Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:

Title: 殖民遺緒與拉丁美洲與加勒比國家的民主發展 (1982-2018)
Colonial Legacies and Democratic Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (1982-2018)
Authors: 谷愷德
Berganza, Kevin Guillermo
Contributors: 蘇彥斌
Su, Yen-Pin
Kevin Guillermo Berganza
Keywords: 殖民主義
civil society
Date: 2021
Issue Date: 2021-09-02 18:14:44 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 許多既有的研究發現經濟發展對於不同的民主程度有相當的解釋力。然而,研究殖民遺緒如何影響新興民主國家的民主化之相關研究成果並不多。為了補充既有文獻的不足,本論文試圖以拉丁美洲與加勒比海國家為例,探討殖民遺緒與民主發展之間的關係。本研究主張,相較於其他的歐洲殖民強權,英國的自由主義殖民統治為殖民地的公民社會提供了較開放的環境,也因此有助提升這些國家在獨立後的民主發展。本論文利用拉丁美洲與加勒比海33個國家、橫跨1982年到2018年的總體資料進行實證研究,分析結果顯示,相較於曾被其他歐洲強權殖民的國家,曾被英國殖民的國家在獨立後確實有較高的民主程度。其次,本研究亦針對貝里斯與瓜地馬拉進行比較案例研究,其研究結果也支持了本文的假設。貝里斯的案例顯示由於英國的自由主義殖民遺緒為社會抗議動員提供了開放的環境,使貝里斯能有較強健的民主代表性。相對而言,瓜地馬拉的案例顯示西班牙的重商主義殖民遺緒則阻礙了公民社會的發展,因而對其民主發展造成負面影響。總結而言,本論文的實證研究顯示,殖民遺緒對於吾人理解後殖民國家的民主發展有相當的重要性。
Previous research shows that economic development matters for explaining the variation in levels of democracy. Yet, few studies focus on the effects of colonial legacies on democratization in new democracies. This thesis aims to fill the gap in the literature by examining the relationship between colonial legacies and democratic development in Latin America and the Caribbean. I argue that, compared to other European colonizers, British forms of liberal colonial rule helped create a more open environment for civil society, and thus facilitates democratic development in these post-colonial countries. Using data in thirty-three countries in Latin America and the Caribbean from 1982 through 2018, my empirical analysis demonstrates that ex-British colonies tend to have higher levels of democracy than countries that were colonized by other European countries. Additionally, my comparative case studies of Belize and Guatemala also provide support for my hypothesis. The case of Belize suggests that the British liberal colonial legacies provide a more open environment for social mobilizations, which catalyzed stronger democratic representation. In contrast, the case of Guatemala suggests that Spanish mercantilist colonial legacies impede the growth of civil society, and thus produce a lower level of democracy. Overall, this thesis provides solid evidence to show the importance of colonial legacies in understanding democratic development in post-colonial countries.
Reference: Abbott, Jeff. 2017. “‘The State Is Broken’ in Guatemala and Only Social Movements Can Fix It.” Upside Down World: 1. (June 21, 2021).
Acemoglu, Daron and James Robinson. 2017. “The Economic Impact of Colonialism.” VOXEU/CEPR. (January 19, 2021).
Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A Robinson. 2001. “The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation:” The American Economic Review 91(5): 3077–3110.
Acemoglu, Daron, Suresh Naidu, Pascual Restrepo, and James A Robinson. 2019. “Democracy Does Cause Growth.” Journal of Political Economy 127(1): 47-100.
Acemoglu, Daron, and James A Robinson. 2002. “Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in the Making of the Modern World Income Distribution.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 117(4): 1231–94.
Adcock, Robert, and David Collier. 2001. “Measurement Validity: A Shared Standard for Qualitative and Quantitative Research.” The American Political Science Review 95(3): 529–46.
Aguilera Peralta, Gabriel, and Jorge Romero Imery. 1981. Dialectica Del Terror En Guatemala. 1st ed. Costa Rica: Editorial Universitaria Centroamericana.
Althoff, Andrea. 2019. “Right-Wing Populism and Evangelicalism in Guatemala: the Presidency of Jimmy Morales.” International Journal of Latin American Religions 3(1): 294–324.
Andrien, Kenneth J. 1995. The Kingdom of Quito, 1690-1830: The State and Regional Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Angeles, Luis, and Aldo Elizalde. 2017. “Pre-Colonial Institutions and Socioeconomic Development: The Case of Latin America.” Journal of Development Economics 124(1): 22–40.
