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Strategizing Confucius Institutes in the Promotion of China's Cultural Diplomacy in Indonesia: From Soft Power to Sharp Power?
Mubah, Ahmad Safril
Alan Hao Yang
Ahmad Safril Mubah
China’s power behaviors
|Issue Date:||2021-09-02 18:05:16 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||本研究探討了中華人民共和國 (PRC) 在印度尼西亞開展孔子學院 (CIs) 以促進普通話和中國文化的戰略。此前的多項研究發現，CIs 展示了中國文化軟實力，提升了中國的正面形象。作為中國文化外交的代理人，孔子學院在促進中國與學院所在國的文化交流方面發揮著重要作用。相比之下，其他學術文獻則認為 CIs 將中國的軟實力變成了銳實力。中國被指控行使 CIs 以傳播其政治意識形態和操縱有關中國的信息。在世界特定地區對 CIs 的強烈反對之際，這些研究所在東南亞國家受到了真正的歡迎。印度尼西亞的 CIs 展示了一個特殊案例，區別於其他國家的類似案例。儘管印度尼西亞存在反華情緒，但該國的 CIs 數量在過去幾年中有所增加。|
因此，本研究對於考察中國在印尼推進文化外交的權力行為具有重要意義。 回顧了有關中國文化外交軟實力與銳實力之爭的學術文獻，認為以往的研究忽視了中國保持自身特色來行使權力的事實。 文獻傾向於概括中國的權力行為，而沒有考慮特定國家的具體案例。 這項研究發現，中國正在使用 CIs 來削弱印度尼西亞的銳實力。 它提出了一個問題，印度尼西亞的CIs如何發揮其作為中國文化外交代理人的作用，以軟化中國的銳實力？
為了解答這個難題，本研究運用中國權力行為、中國公共和文化外交以及 CI 跨國網絡的框架來分析從書籍、期刊、工作論文、政府報告、雜誌、報紙和採訪中收集的數據。 文章認為，在對中國銳實力崛起的擔憂日益加劇的情況下，印度尼西亞的獨聯體正在採取兩種策略，通過尊重印尼本土文化和擴大本土網絡來軟化它。 這一論點得到以下研究結果的支持。 第一，印尼CIs通過迴避涉及印尼-中國雙邊關係的敏感問題，展示中國文化與印尼本土文化的融合，提升中國的正面形象。 其次，印度尼西亞的孔子學院正在通過擴大教育機構、當地社區、商業團體和政府機構的網絡參與來擴大中國的正面形象。
本研究通過突出印度尼西亞 CIs 當地案例的變化，提供了印度尼西亞國家案例的一般特徵和詳細分析。 結論是，與中國敵對國家因意識形態和政治問題而對立的獨聯體不同，印度尼西亞等中國夥伴國的獨聯體因其在增進中印尼相互了解、軟化中國銳實力方面發揮了重要作用而得到了許多利益相關者的支持。 印度尼西亞的 CIs 不僅是一個外語機構，而且還是中國隱性宣傳的代理人，它行使中國的不僅僅是軟實力，而不是其尖銳的權力行為，以服務於中國的政治利益。 這是推動中國文化外交軟實力與銳實力之爭的新證據。
This research explores the strategy of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) to exercise Confucius Institutes (CIs) for promoting Mandarin language and Chinese culture in Indonesia. A number of previous studies have found that the CIs have displayed Chinese cultural soft power to improve China’s positive image. As the PRC’s agents of cultural diplomacy, the CIs are playing an important role in facilitating cultural exchanges between China and the institutes’ host countries. In contrast, other scholarly literature contends that the CIs have turned China’s soft power into sharp power. The PRC is accused of exercising the CIs for disseminating its political ideology and manipulating information about China. Amid the growing backlash against the CIs in particular regions of the world, the institutes have been truly welcomed in Southeast Asian countries. The CIs in Indonesia demonstrate a special case distinguished from similar cases in other countries. Despite the existing anti-China sentiment in Indonesia, the number of CIs in this country has increased over the last few years.
