living house are highlighted. Lastly, enhancing the professional skills of after care services social workers, so that wide ranges of needs of care leavers might be met.
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貳、英文書目
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Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
社會工作研究所
104264006
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0104264006
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[Graduate Institute of Social Administration and Social Work] Theses

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