Aoyama, Kazuo. 2005. “Classic Maya Warfare and Weapons: Spear, Dart, and Arrow Points of Aguateca and Copan.” Ancient Mesoamerica 16(2): 291–304.
Archibald, Jennifer. 2006. “Human Rights in Latin America.” In Human Rights and Human Welfare, Denver: University of Denver.
Ashdown, Peter. 1976. “The Laborer’s Riot of 1894 (Part 1).” Belizean Studies 7(6): 8–20.
———. 1987. “Antonio Soberanis and the Disturbances in Belize, 1934-1937.” Caribbean Quarterly 24(1): 61–74.
Baker, Matthew J., Christa N. Brunnschweiler, and Erwin H. Bulte. 2011. Did History Breed Inequality? Colonial Factor Endowments and Modern Income Distribution. CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research at ETH Zurich, Working Paper No 08/86 86.
Ball, Patrick, Paul Kobrak, and Herbert F. Spirer. 1999. State Violence in Guatemala, 1960-1996: A Quantitative Reflection. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Bangura, Yusuf, and Carl - Johan Hedberg. 2007. Democracy and Social Policy Development. ed. Yusuf Bangura. Basinstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Baralt, Guillermo A. 2014. Slave Revolts in Puerto Rico: Conspiracies and Uprisings, 1795-1873. N.J.: Markus Wiener Publishing.
Bates, Robert H., Ghada Fayad, and Anke Hoeffler. 2012. “The State of Democracy in Sub-Saharan Africa.” International Area Studies Review 15(4): 323–38.
Bateson, Regina. 2021. “Voting for a Killer: Efraín Ríos Montt’s Return to Politics in Democratic Guatemala.” Comparative Politics.
Batres, Alejandra. 1995. “The Experience of the Guatemalan United Fruit Company Workers.” Texas Papers on Latin America 95(1): 1–28.
Batz, Giovanni. 2013. “Military Factionalism and the Consolidation of Power in 1960s Guatemala.” In Beyond the Eagle’s Shadow: New Histories of Latin America’s Cold War, eds. Virginia Garrard-Burnett, Mark Atwood Lawrence, and Julio E. Moreno. NM: University of New Mexico Press, 352.
Beck, Nathaniel, Jonathan N Katz, and Richard Tucker. 1998. “Taking Time Seriously: Time-Series-Cross-Section Analysis with a Binary Dependent Variable.” American Journal of Political Science 42(4): 1260–88.
Becker, Meghan Auker. 2010. “Belizean Unions Strike to Increase Political Participation and Prevent Increased Taxation, 2005 | Global Nonviolent Action Database.” The Global Nonviolent Action Database. (June 16, 2021).
Berkey, Curtis. 1994. Maya Land Rights in Belize and the History of Indian Reservations. Washington, DC: Indian Law Resource Center.
Bethell, Leslie. 1984. The Cambridge History of Latin America. Vol. 2: Colonial Latin America. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bishop, Myrtle D., Rosaline Corbin, and Neville C. Duncan. 1997. Barbados: Social Development in a Small Island State, with Particular Reference to Health and Education. Bridgetown, Barbados: UNICEF Caribbean Office.
Blackburn, Robin. 2005. “Imperial Margarine.” New Left Review 35(1):124-136.
Bolland, O. Nigel. 1986. “History from the Ancient Maya to the 1930s.” In Belize: A New Nation in Central America, Boulder: West View Press, Inc.
———. 1987. “Alcaldes and Reservations: British Policy towards the Maya in Late Nineteenth Century Belize.” America Indigena 47: 33–76.
———. 2003. Colonialism and Resistance in Belize: Essays in Historical Sociology. Belize: Cubola Productions.
———. 2018. Belize: A New Nation in Central America. NY: Routledge.
Bolland, O. Nigel, and Assad Shoman. 1975. Law and Society in the Caribbean Land in Belize 1765 - 1871: The Origins of Land Tenure, Use and Distribution in a Dependent Economy. Mona: University of the West Indies.
Bonacker, Thorsten, and Christoph Safferling. 2013. Victims of International Crimes: An Interdisciplinary Discourse Victims of International Crimes: An Interdisciplinary Discourse. The Hague: Asser Press.
Bourguignon, François, and Thierry Verdier. 2000. “Oligarchy, Democracy, Inequality and Growth.” Journal of Development Economics 62(2): 285–313.
Brannum, Kate. 2019. “Guatemala 2018: Facing A Constitutional Crossroad.” Revista de Ciencia Politica 39(2): 20.
Braumoeller, Bear F, and Gary Goertz. 2000. “The Methodology of Necessary Conditions.” American Journal of Political Science 44(4): 844–58.
