Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/137130


Title: 台灣學習者與英語母語者使用連接詞because之比較:以語料庫為本之研究
Learners’ and Native Speakers’ Use of because: A Corpus-based Study
Authors: 何靜文
Ho, Ching-Wen
Contributors: 鍾曉芳
Chung, Siaw-Fong
何靜文
Ho, Ching-Wen
Keywords: 連接詞
因果關係
語料分析
英語第二外語寫作
Logical connectors
Because
Corpus analysis
EFL/ ESL writing
Date: 2021
Issue Date: 2021-09-02 18:06:44 (UTC+8)
Abstract:   連接詞的使用在寫作能力上扮演重要的角色。而because 許多常用連接詞的其中之一,同時because也因為[because X]此較新穎之用法被美國方言協會(ADC)選為2013年的年度字。因此,為了幫助台灣學習者在使用because上能夠更貼近母語者,本研究分為兩部分:第一部分為分析母語者與台灣學習者使用because上的不同,第二為調查台灣學習者對於[because X]的接受度為何。本研究從美國當代語料庫(COCA)及學習者語料庫(ICNALE)各收集了100筆語料,就模式(pattern)及功能(function)進行分析;另外透過線上問卷的方式調查台灣學習者對於[because X]的接受度為何,並透過閱讀具有相似結構的母語句子後,是否接受度會有所提升。
  經過語料分析過後,研究結果發現母語者在使用because上,模式較為多元。而因為母語干擾的關係,台灣學習者在某些特定模式上有過度使用的情形發生,如“, because”,又或是因為非大多數的學習者熟知某模式而鮮少被使用,以避免文法上的錯誤產生,如“because of”;在第二部分,本研究則發現透過閱讀相似結構的母語句子後,台灣學習者在對於 [because X] 的接受度並無顯著性。本研究最後提出幾個在教學的建議,教師在教導已具備一定程度的學生時,可針對較少學習者使用,或是學習者比較不熟悉的模式做寫作訓練;對於[because X],教師須注意學生是否在非正式場合(如社群媒體)上看到母語人士使用,而誤以為[because X] 是屬於正規的英文。
Logical connectors, which establish the links between sentences and paragraphs, are the important devices to create the cohesion in written texts. One of the most commonly used connectors is because, it is also the Word of the Year in 2013 chosen by American Dialect Society (ADC) because of the relatively recent structure [because X]. There are two parts of the present study. First, in order to help teachers in Taiwan train students how to use because closer to native speakers (NSs) do, we investigate the how NSs and Taiwanese non-native speakers (NNSs) use because differently. Second, we investigate how well Taiwanese NNSs accept the structure [because X] and try to figure out if learners’ first language (L1) can bring a positive influence on accepting it.
To examine the use of because, we collected the written data in formal context from the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) and the International Corpus Network of Asian Learners (ICNALE) for the date of NSs and NNSs. As for investigating the acceptability of [because X], we create an online questionnaire with 8 sentences in [because X] and 8 sentences in similar structure in Chinese. In the first part, we found out that NSs used because more variably than NNSs do, and we also found out that there are some patterns that were overused due to the influence of L1, and some patterns were rarely found because learners were not familiar with the use of the patterns and avoid using them to make grammatical errors. In the second part, after reading the similar structure in learner’s L1, the acceptability of [because X] did not have significant difference. The instructors should be aware if the learners take [because X] as a pattern that follows English grammar rules after seeing it used by native speakers on informal genre such as social media.
Reference: REFERENCES

