Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/137086


Title: 永續的公共退休年金制度之研究
A study on the Sustainable Public Retirement Pension Scheme
Authors: 游新幸
Yu, Hsin-Hsing
Contributors: 張其恆
Chang, Chyi-Herng
游新幸
Yu, Hsin-Hsing
Keywords: 公共退休年金
社會保險
永續的
破產
私有化
Date: 2021
Issue Date: 2021-09-02 17:52:12 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 面對永續性質疑,世界銀行於1994年發表報告認為,因老齡化加劇影響公共退休年金制度致無法永續,為避免將過多責任移轉給政府,提出建構多支柱系統理論作為解方,建議各國將公共退休年金制度私有化,推行強制性儲蓄理財,乃是對於問題錯誤認識,而選擇錯誤的改革方案。公共退休年金制度所採行社會保險方法,其制度本身具有調整機制,足以促進永續性。而儲蓄理財未具備風險分攤及社會保障功能,可作為補充而非替代,不能將公共年金制度私有化,或將個人儲蓄理財予以國家化,混淆強制性社會保險與自願性個人儲蓄理財關係。故本文研究結論認為,世界銀行多柱理論混淆國家責任,破產尚非社會保險的概念,自身調整機制足以促進其永續性,個人儲蓄理財宜為社會保險之補充而非替代,更不能以國家化個人儲蓄理財之空間。解決公共退休年金制度永續的問題,借鏡國際經驗,採取私有化或國家化之手段,均無法達到永續,而採取社會保險方式,可達到永續目的。

世界各國現行多採社會保險保障老年經濟生活安全,然而隨著數位平台經濟興起、工作型態發生變化,以及產業科技經濟全球化趨勢等環境發生變遷,面臨新形式就業模式因職涯與工時連續性不足,及勞動力跨國移動產生職場與社會保險領域的錯位問題,覆蓋範圍未及於非正規部門及非就業人口之困境。另因社會保障逐漸發展形成各職業別之社會階級區分,傳統制度該如何調整以因應社會需求。為解決公共退休年金制度之永續性問題,本文提出建議:一、全面覆蓋的追求:擴及非正規部門工人,因應新形式就業模式,以及移工社會保障權之可接續性。二、公私部門退休年金的整合:參酌美國與奧地利年金改革經驗顯示公共部門退休年金制度向社會保險整合,以及經合組織(OECD)提出德國與英國整合公私部門年金制度促進永續性之建議。我國社會保險基於團結基礎無區分職業必要而宜予整合;至於職業退休金則係於國際勞動基準外,以個人自願儲蓄理財方式作為補充社會保險機制,尚不宜由國家介入管理。
Reference: 一、中文文獻
古允文(譯)(1999)。福利資本主義的三個世界(一版)(Gosta Esping-Andersen 原著)。臺北市:巨流。
李惠宗(2015)。憲法要義。臺北市:元照出版。
邱瑞鑾(譯)(2020)。論老年(Simone de Beauvoir 原著)。臺北市:漫遊者文化事業股份有限公司。
林燕谷、邵惠玲、郝鳳鳴、郭明政、蔡茂寅(2016)。社會法的概念、範疇與體系。載於臺灣社會法與社會政策學會(編)(二版),社會法(25-46頁)。臺北市:元照。
法治斌、董保城(2012)。憲法新論(五版)。台北市:董保城出版。
法務部法制司編輯(2012)。公民與政治權利國際公約經濟社會文化權利國際公約:一般性意見。臺北市:法務部。
周桂田(2014)。風險社會典範轉移 :打造為公眾負責的治理模式。台北市:遠流出版。
柯木興(2013)。社會保險(第3版)。臺北市:中華社會保險學會。
郭明政(1997)。社會安全制度與社會法。臺北市:郭明政出版。
郭明政(1999)。社會安全制度與社會法。臺北市:郭明政出版。
郭明政(1999)。年金制度之協調與整合-以勞工與公教人員老年安全制度之趨近與整合為例之研究。載於郭明政(主編),年金制度及其法律規範(261-290頁)。臺北市:郭明政出版。
郭明政(2009)。年金政策與法制。臺北市:元照。
郭明政、林宏陽(2016)。社會法與經濟社會變遷。載於臺灣社會法與社會政策學會(主編)(二版),社會法(3-24頁)。臺北市:元照。
孫迺翊(2016)。社會法的憲法基礎。載於臺灣社會法與社會政策學會(編)(二版),社會法(71-96頁)。臺北市:元照。
陳新民(2001)。中華民國憲法釋論(修訂四版)。臺北市:陳新民發行。
許南雄(2006)。人事行政學(第五版)。臺北縣中和市:商鼎文化。
符寶玲(2005)。退休基金:制度與管理(四版)。臺北市:華泰。
黃越欽、黃鼎佑(2015)。勞動法新論。臺北市:翰蘆圖書出版。
張雪真(節譯)(1994)。歐美國家年金制度(日本社會保障研究所原著)。台北市:行政院衛生署員工消費合作社總經銷。
賴麗琇(2017)。鋼鐵德國。新北市:臺灣商務。
鍾秉正(2004)。社會福利法制與基本人權保障。臺北市:神州圖書。
鍾秉正(2014)。社會保險法論 。臺北市:三民書局。
鍾秉正(2016)。社會保險總論。載於臺灣社會法與社會政策學會(主編)(二版),社會法(113-160頁)。臺北市:元照。
關中(1997)。文官制度的檢討與發展。臺北市:民主文教基金會。


