政大學術集成


Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/137192


Title: 臺灣高中生使用社群媒體Instagram探討—從社交媒體焦慮觀察
Exploring Senior High School Students' Usage of Instagram in Taiwan: a social media anxiety approach
Authors: 呂頤姍
Lu, Yi-Shan
Contributors: 黃葳威
呂頤姍
Lu, Yi-Shan
Keywords: Instagram
社交焦慮
社群媒體
社會比較
Instagram
social anxiety
social media
social comparison
Date: 2021
Issue Date: 2021-09-02 18:23:00 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 現今社群媒體中,Instagram已成為年輕族群常用的軟體,除了交友、獲取他人認同感,也是探索與展現自我的管道之一。2019年底開始,Instagram陸續在一些國家嘗試實行隱藏按讚數的功能,目的是為了讓使用者有更安全、健康的使用心理。社群媒體成為個體與他人建立關係、塑造自我認同、表達自我、瞭解周圍世界的虛擬空間,與心理健康有著關聯性。
研究探討Instagram使用動機、社交焦慮、社交媒體焦慮及社會比較間是否有顯著相關,並進一步探討兩兩之間的影響因素。採用紙本問卷調查,以台灣北部高中學生為研究對象,回收有效問卷344份,經T檢定、相關及逐步迴歸分析等統計檢定。發現高中女生在Instagram使用、社交焦慮、社交媒體焦慮及社會比較皆顯著高於高中男生。Instagram使用動機、社交焦慮、社交媒體焦慮及社會比較,兩兩之間皆有顯著正相關,其中Instagram使用動機的尋求人氣;社交焦慮的負向評價恐懼;社交媒體焦慮的互動焦慮,及內容共享與自我評估焦慮;社會比較的能力比較,為影響彼此之最大因素。研究最後基於發現提出討論與相關建議,可多關心青少年心理狀態,及青少年是以甚麼樣的動機與心態使用Instagram。
The thesis explores whether there is a significant correlation between the motivation of using Instagram, social anxiety, social media anxiety, and social comparison, and further explores the influencing factors between each other. A face-to-face questionnaire survey of 344 high school students has been complemented in north of Taiwan. The result shows that high school girls were significantly higher than high school boys in the motivation of using Instagram, social anxiety, social media anxiety and social comparison. The motivation of using Instagram, social anxiety, social media anxiety and social comparison, there is a significant positive correlation between the two. Using Instagram to seek popularity, negative evaluation fear, interactive anxiety, content sharing, self-assessment anxiety and ability comparison are the biggest factor that affects each other. At the end of the study, discussions and relevant suggestions were made based on the findings. Facing up to the mental state of teenagers and caring their motivation and mentality to use Instagram.
Reference: 中文參考文獻
三立新聞(2019年12月8日)。〈IG幹嘛要隱藏按讚數?離職員工爆料背後真正原因〉。取自https://www.setn.com/News.aspx?NewsID=649959
朱家瑩(2016)。《行動社群參與者社交動機與自我呈現策略之研究》。國立臺灣師範大學圖文傳播學系碩士班學位論文。
吳紹群(2011)。〈Museum 2.0概念的可能性與真實性──由博物館觀點探討Web 2.0與社群媒體之應用及問題〉,《博物館學季刊》,25(2): 93-105。
李珮瑄(2005)。《國中生同儕互動心理需求及其與人際互動相關研究》。臺灣師範大學教育心理與輔導學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。