This research, therefore, is significant for investigating China’s power behaviors in promoting its cultural diplomacy in Indonesia. It reviews the scholarly literature of the debate between soft power and sharp power in China’s cultural diplomacy through the operations of the CIs and suggests that the prior studies have neglected the fact that China has maintained its own characteristics to exercise its power. The literature tends to generalize about China’s power behaviors without considering the specific cases in particular countries. This research finds that China is employing the CIs to soften sharp power in Indonesia. It asks the question of how do Indonesian CIs play their role as agents of China’s cultural diplomacy in softening China’s sharp power?
To answer the puzzle, this research applies frameworks of China’s power behaviors, China’s public and cultural diplomacy, and CIs transnational networks to analyze data gathered from books, journals, working papers, government reports, magazines, newspapers, and interviews. It argues that amid the growing concerns on the rise of China’s sharp power, the Indonesian CIs are adopting two strategies in softening it by respecting Indonesian local culture and expanding local networks. This argument is supported by the following findings. First, the Indonesian CIs are promoting China’s positive image by avoiding sensitive issues for Indonesia-China bilateral relations and exhibiting hybridization of Chinese culture and Indonesian local culture. Second, the Indonesian CIs are expanding China’s positive image by getting engaged with broadening networks of educational institutions, local communities, business groups, and government agencies.
This research provides general features and detailed analysis within Indonesian national case by highlighting variations of local cases at Indonesian CIs. It concludes that unlike the CIs in China’s rival countries that are opposed because of ideology and political issues, CIs in China’s partner country like Indonesia are supported by many stakeholders for their significant role in improving mutual understanding between China and Indonesia to soften China’s sharp power. The Indonesian CIs are not just a foreign language institution but also agents of China’s implicit propaganda that exercises China’s more than just soft power rather than its sharp power behaviors to serve the PRC’s political interests. This is new evidence that contributes to the debate between soft power and sharp power in the promotion of China’s cultural diplomacy.
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China.org, 2007. “Full text of Hu’s Report at 18th Party Congress,” October 25. Retrieved December 9, 2017 from http://www.china.org.cn/english/congress/229611.htm.
China.org, 2012. “Full text of Hu’s Report at 18th Party Congress,” November 18. Retrieved December 9, 2017 from http://www.china.org.cn/china/18th_cpc_congress/2012-11/16/ content_27137540.htm.
China.org, 2017. “Full text of Xi Jinping’s Report at 19th CPC National Congress,” November 3. Retrieved December 9, 2017 from http://www.china.org.cn/20171105-002. pdf.
Chinese Consulate General in Surabaya, 2012. “Mr. Wang Resmikan Confucius Institute,” December 27. Retrieved December 26, 2017 from http://surabaya.china-consulate.org/ indo/lgdt/t995360.htm.
Dewi, Anitasa, 2019. “Mandarin sebagai Representasi Budaya Tiongkok.” Retrieved January 4, 2021 from https://china.uai.ac.id/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Mandarin-sebagai-Representasi-Budaya-Tiongkok.pdf.
Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in the Republic of Indonesia, 2007. “First Confucius Institute in Indonesia established at the Jakarta Chinese Language Teaching Center,” December 27. Retrieved December 26, 2017 from http://id.china-embassy.org/ eng/whjy/lxxx/t393549.htm.
Hanban, 2007. “Provisional Regulations for Administering the Funds of Confucius Institutes.” Retrieved December 29, 2017 from http://www.hanbanonline.com/cnews/announce/ show.php?announceid=10.
Hanban, 2007. “Constitution and By-Laws of the Confucius Institutes.” Retrieved October 1, 2020 from http://english.hanban.org/node_7880.htm.
Hanban, 2007. “Guidance to Establish A Confucius Institute /An Independent Confucius Classroom (Revised).” Retrieved October 14, 2020 from http://english.hanban.org/ node_7879.htm.
Hanban, 2007. “Regulations for the Administration of Confucius Institute Headquarters Funds.” Retrieved October 14, 2020 from http://english.hanban.org/node_7878.htm.
Hanban, 2007. “Guide for Confucius Institute Deans.” Retrieved October 14, 2020 from http://english.hanban.org/node_7877.htm.
