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Title: 從法國2012年至2020年本土聖戰主義攻擊:探討移民後代參與本土恐怖攻擊之因素
Exploring the factors for immigrant descendants to involve in homegrown jihadi attacks from 2012 to 2020 in France
Authors: 鍾雨珊
Chung, Yu-Shan
Contributors: 林季平
Lin, Ji-Ping
Chung, Yu-Shan
Keywords: 社會排斥
social exclusion
generational disruption
violent learning
social identity
group dynamics
Date: 2021
Abstract: 法國2015年11月13日巴黎恐怖攻擊後,移民後代的整合問題再度成為安全議題的核心,綜觀歐洲,參與本土聖戰的移民後代中約有一半來自法國,為理解移民後代是否因「社會排斥」產生挫折,進而攻擊自己成長的國家,以釐清「社會整合」是否為有效的反恐手段,因此本文以移民後代參與本土聖戰人數、比例最高的法國作為個案分析。
In the aftermath of the Paris attack on November 13, 2015, the issue of integration of immigrant descendants has once again become the core of security issues. In order to understand whether "social integration" is an effective tool for counter-terrorism, this paper takes France, which has the highest number and proportion of immigrant descendants participating in homegrown jihad, as a case study.
The second chapter assumes that "social exclusion" is a source of frustration for immigrant descendants at the structural level. According to the United Nations' indicators, it is divided into four major aspects: religious-cultural, political-diplomatic, economic-opportunities, and social acceptance. In the first two sections of Chapter 3, we discuss whether the "generational rupture" between immigrant descendants and their family and community and "personality traits" leading to negative interpretation weaken their resilience from "social exclusion" and thus increase their likelihood of participating in the attack.
Second, although some immigrant descendants do not have significant subjective experiences of frustration, the "downward mobility" brought about by "social exclusion" has led them to live in crime-ridden suburban areas and thus become accustomed to the use of violence; moreover, the availability of online media has opened the door to jihad for immigrant descendants who have not been exposed to violence. Therefore, the latter two sections of Chapter 3 explore whether "violent learning experiences" are sufficient for immigrant descendants to join homegrown jihad.
Finally, the author observes that foreign jihadist organizations have a large number of important cadres from French-speaking countries because of the colonial legacy. These jihadists established a presence in their home countries and used "social identity" or "group dynamics" to attract the descendants of French immigrants to join jihad. Therefore, this paper argues in Chapter 4 that the "group factor" is a sufficient condition for the descendants of French immigrants to join the homegrown jihadi attacks, while the "frustration" or "violent learning" experience plays a catalytic role on the basis of the group factor.
Description: 碩士
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