二、英文文獻
Barr, Nicholas, and Peter Diamond(2009). Reforming Pensions : Principles, Analytical Errors and Policy Directions. International social security review (English edition) .62 (2), 5-29.

Camila Arza(2013). Basic Pensions in Latin America:Toward a Rights-Based Policy? In Rubén Lo Vuolo. (Ed.), Citizen's income and welfare regimes in Latin America : from cash transfers to rights (pp. 87-112). New York, NY : Palgrave Macmillan.

CARROLL L. ESTES, LEAH ROGNE, BRIAN R. GROSSMAN, ERICA SOLWAY, and BROOKE A. HOLLISTER (2009).Introduction:We’re All in This Together:Social Insurance, Social Justice, and Social Change. In Rogne, Estes. (Ed.), Social Insurance and Social Justice:Social Security, Medicare and the Campaign Against Entitlements (pp. xxv-xxxiii). New York:Springer Publishing Company.

Carmelo Mesa-Lago and Alberto Arenas de Mesa(1998). The Chilean pension system: evaluation, lessons, and challenges. In María Amparo Cruz-Saco & Carmelo Mesa-Lago. (Ed.), Do options exist? : the reform of pension and health care systems in Latin America(pp. 56-84). Pittsburgh, Pa. : University of Pittsburgh Press.

Carmelo Mesa-Lago(2013). Privatization of Chile’s Pension and Health Care Systems. In Becker Ulrich, F. Pennings, & Tineke Dijkhoff. (Ed.), International standard-setting and innovations in social security (pp. 387-413). The Netherlands: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business/Kluwer Law International.

Carmelo Mesa-Lago & Diego Valero(2020). The New Wave of Pension Reforms in Latin America. In Marta Peris-Ortiz, Jose Alvarez-Garcia, Inmaculada Dominguez-Fabian, & Pierre Devolder. (Ed.), Economic challenges of pension systems : a sustainability and international management perspective(pp.255-274). Cham : Springer International Publishing : Imprint: Springer.

Eva Belabed(2003). Pension reform why? how? what for? In Arno Tausch (Ed.), The three pillars of wisdom? : a reader on globalization, world bank pension models, and welfare society (pp. 223-242). New York: Nova Science Publishers.

G. William Domhoff(2009). The Little-Known Origins of the Social Security Act: How and Why Corporate Moderates Created Old-Age Insurance. In Rogne, Estes. (Ed.), Social Insurance and Social Justice:Social Security, Medicare and the Campaign Against Entitlements (pp. 47-61). New York:Springer Publishing Company.

Gillion, Colin(2000). The development and Reform of Social Security Pensions:The Approach of the International Labour Office. International social security review (English edition) ,53 (1),35–63.

Gemma Abío, Joan Gil and Concepció Patxot(2003). Pension reform in Austria.In Arno Tausch (editor), The Three Pillars of Wisdom? : a Reader on Globalization, World Bank Pension Models, and Welfare Society(pp. 201-222). New York:Nova Science Publishers.

Hans F. Zacher.(2013).Social Policy in the Federal Republic of Germany:The Constitution of the Social. Berlin,( 1. Aufl. Vol. 3.).Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

International Labour Office, Social Protection Department.(2018). Social protection for older persons: Policy trends and statistics 2017-19. Geneva:ILO.

ILO&OECD(2018). Promoting adequate social protection and social security coverage for all workers, including those in non-standard forms of employment, Paper presented at the 1st Meeting of the G20 Employment Working Group.

Jean-Pierre Laborde(2018). Social Security:A New Idea for the Twenty-First Century. In B. Jan Pichrt & Kristina Koldinská  (Ed.), Labour law and social protection in a globalized world : changing realities in selected areas of law and policy(pp. 183-190). The Netherlands:Kluwer Law International B.V.

Letlhokwa George Mpedi(2013). Informal Sector: Introduction. In Becker Ulrich, F. Pennings, & Tineke Dijkhoff. (Ed.), International standard-setting and innovations in social security (pp. 285-293). The Netherlands: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business/Kluwer Law International.