李勇輝、黃靖文、邱怡嘉(2016)。〈以消費價值理論與理性行為理論探討Instagram使用者實際行為之研究〉,《管理研究學報》,16(2): 31-57。
李明海、王力、王澤鈺(2019)。《2019臺灣青少兒網路使用與親子關係報告》。台北市:崧燁文化。
宋曜廷、吳昭容、劉子鍵、廖遠光、洪煌堯、吳心楷、籃玉如等(2012)。《數位學習研究方法》。台北市:高等教育。
汪志堅、陳翔、江義平、江維彬(2013)。〈Facebook 社交網站使用因素之量表發展與驗證〉,《電子商務學報》,15(3): 319-351。
林麗華(2002)。《目標導向、社會比較、自我效能與課業壓力關係之研究》。臺灣師範大學圖書資訊學碩士班學位論文。
林欣諭(2017)。《青年族群使用Instagram之心理需求與持續使用意圖研究》。彰化師範大學輔導與諮商系碩士班學位論文。
施伯燁(2014)。〈社群媒體—使用者研究之 概念、方法與方法論初探〉,《傳播研究與實踐》,4(2): 207-227。
財團法人台灣網路資訊中心(2019)。《2019台灣網路報告》。
吳玉鈴(2000年12月)。《教育大辭書》。國家教育研究院。取自http://terms.naer.edu.tw/detail/1306760/
吳俊憲(2010)。〈教師專業學習社群:意涵、理論與推動策略〉,《靜宜大學師資培育中心實習輔導通訊》,11: 3-7。
吳明隆(2013)。《SPSS統計應用學習實務:問卷分析與應用統計(第三版)》。台北:易習圖書。
周文欽(2002)。《研究方法-實徵性研究取向》。台北:心理。
莊凱迪譯(2007)。《走出社交焦慮的陰影》。台北:商周出版。(原書 E. Hollander, N. Bakalar, [2005]. Coping with Social Anxiety: The Definitive Guide to Effective Treatment Options. New York, NY: Holt McDougal.)
陳金英(2004)。〈網路使用習性、網路交友期望與社交焦慮之分析〉,《資訊社會研究》,7: 111-145。
陳婉真、梅淑鶯(2009)。〈社交焦慮高中學生「內在自我聚焦 與外在威脅偵測量表」之編製與發展〉,《屏東教育大學學報-教育類》,33: 515-546。
陳黛儀(2013)。《大學生網路成癮、情緒智力與心理健康之相關研究》。國立臺中教育大學諮商與應用心理學系碩士論文。
陳冠儒、趙家彤(2019)。〈Instagram使用動機對品牌參與之影響:以廣告價值為中介變數〉,《行銷評論》,16(1): 53-80。
陳莉淋譯(2020)。《每個人都想學的焦慮課:用認知行為療法擺脫社交恐懼、黑暗心理、憂慮壓力,學習善待自己》。台北:高寶。(原書 D. A. Clark, A. T. Beck, [2011]. The Anxiety and Worry Workbook: The Cognitive Behavioral Solution. New York, NY: Guilford Publications.)
張梅楓(2009)。《客觀表現與社會比較對青少年自尊的預測》。臺灣師範大學教育心理與輔導學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。
張德銳、王淑珍(2010)。〈教師專業學習社群在教學輔導教師制度中的發展與實踐〉,《臺北市立教育大學學報》,41(1): 61-90。
許雅慈(2014)《社會比較動機與參考團體影響團購決策之研究》。中央大學企業管理學系碩士班學位論文。
黃蘭鍈、陳憶菁(2012年1月)。〈社交網絡服務網站的使用者動機與負面評論之研究-以 Facebook 為例〉,「2012 第 15 屆科技整合管理研討會」,新北市中正區。
黃逸旻編譯(2018年2月4日)。〈你了解IG嗎?13-24歲的人為什麼、又如
何使用IG?〉,《天下雜誌》,取自
https://www.cw.com.tw/article/article.action?id=5087930
黃葳威(2019)。《2019臺灣青少兒網路使用與親子關係報告》。台北市:政大數位傳播文化行動實驗室/社團法人中華白絲帶關懷協會。
黃葳威(2020)。《2020台灣青少兒消費形象與上網趨勢報告》。台北市:政大數位傳播文化行動實驗室/社團法人中華白絲帶關懷協會。
無作者(2019年3月2日)。〈年輕人不用FB!她納悶「IG的優點在哪」 網戳破關鍵〉,《三立新聞網》。取自
https://www.setn.com/News.aspx?NewsID=506149
楊文金(1996)。〈比較、社會比較與科學學習動機〉。《科學教育月刊》,195: 2-15。
楊靜芳(2003)。《社交焦慮、網路社交焦慮與網路環境特性之關聯性探討》。臺灣大學心理學研究所碩士班學位論文。
楊雅如(2014)。《社會比較與人格對大學生憂鬱情緒之影響》。中山醫學大學心理學系暨臨床心理學碩士班學位論文。
楊嘉倫(2019)。《從人際情感關係與自我揭露探討社群媒體 Instagram 的使用動機》。淡江大學國際企業學系研究所碩士論文。
劉育林譯(2003)。《再也不怯場:克服社交焦慮,接納自己》,台北:張老師文化。(原書 Markway, B., Markway, G. [2001]. Painfully Shy --How to Overcome Social Anxiety and Reclaim Your Life. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.)