Bremer, Stuart A. 1993. “Democracy and Militarized Interstate Conflict, 1816-1965.” International Interactions 18(3): 231–49.
Brett, Roddy. 2008. Social Movements, Indigenous Politics and Democratization in Guatemala, 1985-1996. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers.
Briggs, Billy. 2007. “Guatemala: Secrets of the Dead.” The Guardian. (June 06, 2021).
Broadbent, Jeffrey P. 1985. The Web of Power: Elites, Social Movements, and Structural Change, A Method of-Analysis. Working paper no. 327, Center for Research on Social Organization, University of Michigan.
Brockett, Charles. 2005. Political Movements and Violence in Central America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, Vincent. 2016. “Narrative Interface for New Media History: Slave Revolt in Jamaica, 1760-1761.” American Historical Review 121(1): 176–86.
Bulmer-Thomas, Victor, and Barbara Bulmer-Thomas. 2012. The Economic History of Belize: From the 17th Century to Post-Independence. Benque Viejo: Cubola Productions.
Burkhart, R. E., and M. S. Lewis-Beck. 1994. “Comparative Democracy: The Economic Development Thesis.” American Political Science Review 88(04): 903–10.
Casimir, Jéan. 1992. The Caribbean: One and Divisible. Santiago: United Nations, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.
Ceftci, S. 2010. “Modernization, Islam, or Social Capital: What Explains Attitudes Toward Democracy in the Muslim World?” Comparative Political Studies 43(11): 1442–70.
Channel 5. 2005a. “Private Sector Lobbies for No New Taxes | Channel5Belize.Com.” News 5: 1. (June 16, 2021).
———. 2005b. “Talk Turns Positive as Agreement Reached on Reforms | Channel5Belize.Com.” News 5. (June 16, 2021).
Chisadza, C., and M. Bittencourt. 2018. “Economic Development and Democracy: The Modernization Hypothesis in Sub-Saharan Africa.” The Social Science Journal 56(2): 243–54.
CIA. 1981. “Guatemalan Soldiers Kill Civilians in Cocob: CIA Secret Cable | U.S. Policy in Guatemala, 1966-1996.” The National Security Archive. (May 02, 2021).
———. 1983. “Political Violence | U.S. Policy in Guatemala, 1966-1996.” The National Security Archive. (May 01, 2021).
Coatsworth, John H. 2008. “Inequality, Institutions and Economic Growth in Latin America.” Journal of Latin American Studies 40(3): 545–69.
Collier, Ruth Berins, and James Mahoney. 1997. “Adding Collective Actors to Collective Outcomes: Labor and Recent Democratization in South America and Southern Europe.” Comparative Politics 29(3): 285–303.
Committee, Senate Special Select. 2020. Report of the Senate Special Select Committee. Belmopan: Government of Belize Press.
Coppedge, Michael et al. 2021. V-Dem Country-Year/Country-Date Dataset V11. (June 30, 2021).
Cullather, Nick. 2006. Secret History: The CIA’s Classified Account of Its Operations in Guatemala, 1952-1954. Palo Alto: Standford University Press.
Cutright, P. 1963. “National Political Development.” American Sociological Review 28(2): 253–64.
DaCosta, Michael. 2007. Colonial Origins, Institutions and Economic Performance in the Caribbean: Guyana and Barbados. IMF Working Papers 07(43): 1.
Daniels, Patrick. 2006. “Pinochet Escaped Justice - We Must Ensure Rios Montt Does Not.” The Guardian. (May 5, 2021).
Diamond, L. 1992. “Economic Development and Democracy Reconsidered.” American Behavioral Scientist 35(4–5): 450–99.
Diamond, Larry. 1999. Developing Democracy: Toward Consolidation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Diamond, Larry, Jonathan Hartlyn, and Juan J. Linz. 1999. “Introduction: Politics, Society, and Democracy in Latin America.” In Democracy in Developing Countries: Latin America, Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.
Dibley, Tushara, and Michele Ford. 2019. “Introduction: Social Movements and Democratization in Indonesia.” In Activists in Transition: Progressive Politics in Democratic Indonesia, London: Cornell University Press, 1–22.
Dion, Douglas. 1998. “Evidence and Inference in the Comparative Case Study.” Comparative Politics 30(2): 127–45.
Dippel, Christian. 2011. “Franchise Extension and Elite Persistence: The Post-Slavery Caribbean Plantation Complex.” PhD, Diss., University of Toronto.
Dixon, William J. 1994. “Democracy and the Peaceful Settlement of International Conflict.” American Political Science Review 88(01): 14–22.