Letlhokwa George Mpedi(2013). Informal Sector: Analysis. In Becker Ulrich, F. Pennings, & Tineke Dijkhoff. (Ed.), International standard-setting and innovations in social security (pp. 313-318). The Netherlands: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business/Kluwer Law International.

OECD. Pensions Outlook 2016.Paris:OECD Publishing.

OECD. Pensions Outlook 2018.Paris:OECD Publishing.

Pablo Arellano Ortiz(2013). Protection of Old Age in Chile. In Becker Ulrich, F. Pennings, & Tineke Dijkhoff. (Ed.), International standard-setting and innovations in social security (pp. 415-427). The Netherlands: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business/Kluwer Law International.

Patrick Bollé,(2000).Pension reform: What the debate is about. International Labour Review, 139 (2), 197-212.

ROBERT M. BALL(2009). The Nine Guiding Principles of Social Security. In Rogne, Estes. (Ed.), Social Insurance and Social Justice: Social Security, Medicare and the Campaign Against Entitlements (pp. 9-14). New York:Springer Publishing Company.

Skidmore, Max J.,(2019). Social security and its enemies : the case for America's most efficient insurance program. London ; New York : Routledge.

Sarah M. Brooks(2008). Social Protection and the Market in Latin America:The Transformation of Social Security Institutions. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Tineke Dijkhoff(2013). The Guiding Role of ILO Convention No. 102. In Becker Ulrich, F. Pennings, & Tineke Dijkhoff. (Ed.), International standard-setting and innovations in social security (pp. 53-71). The Netherlands: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business/Kluwer Law International.

Ulrich Becker(2010). Introduction to general principles of social security law in Europe. In Ulrich Becker, Danny Pieters, Friso Ross, & Paul Schoukens (Ed.), Security : a General Principle of Social Security Law in Europe (pp.3-20). Groningen The Netherlands : Europa Law Pub.

Ulrich Becker(2013). Privatization and Activation: Analysis. In Becker Ulrich, F. Pennings, & Tineke Dijkhoff. (Ed.), International standard-setting and innovations in social security (pp. 457-467). The Netherlands: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business/Kluwer Law International.

Ulrich Becker(2018). New Forms of Social Security? A Comment on Needs and Options for Reform in a National and Supranational Perspective. In B. Jan Pichrt & Kristina Koldinská  (Ed.), Labour law and social protection in a globalized world : changing realities in selected areas of law and policy(pp.205-211). The Netherlands:Kluwer Law International B.V.

World Bank.(1994). Averting the Old Age Crisis: Policies to Protect the Old and Promote Growth. New York:Oxford University Press.


三、網路等電子化資料(加入瀏覽日期)
司法院大法官解釋查詢。2021年4月24日,取自:https://cons.judicial.gov.tw/jcc/zh-tw/jep03#open_dropdown

國際勞工組織刊物(2010)。從畢斯麥到貝佛里奇-覆蓋全民的社會保障,2020年8月15日,取自:https://www.ilo.org/beijing/information-resources/public-information/world-of-work-magzine/WCMS_144469/lang--zh/index.htm

Carmelo Mesa-Lago(2020). Conclusions and Recommendations of the Evaluation of Four Decades of Pension Privatization in Latin America: Promises and Reality. Retrieved February 17, 2021, from https://socialprotection.org/discover/publications/conclusions-and-recommendations-evaluation-four-decades-pension-privatization

International Labour Standards on Social security. Retrieved April 24, 2021, from https://www.ilo.org/global/standards/subjects-covered-by-international-labour-standards/social-security/lang--en/index.htm

Joint Report prepared by the Social Protection Committee(SPC)and the European Commission(DG EMPL)(2021). The 2021 Pension Adequacy Report: current and future income adequacy in old age in the EU. Retrieved July 25, 2021, from https://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=738&langId=en&pubId=8397&preview=cHJldkVtcGxQb3J0YWwhMjAxMjAyMTVwcmV2aWV3

Pension Policy Notes and Reviews. Retrieved April 27, 2021, from https://www.oecd.org/els/public-pensions/policy-notes-and-reviews.htm

Social Security: A Program and Policy History. Retrieved June 30, 2021, from https://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/ssb/v66n1/v66n1p1.html

Tiziano Treu(2018). Sustainaible Social Security. Retrieved October 29, 2018, from http://csdle.lex.unict.it/docs/workingpapers/Sustainaible-Social-Security/5799.aspx
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
行政管理碩士學程
106921056
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0106921056
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[行政管理碩士學程(MEPA)] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
105601.pdf5528KbAdobe PDF0View/Open


All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


社群 sharing