Hanban News, 2011. “Chinese Language Teacher Development Center at the Pusat Bahasa Mandarin at University of Al Azhar Indonesia Holds a MOU Signing Ceremony in Jakarta,” January 18. Retrieved January 12, 2021 from http://english.hanban.org/article/2011-01/18/content_222285.htm.
Hanban News, 2011. “Highlights of Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao’s Visit to Confucius Institute at the University of Al-Azhar, Indonesia,” April 29. Retrieved December 28, 2017 from http://english.hanban.org/article/2011-04/29/content_257863.htm.
Hanban News, 2012. “Farewell Ceremony Held by Ministry of Education and Culture, Indonesia for First Batch of Full-time Chinese Teachers of Indonesia Secondary Schools Who Will Leave for Studies in China,” July 25. Retrieved January 7, 2021 from http://english.hanban.org/article/2012-07/25/content_450449.htm.
Hanban News, 2014. “Delegation led by Deputy Director General of Hanban Wang Yongli visits Confucius Institute at National University of Surabaya, Indonesia,” June 25. Retrieved September 30, 2019 from http://english.hanban.org/article/2014-06/25/ content_542501.htm.
Hanban News, 2012. “Director-General of Hanban Xu Lin and Representative of the Minister of Education and Culture of Indonesia Signs a Cooperation Agreement,” April 28. Retrieved January 7, 2021 from http://english.hanban.org/article/2012-04/28/content_ 431010.htm.
Hanban News, 2012. “Indonesian Ambassador to China Visits the Confucius Institute at the University of Al-Azhar,” September 29. Retrieved December 21, 2020 from http://english.hanban.org/article/2012-09/29/content_465800.htm.
Hanban News, 2015. “Vice Premier Liu Yandong visits Pusat Bahasa Mandarin at Maranatha Christian University, Indonesia,” June 12. Retrieved January 11, 2021 from http://english.hanban.org/article/2015-06/12/content_604322.htm.
Hebei Normal University, 2015. “我校印尼孔子学院荣获“全球先进孔子学院”奖,” December 11. Retrieved January 12, 2021 from http://www.hebtu.edu.cn/a/2015/12/11/ 20151211145512.html.
Huang, Xilian, 2019. “China and ASEAN Doing Well on Economic, Trade Cooperation,” The Jakarta Post, January 21. Retrieved January 18, 2021 from https://www.thejakartapost.com/academia/2019/01/31/china-and-asean-doing-well-on-economic-trade-cooperation.html.
National Association of Scholars, “How Many Confucius Institutes Are in the United States?,” April 14, 2021. Retrieved April 21, 2021 from https://www.nas.org/blogs/article/ how_many_confucius_institutes_are_in_the_united_states.
Pusat Bahasa Mandarin Universitas Negeri Malang, 2018. “第二届中印尼友谊合唱比赛通知,” February 23. Retrieved January 25, 2021 from http://yinnimalang.id.chinesecio.com/ zh-hans/node/676.
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Universitas Hasanuddin, 2016. “The First OPPO Company “Business Chinese Intensive Class” Starts at the CI at Hasanuddin University,” April 28. Retrieved May 6, 2020 from http://pbmunhas.id.chinesecio.com/zh-hans/node/122.
Universitas Hasanuddin, 2017. “Pusat Bahasa Mandarin Unhas Berkembang Luar Biasa,” 22 February. Retrieved January 4, 2021 from https://unhas.ac.id/article/title/pusat-bahasa-mandarin-unhas-berkembang-luar-biasa.
Universitas Hasanuddin, 2019. “Sejarah Prodi,” Retrieved January 4, 2021 http://ilmubudaya.unhas.ac.id/mandarin/tentang-kami/.
Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, 2016. “UMM Buka China Corner,” May 19. Retrieved January 4, 2021 from http://www.umm.ac.id/id/berita/umm-buka-china-corner.html.
Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, 2016. “UMM-CI China Strengthen Strategic Partnership,” June 24. Retrieved January 4, 2021 from http://www.umm.ac.id/en/umm-news-4927-umm-confucius-institute-cina-perkuat-kemitraanstrategis.html.
Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, 2018. “Confucius Institute China Siap Sertifikasi Ketrampilan Bahasa Mandarin Mahasiswa UMM,” March 2. Retrieved January 4, 2021 from http://www.umm.ac.id/id/berita/confusius-institute-china-siap-sertifikasi-ketrampilan -bahasa-mandarin-mahasiswa-umm.html.