Doucouliagos, Hristos, and Mehmet Ali Ulubaşoğlu. 2008. “Democracy and Economic Growth: A Meta-Analysis.” American Journal of Political Science 52(1): 61–83.
Downes, Andrew S. 2001. An Analysis of Economic and Social Development in Barbados: A Model for Small Island Developing States United Nations, Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe. (June 1, 2021).
Easterly, William, and Ross Levine. 2016. “The European Origins of Economic Development.” Journal of Economic Growth 21(1): 225–57.
Ebel, Roland. 1996. “Guatemala.” In Latin American Politics and Development, eds. Howard Wiarda J. and Harvey F. Kline. Boulder: Westview Press.
Eder, Klaus. 2003. “Social Movements and Democratization.” In Handbook of Historical Sociology, eds. Gerard Delanty and Engin F. Isin. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Eisinger, P. 1973. “The Conditions of Protest Behavior in American Cities.” The American Political Science Review, 67(1): 11-28.
Engerman, Stanley L., and Kenneth Lee Sokoloff. 2002. “Factor Endowments, Inequality, and Paths of Development among New World Economies.” Economía 3(1): 41–109.
Falleti, Tulia G., and James Mahoney. 2015. “The Comparative Sequential Method.” In Advances in Comparative-Historical Analysis, ed. James Mahoney; Kathleen Thelen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fauriol, Georges A., and Eva Loser. 1988. Guatemala’s Political Puzzle. NJ: Transaction, Inc.
Fernandez, Julio A. 1989. Belize: A Case Study for Democracy in Central America. Vermont: Gower Publishing Company.
De Ferranti, David et al. 2004. Inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean: Breaking with History? 1st ed. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Fish, Steven M., and Robin S. Brooks. 2004. “Does Diversity Hurt Democracy?” Journal of Democracy 15(1): 1–15.
Froster, Cindy. 2001. The Time of Freedom: Campesino Workers in Guatemala’s October Revolution. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Garrard-Burnett, Virginia. 2010. Terror in the Land of the Holy Spirit. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gardner, Naomi. 2016. “Embroidering Emancipation: Female Abolitionists and Material Culture in Britain and the USA, c.1780-1865.” PhD, Diss., Royal Holloway, University of London.
Gerring, John, Philip Bond, William T. Brandt, and Carola Moreno. 2005. “Democracy and Economic Growth: A Historical Perspective.” World Politics 57(03): 323–64.
Ghardallou, Wafa, and Dorsaf Sridi. 2020. “Democracy and Economic Growth: A Literature Review.” Journal of the Knowledge Economy 11(3): 982–1002.
Gies, Heather. 2018. “The New Colonization: UN Expert Urges Guatemala to End Structural Racism Against Indigenous People.” Toward Freedom: 1. (May 27, 2021).
Gill, R. B. 2000. The Great Maya Droughts: Water, Life, and Death. 1st ed. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.
Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede, and Andrea Ruggeri. 2010. “Political Opportunity Structures, Democracy, and Civil War.” Journal of Peace Research 47(3): 299–310.
Gleditsch, Nils Petter, and Havard Hegre. 1997. “Peace and Democracy: Three Levels of Analysis.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 41(2): 283–310.
Government Of Belize. 2021. “Welcome - National Assembly of Belize.” GOB: 1. (June 15, 2021).
Grant, Cedric Hilburn. 1976. The Making of Modern Belize: Politics, Society, and British Colonialism in Central America. ed. E. T. Stokes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gregory, George Anne. 2017. “Legacies of Colonialism: The Education of Maya in Belize.” In Honoring Our Teachers, eds. J. Reyhner, J. Martin, L. Lockard, and W.S. Gilbert. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University, 123–33.
Grieb, Kenneth J. 1970. “American Involvement in the Rise of Jorge Ubico Caribbean Studies.” Institute of Caribbean Studies, UPR, Rio Piedras Campus 10(1): 5-21.
Gründler, Klaus, and Tommy Krieger. 2016. “Democracy and Growth: Evidence from a Machine Learning Indicator.” European Journal of Political Economy 45: 85–107.
Guevara, Che. 2002. “Case Studies of Guerilla Movements and Political Change: Guatemala.” In Guerilla Warfare, eds. Brian Loveman and Thomas M. Davies. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 422.
Habyarimana, James et al. 2007. “Why Does Ethnic Diversity Undermine Public Goods Provision?-Dation for Financial Support.” American Political Science Review 101(4): 709-725.