Adams, M. (2017). Because Much? American Speech, 92(4), 533-546. doi:10.1215/00031283-4395226
Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E. (1999). Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Longman.
Biq, Y.-O. (1995). Chinese Causal Sequencing and Yinwei in Conversation and Press Reportage. Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 21(2), 47. https://doi.org/10.3765/bls.v21i2.1374
Cain, K., Patson, N., & Andrews, L. (2005). Age- and ability-related differences in young readers' use of conjunctions. Journal of Child Language, 32(4), 877-892. doi:10.1017/s0305000905007014
Carey, S. (2013, November 13). 'Because' has become a preposition, because grammar. https://stancarey.wordpress.com/2013/11/13/because-has-become-a-preposition-because-grammar/
Carrey, J. [@JimCarrey]. (2020, May 14). I shaved because…hey, I don’t need a reason. I just shaved damn-it! [twitter]. Twitter https://twitter.com/jimcarrey/status/1260706930701422592
Celce-Murcia, M., & Larsen-Freeman, D. (1999). The grammar book: An ESL/EFL teacher's course (2nd ed.). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Chen, F. J. G. (2007). The L2 acquisition of information sequencing in Chinese: The case of English CSL learners in Taiwan. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 4(2), 170-191.
Crewe, W. J. (1990). The illogic of logical connectives. ELT Journal, 44(4), 316–325. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/44.4.316
Davies, M. (2010). The Corpus of Contemporary American English as the first reliable monitor corpus of English. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 25(4), 447-464. doi:10.1093/llc/fqq018
Don, Z. M., & Sriniwass, S. (2017). Conjunctive Adjuncts in Undergraduate ESL Essays in Malaysia: Frequency and Manner of Use. Moderna språk, 111(1), 99-117.
Garber, M. (2013, November 19). English Has a New Preposition, Because Internet. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/11/english-has-a-new-preposition-because-internet/281601/
Halliday, M., & Hasan, R. (1976). Cohesion in English (English Language Series; No. 9) (1st ed.). Longman.
Halliday, M., & Matthiessen, C. (2014). Halliday’s Introduction to Functional Grammar (4th ed.). Routledge.
Hilpert, M. (2007). Just because it's new doesn't mean people will notice it. English today, 23(3-4), 29-33.
Hirose, Y. (1991). On a certain nominal use of because-clauses: Just because because-clauses can substitute for that-clauses does not mean that this is always possible. English Linguistics, 8, 16-33.
Hoad, T.F. (1986). The Concise Oxford factionary of English etymology.
Ishikawa, S. I. (2010). A corpus-based study on Asian learners’ use of English linking adverbials. Themes in Science and Technology Education, 3(1-2), 139-157.
Ishikawa, S. I. (2014). Design of the ICNALE-Spoken: A new database for multi-modal contrastive interlanguage analysis. Learner corpus studies in Asia and the world, 2, 63-76.
Ishikawa, S. I. (2019). The ICNALE Spoken Dialogue: A new dataset for the study of Asian learners’ performance in L2 English interviews. English Teaching, 74(4), 153-177.
Kanetani, M. (2019). Causation and reasoning constructions. Amsterdam ; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Kishner, J. M., & Gibbs, R. W. (1996). How “Just” Gets Its Meanings: Polysemy and Context in Psychological Semantics. Language and Speech, 39(1), 19–36. https://doi.org/10.1177/002383099603900102
Lin, Y. C. (2020).A Corpus-based Study of Native Speakers’ and Taiwanese EFL Learners’ Use of the Adverb JUST [Unpublished master's thesis]. National Chengchi University.
Ma, Y., & Wang, B. (2016). A Corpus-based Study of Connectors in Student Writing: A Comparison between a Native Speaker (NS) Corpus and a Non-native Speaker (NNS) Learner Corpus. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 5(1). doi:10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.5n.1p.113
McCarthy, M. (1991). Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers (Cambridge Language Teaching Library) (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press.
McCulloch, G. (2014, January 5). Why the new "because" isn't a preposition (but is actually cooler). https://allthingslinguistic.com/post/72252671648/why-the-new-because-isnt-a-preposition-but-is.
Meyer, C. (2002). Corpus analysis and linguistic theory. In English Corpus Linguistics: An Introduction (Studies in English Language, p.1-29). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511606311.002
Minneapolis, H. (2014, January 04). "Because" is the 2013 Word of the Year. https://www.americandialect.org/because-is-the-2013-word-of-the-year
Mudhhi, S. K., & Hussein, R. F. (2014). A Corpus–based study Of Conjunctive adjuncts in the writings of native and non-native speakers of English. English Linguistics Research, 3(2). https://doi.org/10.5430/elr.v3n2p18
Odlin, T. (2005). CROSSLINGUISTIC INFLUENCE AND CONCEPTUAL TRANSFER: WHAT ARE THE CONCEPTS? Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 3-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0267190505000012
Pullum, G. K. (2014, January 5). Language log » because syntax. Language Log. https://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=9494
Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., & Svartvik, J. (1985). A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Longman.
Seoane, E., Acuña-Fariña, C., & Palacios-Martínez, I. (2018). Subordination in English: Synchronic and Diachronic Perspectives (Topics in English Linguistics [tiel], 101). De Gruyter Mouton.
Trebits, A. (2009). Conjunctive cohesion in English language EU documents – A corpus-based analysis and its implications. English for Specific Purposes, 28(3), 199-210. doi:10.1016/j.esp.2009.04.004
Walla, S. (2016). Because, X: a New Construction of Because in Popular Culture (thesis). Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI.
Walther, Joseph. (2011). Theories of computer-mediated communication and interpersonal relations. The Handbook of Interpersonal Communication. 443-479.
Weinberger, D. (2013, January 7). Because noun. Joho the Blog. https://www.hyperorg.com/blogger/2013/01/07/because-noun/.
Whitman, N. (2013, October 18). Because as a Preposition. Quick and Dirty Tips. http:// www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/because-as-a-preposition?page=2
Yoon, J. W., & Yoo, I. W. (2011). An Error Analysis of English Conjunctive Adjuncts in Korean College Students’ Writing. English Teaching, 66(1), 225-244. doi:10.15858/engtea.66.1.201103.225
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
英語教學碩士在職專班
106951007
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0106951007
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[英語教學碩士在職專班] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
100701.pdf2015KbAdobe PDF0View/Open


All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


社群 sharing