劉蕙苓(2014)。〈匯流下的變貌:網路素材使用對電視新聞常規的影響〉,《新聞學研究》,121: 41-87。
劉昌浩(2017)。《探討社群媒體之媒介依賴與自我揭露對使用動機的影響-以使用Instagram為例》。淡江大學大眾傳播學系碩士論文。
劉雨涵(2018)。〈你 follow 她了嗎?Instagram 網紅的人類學觀察〉,《民族學研究所資料彙編》,26: 1-34。
劉千莫(2019年8月31日)。〈年輕人不愛…FB新危機〉,《經濟日報》。取自https://money.udn.com/money/story/10868/4020134
劉魯川、張冰倩、孫凱(2019)。〈基於紮根理論的社交媒體用戶焦慮情緒研究〉,《情報資料工作》,40(5): 68-76。
臺灣傳播調查資料庫(2020)。〈社交網站臉書最受台灣網友歡迎,instagram較受女性喜愛!〉。取自https://www.crctaiwan.nctu.edu.tw/ResultsShow_detail.asp?RS_ID=31
鄧雅云(2015)。〈認識社交焦慮症〉,《諮商與輔導》,356: 50-52。
蔡進雄(2003)。〈學校領導的新思維:建立教師學習社群〉,《技術與職業教育雙月刊》,78: 42-46。
蔡伊妮(2015)。《以社會交換理論探討Facebook按讚行為》。中國文化大學新聞學系碩士在職專班。
蔡協翰(2018)。《探索社群媒體趨勢下的人際新關係》。淡江大學未來學研究所碩士班。
數位時代(2019年11月13日)。〈Instagram「愛心數」取消後,影響了誰?名人網紅掀正反論戰〉。取自
https://www.bnext.com.tw/article/55466/instagram-hide-likes-in-us
數位時代(無年代)。取自https://www.bnext.com.tw/search/tag/%E7%A4%BE%E7%BE%A4%E5%AA%92%E9%AB%94
賴偉嘉(2018)。〈大學生社群媒體使用現況與社交焦慮〉,《圖文傳播藝術學報》,62-70。
駱芳美、郭國禎(2009)。《走出憂鬱-憂鬱症的輔導諮商策略》,台北:心理。
蕭湘榆(2018)。《大學生Instagram使用動機與自戀、自我概念之相關研究》。暨南國際大學諮商心理與人力資源發展學系輔導與諮商研究所。
謝宛芸(2019)。《大學生FB及LINE社群網站使用動機、社交焦慮與孤寂感關係之探討》。屏東大學教育心理與輔導學系研究所碩士論文。
蘇郁惠(2009)。《遭受關係攻擊與青少年社會心理適應:以社會支持為調節變項》。交通大學教育研究所碩士論文。
蘇柔郡、吳筱玫(2018)。〈高中女生使用 Instagram 之日常美學:符擔性觀
點〉,《新聞學研究》,135: 139-191。
英文參考文獻
Alkis, Y., Kadirhan, Z., & Sat, M. (2017). Development and Validation of Social Anxiety Scale for Social Media Users. Computers in Human Behavior. 72, 296-303.
Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497-529.
Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), 210-230.
Baker, L. R., & Oswald, D. L. (2010). Shyness and online social networking services. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 27, 873-889.
Berryman C, Ferguson CJ, Negy C. (2018). Social Media Use and Mental Health among Young Adults. Psychiatric Quarterly, 89(2), 307-314.
BBC News 中文(2019年9月13日). 英國調查:沉迷社交媒體 你的國家排第幾. Retrieved from: https://www.storm.mg/lifestyle/1717690
Clasen, A. (2015, April 22). Why Instagram is so important to Millennials. Retrieved
from: https://blog.iconosquare.com/instagram-important-millennials/
Chae, J. (2017). Virtual makeover: Selfie-taking and social media use increase selfie-editing frequency through social comparison. Computers in Human Behavior. 66: 370-376.
Chia, O. (2019, November 24). Why is Instagram hiding likes? Slash Gear. Retrieved
from https://www.slashgear.com/why-is-instagram-hiding-likes-24601272/
Cherice, C. (2020, January 13). 2020年你必須知道的 Instagram 統計數據.
Retrieved from: https://reurl.cc/4gKQYV
De Wit, L., Van Straten, A., Lamers, F., Cuijpers, P., & Penninx, B. (2011). Are
sedentary television watching and computer use behaviors associated with
anxiety and depressive disorders? Psychiatry Research, 186(2-3), 239-243
de Vries, D. A., & Kühne, R. (2015). Facebook and self-perception: Individual
susceptibility to negative social comparison on facebook. Personality and
Individual Differences, 86, 217-221.
Dhir, A., Yossatorn, Y., Kaur, P., & Chen, S. (2018). Online social media fatigue and psychological wellbeing - A study of compulsive use, fear of missing out, fatigue, anxiety and depression. International Journal of Information Management, 40, 141-152.
Erath, S. A., Flanagan, K. S. & Bierman, K. L. (2007). Social Anxiety and Peer
Relations in Early Adolescence: Behavioral and Cognitive Factors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 405-416.
Festinger, L. (1954). A Theory of Social Comparison Processes. Human Relations,
7(2), 117-140.
Fardouly, J. & Vartanian, L. R. (2015). Negative comparisons about one’s appearance mediate the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns. Body Image,12: 82-88.
Ferwerda, B., Schedl, M., Tkalcic, M. (2016). Using Instagram Picture Features to Predict Users’ Personality. In Tian Q., Sebe N., Qi GJ., Huet B., Hong R., Liu X. (eds), MultiMedia Modeling. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 9516. Berlin, DE: Springer, Cham.
Gibbons, F. X., & Buunk, B. P. (1999). Individual differences in social comparison: Development of a scale of social comparison orientation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(1), 129–142.
Grieve, R., Indian, M., Witteveen, K., Tolan, A. G., & Marrington, J. (2013). Face-to-
face or Facebook: Can social connectedness be derived online? Computers in
Human Behavior, 29(3), 604-609.
Greenwood, D. N. (2013). Fame, Facebook, and Twitter: How attitudes about fame predict frequency and nature of social media use. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 2, 222-236.
Holt, C. S., Heimberg, R. G., Hope, D. A., & Liebowitz, M. R. (1992). Situational domains of social phobia. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 6(1), 63-77.
Ingersoll, G. M. (1989). Adolescents (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Johansson, F. (2008). Extending mobile social software with contextual information.
Unpublished manuscript, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics., Umeå: SE,Umeå University.
Jiang, S., & Ngien, A. (2020). The Effects of Instagram Use, Social Comparison, and
Self-Esteem on Social Anxiety: A Survey Study in Singapore. Social Media + Society, 1-10.
Katz, E., Blumler, J. G., and Gurevitch, M. (1973). Uses and gratifications research.
The Public Opinion Quarterly, 37(4), 509-523.
Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59-68.
Keles, B., McCrae, N., & Grealish, A. (2020). A systematic review: the influence of social media on depression, anxiety and psychological distress in adolescents. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 25(1), 79-93.