Haggard, Stephan, and Robert R. Kaufman. 1995. The Political Economy of Democratic Transitions. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Hall, John. 1995. Civil Society: Theory, History, Comparison. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Handy, Jim. 2000. Revolution in the Countryside: Rural Conflict and Agrarian Reform in Guatemala, 1944-1954. North Carolina: North Carolina Press.
Heaton, Herbert. 1937. “Reviewed Work(s): Mercantilism by Eli F. Heckscher.” The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science 3(2): 264–68.
Hegre, Håvard. 2014. “Democracy and Armed Conflict.” Journal of Peace Research 51(2): 159–72.
Helliwell, J. F. 1994. “Empirical Linkages Between Democracy and Economic Growth.” British Journal of Political Science 24(2): 225–48.
Hoffmann, Odile. 2014. British Honduras: The Invention of a Colonial Territory Mapping and Spatial Knowledge in the 19 Th Century. Benque Viejo: Cubola Productions - IRD.
Horowitz, Donald L. 1993a. “Democracy in Divided Societies.” Journal of Democracy 4(4): 18–38.
———. 1993b. “Democracy in Divided Societies.” Journal of Democracy 4(4): 18–38.
Humphreys, Robert A. 1961. The Diplomatic History of British Honduras, 1638 - 1901. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Huntington, Samuel P. 1991. “Democracy’s Third Wave.” Journal of Democracy 02(01): 12–34.
Hurwitz, Samuel, and Edith Hurwitz. 1971. Jamaica: A Historical Portrait. NY: Praeger Publisher.
Inglehart, R., and C. Welzel. 2010. “Changing Mass Priorities: The Link Between Modernization and Democracy.” Perspectives on Democracy 8(02): 551–67.
Inglehart, Ronald., and Christian Welzel. 2005. Modernization, Cultural Change, and Democracy: The Human Development Sequence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
International Court for Transitional Justice. 2021. “Guatemala & Transitional Justice | ICTJ.” ICJT: 1. (May 25, 2021).
Jacobs, Curtis. 2008. “Fédon’s Rebellion in Grenada (1795-1796).” In Center for Eighteenth Century Studies Department of History: Eight Cultural History Conference, York: The University of York.
Jamaica Observer. 2016. “Belize Teachers to Stage Mass Protest Today.” Jamaica Observer.
Jensen, Carsten, and Svend Erik Skaaning. 2012. “Modernization, Ethnic Fractionalization, and Democracy.” Democratization 19(6): 1–22.
Johnston, Michael. 2005. Syndromes of Corruption: Wealth, Power, and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jonas, Susanne, and Edelberte Torres Rivas. 1991. The Battle for Guatemala: Rebels, Death Squads, and U.S. Power. 1st ed. NY: Routledge.
Kaufmann, D., and S. J. Wei Wei. 1999. Does “Grease Money” Speed Up the Wheels of Commerce? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kirkland, Robert O. 2003. Observing Our Hermanos de Armas. NY: Routledge.
Kohn, Margaret, and Keally Mcbride. 2011a. Political Theories of Decolonization: Postcolonialism and the Problem of Foundations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
———. 2011b. “Self-Determination Reconsidered: Revolutions of Decolonization and Postcolonial Citizenship.” In Political Theories of Decolonization: Postcolonialism and the Problem of Foundations, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 214.
Kolo, Philipp. 2012. Measuring a New Aspect of Ethnicity-The Appropriate Diversity Index. Gottingen. (January 22, 2021).
Kozloff, Nikolas. 2005. “Rev. Pat Robertson and Gen. Rios Montt.” Counter punch: Tells the Facts; Names the Names. (May 5, 2021).
Krain, Matthew, and Marissa Edson Myers. 1997. “Democracy and Civil War: A Note on the Democratic Peace Proposition.” International Interactions 23(1): 109–18.
Kurtz, Marucs, and Sarah Brooks. 2008. “Embedding Neoliberal Reform in Latin America.” World Politics 60(2): 231–80.
Kuzmarov, Jeremy. 2012. Modernizing Repression: Police Training and Nation-Building in the American Century. Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.
Lange, Matthew. 2009. Lineages of Despotism and Development: British Colonialism and State Power. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Lange, Matthew, James Mahoney, and Matthias Vom Hau. 2006. “Colonialism and Development: A Comparative Analysis of Spanish and British Colonies.” American Journal of Sociology 111(5): 1412–62.
Law Revision Commissioner. 2011. Belize Prevention of Corruption Act Chapter 105, Revised Edition 2011, Showing the Substantive Law as at 31st. Belmopan: Government of Belize Press.