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Universitas Negeri Malang, 2019. “Duta Besar Tiongkok Kunjungi Pusat Bahasa Mandarin dan Lab. Central FMIPA UM,” March 18. Retrieved January 11, 2021 from https://um.ac.id/berita/duta-besar-tiongkok-kunjungi-pusat-bahasa-mandarin-dan-lab-centr al-fmipa-um/.
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Universitas Sebelas Maret, 2019. “UNS Miliki Pusat Bahasa Mandarin,” March 11. Retrieved January 20, 2021 from https://newsroom.uns.ac.id/berita/uns-miliki-pusat-bahasa-mandarin/.
Universitas Tanjungpura, 2017. “Kantor Urusan Internasional Universitas Tanjungpura Berkunjung Ke Mahasarakham University Dan Khon Kaen University, Thailand,” Retrieved December 29, 2020 from https://www.untan.ac.id/kantor-urusan-internasional-universitas-tanjungpura-berkunjung-ke-mahasarakham-university-dan-khon-kaen-universi ty-thailand/.
Universitas Udayana, 2018. “Unud dan Unhas Resmikan “CTTC” Jalin Kerjasama China,” July 22. Retrieved September 23, 2020 from https://tci.unud.ac.id/posts/unud-dan-unhas-resmikan-cttc-jalin-kerjasama-china.
Universitas Udayana, 2019. “Rektor Unud Tandatangani Agreement Pendirian Tourism Confucius Institute (TCI) Udayana University,” December 11. Retrieved April 24, 2020 from https://www.unud.ac.id/en/headline3223--Rektor-Unud-Tandatangani-Agreement-Pendirian-Tourism-Confucius-Institute-TCI-Udayana-University.html.
Universitas Udayana, 2020. “Interview of the Candidate of Chinese Teacher at TCI Udayana University,” July 21. Retrieved September 23, 2020 from https://tci.unud.ac.id/posts/ interview-of-the-candidate-of-chinese-teacher-at-tci-udayana-university.
Universitas Udayana, 2020. “Background,” Retrieved September 23, 2020 from https://tci.unud.ac.id/pages/view/background.
Universitas Udayana, 2021. “The Grand Opening Ceremony of Tourism Confucius Institute (TCI) Udayana University,” April 8. Retrieved April 13, 2021, from https://www.unud.ac. id/en/berita3615-The-Grand-Opening-Ceremony-of-Tourism-Confucius-Institute-TCI-Uda yana-University.html.
US-China Institute, 2013. “Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Some Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Deepening the Reform,” November 12. Retrieved December 10, 2017 from http://china.usc.edu/decision-central-committee-communist-party-china-some-major-issues-concerning-comprehensively.
Confucius Institutes’ Social Media Accounts
Pusat Bahasa Mandarin Universitas Al Azhar Indonesia (@pusatbahasamandarinalazhar). Retrieved December 8, 2020 from https://www.instagram.com/pusatbahasamandarin alazhar/.
Pusat Bahasa Mandarin Universitas Hasanuddin (@pbm.unhas). Retrieved September 8, 2020 from https://www.instagram.com/pbm.unhas/.
Pusat Bahasa Mandarin Universitas Negeri Malang (@bahasamandarin_um). Retrieved December 2, 2020 from https://www.instagram.com/bahasamandarin_um/.
Pusat Bahasa Mandarin Universitas Negeri Surabaya (@ci_unesa). Retrieved December 14, 2020 from https://www.instagram.com/ci_unesa/.
Pusat Bahasa Mandarin Universitas Sebelas Maret (@confucius_uns). Retrieved December 30, 2020 from https://www.instagram.com/confucius_uns/.
Pusat Bahasa Mandarin Universitas Tanjungpura (@pusatbahasamandarinuntan). Retrieved September 8, 2020 from https://www.instagram.com/pusatbahasamandarinuntan/.
Tourism Confucus Institute at Udayana University. Retrieved January 21, 2021 from https://www.facebook.com/Tourism-Confucius-Institute-Udayana-University-1118452771 77762.
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