Leary, M. R. (1983). Understanding social anxiety: Social personality and clinical perspectives. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Liebowitz, M. R. (1987). Social phobia. Modern Problems of Pharmacopsychiatry, 22, 141-173.
La Greca, A. M., & Lopez, N. (1998). Social anxiety among adolescents: Linkages with peer relations and friendships. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26(2), 83-94.
Lawson, M. (2005). Berners-Lee on the read/write web. BBC News. Retrieved
from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/4132752.stm
Liu, C., Ang, R. P., & Lwin, M. O. (2013). Cognitive, personality, and social factors
associated with adolescents' online personal information disclosure. Journal of
Adolescence, 36(4), 629-638.
Labrague, L. J. (2014). Facebook use and adolescents’ emotional states of depression, anxiety, and stress. Health Science Journal, 8(1), 80-89.
Lup, K., Trub, L., & Rosenthal, L. (2015). Instagram #instasad? Exploring associations among Instagram use, depressive symptoms, negative social comparison, and strangers followed. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18(5): 247-252.
Lee, S. Y. (2014). How do people compare themselves with others on social network sites?: The case of Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior,32: 253-260.
Lee, E., Lee, J. A., Moon, J. H., Sung, Y. (2015). Pictures Speak Louder than Words: Motivations for Using Instagram. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking,18(9): 552-556.
McMillan, D. W., & Chavis D. M. (1986). Sense of community: A Definition and
theory. Joutnal of Community Psychology, 4, 6-23.
Mills, R. S., & Rubin, K. H. (1998). Are behavioural and psychological control both differentially associated with childhood aggression and social withdrawal? Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 30(2), 132-136.
Manago, A. M., Graham, M. B., Greenfield, P. M., & Salimkhan, G. (2008). Self-presentation and gender on MySpace. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29(6), 446-458.
McCord, B., Rodebaugh, T. L., & Levinson, C. A. (2014). Facebook: Social uses and anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior, 34, 23-27.
McClintock, A. S., McCarrick, S. M., & Anderson, T. (2014). Excessive reassurance-seeking and interpersonal dependency: Assessing incremental associations. Personality and Individual Differences, 64, 94-97.
Marwick, A. (2015). Instafame: luxury selfies in the attention economy. Public Culture, 27:136-160.
Mackson, S. B., Brochu, P. M., & Schneider, B. A. (2019). Instagram: Friend or foe?
The application’s association with psychological well-being. New Media & Society, 21(10): 2160-2182.
Nunnally, J. C., (1978). Psychometric Theory. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Öst L., G., Hugdahl, K. (1981). Acquisition of phobias and anxiety response patterns in clinical patients. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 19(5): 439-447.
O’Dell J. (2011). For students, what is the Facebook effect on grades? Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2011/04/27/facebookeffect-students/
O’Keeffe, G., Clarke-Pearson, K., & Council on Communications and Media. (2011). The impact of social media on children, adolescents and families. Pediatrics, 124, 800-804.
Pittman, M., & Reich, B. (2016). Social media and loneliness: why an Instagram
picture may be worth more than a thousand Twitter words. Computers in Human Behavior, 62, 155-167.
Primack, B. A., Shensa, A., Escobar-Viera, C. G., Barrett, E. L., Sidani, J. E., Colditz, J. B., & James, A. E. (2017). Use of multiple social media platforms and symptoms of depression and anxiety: A nationally-representative study among U.S. Young adults. Computers in Human Behavior, 69, 1-9.
Park, S. Y., & Baek, Y. M. (2018). Two faces of social comparison on Facebook: The interplay between social comparison orientation, emotions, and psychological well-being. Computers in Human Behavior, 79, 83-93.
Ryan, T., Xenos, S. (2011). Who uses Facebook? An investigation into the relationship between the Big Five, shyness, narcissism, loneliness, and Facebook usage. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(5), 1658-1664.