Lee, J. M. 1967. Colonial Development and Good Government: A Study of the Ideas Expressed by the British Official Classes in Planning Decolonization, 1939–1964. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Leslie, Korie. 2020. “Senate Select Committee Report Confirms Corruption in the Immigration Department | Amandala Newspaper.” Amandala. (June 17, 2021).
Levin, Andrew. 1995. “Civil Society and Democratization in Haiti.” Emory International Law Review 9(1): 389–458.
Lijphart, Arend. 1977. Democracy in Plural Societies, New Haven: Yale University Press.
Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1959. “Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy.” The American Political Science Review 53(1): 69–105.
Lipsky, M. 1968. “Protest as a Political Resource.” The American Political Science Review, 62(4): 1144-1158.
Little, Walter E. 2005. “Globalization and Guatemala’s Maya Workers.” Latin American Perspectives 32(5): 3–11.
Livingstone, Grace. 2009. America’s Backyard: The United States and Latin America from the Monroe Doctrine to the War on Terror. London: Zed Books Ltd.
López, Matias. 2018. “States, Elites, and Inequality in Latin America.” Sociology Compass 12(8): e12598.
Lundgren, Nancy. 1992. “Children, Race, and Inequality: The Colonial Legacy in Belize.” Journal of Black Studies 23(1): 86–106.
Macpherson, Anne S. 2007. From Colony to Nation: Women Activists and the Gendering of Politics in Belize, 1912–1982. eds. Donna J. Guy, Mary Karash, and Asuncion Lavirin. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Mahoney, James. 2001. The Legacies of Liberalism: Path Dependence and Political Regimes in Central America. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.
———. 2003. “Long-Run Development and the Legacy of Colonialism in Spanish America.” American Journal of Sociology 109(1): 50–106.
———. 2004. “Comparative-Historical Methodology.” Annual Review of Sociology 30: 81–101.
———. 2010. Colonialism and Postcolonial Development: Spanish America in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mainwaring, Scott, and Aníbal Pérez-Liñán. 2003. “Level of Development and Democracy Latin American Exceptionalism, 1945-1996.” Comparative Political Studies 36(9): 1–31.
Mainwaring, Scott, and Anibal Perez-Linan. 2013. Democracies and Dictatorships in Latin America: Emergence, Survival, and Fall. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Marsan, Joan. 2004. Private Lands Conservation in Belize Private Lands Conservation in Belize Citation Information Citation Information. Boulder: University of Colorado Law School.
Marx, Werner, Robin Haunschild, and Lutz Bornmann. 2017. “The Role of Climate in the Collapse of the Maya Civilization: A Bibliometric Analysis of the Scientific Discourse.” Climate 5(4): 1–22.
Mauro, Paolo. 1995. “Corruption and Growth.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 110(3): 683–712.
May, Rachel. 2001. Terror in the Countryside: Campesino Responses to Political Violence in Guatemala, 1954-1985. Ohio: Ohio University Press.
McAdam, D. 1982. Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
McCarthy, J., & Zald, M. 1977. “Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory.” American Journal of Sociology, 82(6): 1212-1241.
Mcmann, Kelly M, Brigitte Seim, Jan Teorell, and Staffan Lindberg. 2019. “Why Low Levels of Democracy Promote Corruption and High Levels Diminish It.” Political Research Quarterly, 73(4): 893–907.
MINGUA. 2001. The Indigenous Peoples of Guatemala. Overcoming Discrimination in the Framework of the Peace Agreements. Verification Report, United Nations. (June 14, 2021).
Montinola, Gabriella R., and Robert W. Jackman. 2002. “Sources of Corruption: A Cross-Country Study.” British Journal of Political Science, 32(1): 147–70.
Morris, Stephen D., and Charles H. Blake. 2010. Corruption and Politics in Latin America: National and Regional Politics. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.
Muhr, Thomas. 2009. “Demerara Slave Rebellion, 1823 (Guyana).” In International Encyclopedia of Revolution and Protest: 1500 to the Present, ed. Imannuel Ness. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Blackwell, 983–84.
Muller, Edward N. 1995. “Economic Determinants of Democracy.” American Sociological Review, 60(6): 966–82.
Muller, Edward N., and Erich Weede. 1990. “Cross-National Variations in Political Violence: A Rational Action Approach.” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 34(04): 624–51.
Nowottny, Mark. 2007. “No Tyrants Here Linger: Understandings of Democracy in Modern Belize.” Chappell Hill: University of North Carolina.
Nye, Joseph S. 1967. “Corruption and Political Development: A Cost Benefit Analysis.” American Political Science Review, 61(2): 417–27.
O’brien, Patrick. 2000. “Mercantilism and Imperialism in the Rise and Decline of Dutch and British Economies, 1585-1815.” De Economist, 148(4): 469–501.
Oneal, John R, and Bruce M Russett. 1997. “The Classical Liberals Were Right: Democracy, Interdependence, and Conflict, 1950-1985.” International Studies Quarterly, 41(2): 267–93.
Ortiz, David G. 2016. “State Repression and Mobilization in Latin America.” in Handbook of Social Movements across Latin America, ed. Paul Almeida and Allen Cordero. New York: Springer Press.
Pallister, Kevin. 2017. “Guatemala: The Fight for Accountability and the Rule of Law.” Revista de Ciencia Politica 37(2): 471–91.
Papaioannou, Elias et al. 2008. “Democratization and Growth.” Economic Journal, 118(532): 1520-1551.
Paredes Fuentes, Stefania. 2016. “Origins of Institutions and Inequality in Latin America.” P.h.D. Diss, University of Warwick.
Peeler, John. 1998. Building Democracy in Latin America. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.
Pemberton, Rita. 2012. “The Environmental Impact of Colonial Activity in Belize.” Historia Ambiental Laetinoamericana y Caribena, 1(2): 180–92.
Perez, A, C Chin-Ta, and F Afero. 2009. “Belize-Guatemala Territorial Dispute and Its Implications for Conservation.” Tropical Conservation Science 2(1): 11–24.
Pérez-Liñán, Aníbal, and Scott Mainwaring. 2013. “Regime Legacies and Levels of Democracy: Evidence from Latin America.” Comparative Politics, 45(4): 379–97.
Przeworski, Adam, Michael Alvarez, Limongi Fernando, and Jose Antonio Cheibub. 2000. Democracy and Development: Political Institutions and Well-Being in the World, 1950-1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Psacharopoulos, George, and Harry A. Patrinos. 1994. Indigenous People and Poverty in Latin America: An Empirical Analysis. Washington DC: The World Bank.
Rabushka, Alvin, and Kenneth A. Shepsle. 1972. Politics in Plural Societies. Columbus: Merrill.
Raknerud, Arvid, and Havard Hegre. 1997. “The Hazard of War: Reassessing the Evidence for the Democratic Peace.” Journal of Peace Research, 34(04): 385–404.
Reynal-Querol, Marta. 2005. “Does Democracy Preempt Civil Wars?” European Journal of Political Economy, 21(2): 445–65.
Rodrik, Dani, and Romain Wacziarg. 2005. “Do Democratic Transitions Produce Bad Economic Outcomes?” American Economic Review, 95(2): 50–55.
Rossi, Federico M., and Donatella della Porta. 2015. “Mobilizing for Democracy: Social Movements in Democratization Process.” In Movements in Times of Democratic Transition, eds. Bert Klandermans and Cornelis van Stralen. Pennsylvania: Temple University Press.
Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, and James Mahoney. 2003. “Strategies for Causal Assessment in Comparative Historical Analysis.” In Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 445.
Ryden, David Beck. 2012. “Eric Williams’ Three Faces of West India Decline.” Review (Fernand Braudel Center) 35(2): 117–33.
Seawright, Jason. 2016. “Integrative Multi-Method Research.” In Multi-Method Social Science: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Tools, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1–18.
Sebastian, Emily. 2017. Colonial and Postcolonial Latin America and the Caribbean. NY: Britannica Educational Publishing.
Seidler, Valentino. 2019. Colonial Legacy and Institutional Development: The Cases of Botswana and Nigeria. Vienna: Vienna University of Economics and Business - Department of Economics.
Sessa, Rosa, Cosimo Palagiano, Marisa Di Pietro and Massimo del Piano. 1999. “The Major Epidemic Infections: A Gift from the Old World to the New?” Panminerva Medica 41(1): 78–84.
Shoman, Assad. 1973. “The Birth of the Nationalist Movement in Belize, 1950-1954.” Journal of Belizean Affairs, 1(2): 3–40.
———. 2010a. Belize’s Independence and Decolonization in Latin America. NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
———. 2010b. Reflections on Ethnicity and Nation in Belize. Proyecto AFRODESC / EURESCL, Working Paper No 9.
Skidmore, Thomas E., and Peter H. Smith. 2005. Modern Latin America. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Smith, Frantz. 2012. “History: 1950-1964.” InterLogic Publishers: 1. (June 12, 2021).
Sokoloff, Kenneth L., and Stanley L. Engerman. 2000. “History Lessons: Institutions, Factor Endowments, and Paths of Development in the New World.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14(3): 217–32.
Stanley, William. 2013. Enabling Peace in Guatemala: The Story of MINUGUA. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.