Royal Society for Public Health. (2017). Social media and young people's mental
health and wellbeing. Retrieved from: https://www.rsph.org.uk/our-work/campaigns/status-of-mind.html
Reer, F., Tang, W. Y., & Quandt, T. (2019). Psychosocial well-being and social media engagement: The mediating roles of social comparison orientation and fear of missing out. New Media & Society. 21(7): 1486-1505.
Suls, J. M., & Miller, R. L. (Eds.). (1977). Social comparison processes: Theoretical and empirical perspectives. Washington, DC: Hemisphere.
Smith, R. H. (2000). Assimilative and contrastive emotional reactions to upward and downward social comparisons. In J. Suls & L. Wheeler (Eds.), The Plenum series in social/clinical psychology. Handbook of social comparison: Theory and research (pp. 173-200). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Sampasa-Kanyinga H., Lewis R. F. (2015). Frequent use of social networking sites is
associated with poor psychological functioning among children and adolescents. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18, 380-385.
Sheldon, P., & Bryant, K. (2016). Instagram: Motives for its use and relationship to narcissism and contextual age. Computers in Human Behavior, 58, 89-97.
Sheldon, P., & Newman, M. (2019). Instagram and American Teens: Understanding
Motives for Its Use and Relationship to Excessive Reassurance-Seeking and Interpersonal Rejection. The Journal of Social Media in Society, 8(1), 1-16.
Suls, J., & Wheeler, L. (2000). A Selective History of Classic and Neo-Social Comparison Theory. In Suls J. & Wheeler L, (eds.), Handbook of Social Comparison. The Springer Series in Social Clinical Psychology. Boston, MA: Springer.
Selfhout, M. H. W., Branje, S. J. T., Delsing, M., ter Bogt, T. F. M., & Meeus, W. H. J. (2009). Different types of internet use, depression, and social anxiety: The roleof perceived friendship quality. Journal of Adolescence, 32(4), 819-833.
Steinsbekk, S., Wichstrøm, L., Stenseng, F., Nesi, J., Hygen, B. W., & Skalická, V. (2021). The impact of social media use on appearance self-esteem from childhood to adolescence–A 3-wave community study. Computers in Human Behavior, 114, 106528.
Thomée, S., Dellve, L., Härenstam, A. et al. (2010). Perceived connections between information and communication technology use and mental symptoms among young adults - a qualitative study. BMC Public Health, 10, 66.
UK Safer Internet Centre (2020). Free to be me: Safer Internet Day research.
Retrieved from: https://www.saferinternet.org.uk/free-be-me-safer-internet-
day-research
Vogel, E. A., Rose, J. P., Okdie, B. M., Eckles, K., Franz, B., (2015). Who compares and despairs? The effect of social comparison orientation on social media use and its outcomes. Personality and Individual Differences, 86: 249-256.
Vannucci, A., Flannery, K. M., Ohannessian, C. M. (2017). Social media use and anxiety in emerging adults. Journal of Affective Disorders. 207: 163-166.
Vasquez, S. (2019, July 25). Study: Gen Z prefers social media as top influence
channel. Retrieved from: https://www.marketingdive.com/news/study-gen-z-
prefers-social-media-as-top-influence-channel/559487/
Wood, J. V. (1989). Theory and research concerning social comparisons of personal
attributes. Psychological Bulletin, 106(2), 231-248.
Whiting, A., & Williams, D. (2013). Why people use social media: A uses and gratifications approach. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 16(4), 362-369.
Woods, H. C., & Scott, H. (2016). Sleepyteens: Social media use in adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression and low self-esteem. Journal of Adolescence, 51, 41-49.
Zhao, S., Grasmuck, S., & Martin, J. (2008). Identity construction on Facebook:
Digital empowerment in anchored relationships. Computers in Human
Behavior, 24(5), 1816-1836.
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
傳播學院傳播碩士學位學程
106464002
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0106464002
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[Master's Program of Communication] Theses

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
400201.pdf2600KbAdobe PDF0View/Open


All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


社群 sharing