Stolen, Anne Kristi. 2007. Guatemalans in the Aftermath of Violence: The Refugees’ Return. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Streeter, Stephen M. 2000. Managing the Counterrevolution: The United States and Guatemala, 1954-1961. Ohio: Ohio University Press.
Stuchtey, Benedikt. 2011. Colonialism and Imperialism, 1450-1950, in European History Online (EGO), Institute of European History (IEG), Mainz 2011-01-24. (June 29, 2021).
Sung, Hung-En. 2004. “Democracy and Political Corruption: A Cross-National Comparison.” Crime, Law and Social Change, 41(2): 179–93.
Tabellini, Guido, and Torsten Persson. 2007. The Growth Effect of Democracy: Is It Heterogenous and How Can It Be Estimated? CESifo Working Paper Series 2016, CESifo. (July 10, 2021).
Taft-Morales, Maureen. 2019. “Guatemala: Political and Socioeconomic Conditions and U.S. Relations”. Congressional Research Service. (June 20, 2021).
Testa, Alexander, Joseph K. Young, and Christopher Mullins. 2017. “Does Democracy Enhance or Reduce Lethal Violence? Examining the Role of the Rule of Law.” Homicide Studies 21(3): 219–39.
The Forestland Group Operations. “Yalbac - TFG Operations.” TFG Operations. (June 3, 2021).
The San Pedro Sun. 2016. “BNTU Protests with ‘Stand Up For Belize’ Campaign - The San Pedro Sun.” The San Pedro Sun: The Island Paper and Online News Source: 1. (June 17, 2021).
———. 2017. “Seven Members Sworn-in to Reactivate Integrity Commission of Belize - The San Pedro Sun.” The San Pedro Sun: The Island Paper and Online News Source. (June 17, 2021).
Thomas, Martin. 2012. Violence and Colonial Order Police, Workers and Protest in the European Colonial Empires, 1918–1940. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Thompson, J. Eric S. 1977. “A Proposal for Constituting a Maya Subgroup, Cultural, and Linguistic, in Peten and Adjacent Region.” In Anthropology and History in Yucatan, ed. Grant D. Jones. Austin: University of Texas Press, 36.
———. 1994. Maya Archaeologist. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
Tilly, C. 1985a. Models and Realities of Popular Collective Action. CSSC Working Paper No. 10, New School for Social Research.
______. 1985b. Social Movements, Old and New. CSSC Working Paper No. 20, New School for Social Research.
Tulchin, Joseph S. 2002. Democratic Governance and Social Inequality. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.
Turner, Barry. 2013. “The Politics, Cultures and Economies of the World 2014.” In The Statesman’s Yearbook. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 205.
Turner, Billie M., Luna Sanchez, and Sandra Elizabeth. 2020. “The Legacy of Colonialism in Guatemala and Its Impact on the Psychological and Mental Health of Indigenous Mayan Communities.” International Review of Psychiatry, 32(4): 313–19.
Uekert, Brenda K. 1995. Rivers of Blood: A Comparative Study of Government Massacres. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.
Urbinati, Nadia, and Mark E. Warren. 2008. “The Concept of Representation in Contemporary Democratic Theory.” Annual Review of Political Science, 11(December): 387–412.
Welch, Claude E. 2009. “Defining Contemporary Forms of Slavery: Updating a Venerable NGO.” Human Rights Quarterly, 31(1): 70–128.
Wesley, Charles H. 1938. “The Abolition of Negro Apprenticeship in the British Empire.” The Journal of Negro History 23(2): 155–99.
Williams, Eric. 1944. Capitalism and Slavery. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
———. 1994. “British Commerce and the Triangular Trade.” In Capitalism and Slavery, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 51–84.
Wolf, Eric R., and Edward C. Hansen. 1992. “Caudillo Politics: A Structural Condition.” In Caudillos: Dictators in Spanish America, ed. Hugh M. Hamill. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 62–71.
Wood, Elisabeth Jean. 2001. “An Insurgent Path to Democracy: Popular Mobilization, Economic Interests, and Regime Transition in South Africa and El Salvador.” Comparative Political Studies, 34(8): 862–88.
Woodward, Ralph L. 1976. Central America: A Nation Divided. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
World Bank. 2017. “Jimmy Morales.” World Bank Live. (August 21, 2021).
Zaid, M. 1979. Macro-Issues in the Theory of Social Movements. CaSO Working Paper No.204.
Description: 碩士
Source URI:
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[國際研究英語碩士學位學程] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
200301.pdf1423KbAdobe PDF9View/Open

All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

社群 sharing