Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/137206


Title: 從法國2012年至2020年本土聖戰主義攻擊:探討移民後代參與本土恐怖攻擊之因素
Exploring the factors for immigrant descendants to involve in homegrown jihadi attacks from 2012 to 2020 in France
Authors: 鍾雨珊
Chung, Yu-Shan
Contributors: 林季平
Lin, Ji-Ping
鍾雨珊
Chung, Yu-Shan
Keywords: 社會排斥
世代斷裂
暴力學習
社會認同
團體動力
social exclusion
generational disruption
violent learning
social identity
group dynamics
Date: 2021
Abstract: 法國2015年11月13日巴黎恐怖攻擊後,移民後代的整合問題再度成為安全議題的核心,綜觀歐洲,參與本土聖戰的移民後代中約有一半來自法國,為理解移民後代是否因「社會排斥」產生挫折,進而攻擊自己成長的國家,以釐清「社會整合」是否為有效的反恐手段,因此本文以移民後代參與本土聖戰人數、比例最高的法國作為個案分析。
本文第二章從結構層次,假設「社會排斥」為移民後代的挫折來源,根據聯合國的指標分為:宗教文化、政治外交、經濟機會及社會接納四大面向,探討「社會排斥」是否為移民後代參與本土聖戰的充分條件,但由於本土聖戰攻擊者在整體法國移民後代中比例極低,因此第三章前兩節,本文從個人層次討論移民後代與原生家庭和社區的「世代斷裂」及負面詮釋的「人格特質」,是否削弱他們對於「社會排斥」的抗壓性,進而提高參與攻擊的可能性。
其次,有些移民後代在主觀上雖沒有明顯挫折經驗,但「社會排斥」帶來的「向下流動」使他們生活於犯罪猖獗的郊區,因此對暴力使用司空見慣;此外,網路媒體的發達也讓未接觸過暴力的移民後代,得以開啟聖戰的大門,因而第三章的後兩節探討「暴力學習經驗」是否為移民後代的充分條件。
最後,筆者觀察到因為殖民遺緒,外國聖戰組織中擁有大量來自法語國家的重要幹部,這些聖戰士返國後建立據點,利用「社會認同」或「團體動力」吸引法國移民後代參與聖戰,這些聖戰新兵又透過親密關係影響自己的親友及伴侶,使聖戰網絡得以擴張,而在這個過程中,有些本土聖戰攻擊者不一定有「挫折」或「暴力學習」經驗,因此本文在第四章主張「團體因素」是法國移民後代加入本土聖戰的充分條件,而「挫折」或「暴力學習」經驗則是在團體的基礎上,發揮催化的作用。
In the aftermath of the Paris attack on November 13, 2015, the issue of integration of immigrant descendants has once again become the core of security issues. In order to understand whether "social integration" is an effective tool for counter-terrorism, this paper takes France, which has the highest number and proportion of immigrant descendants participating in homegrown jihad, as a case study.
The second chapter assumes that "social exclusion" is a source of frustration for immigrant descendants at the structural level. According to the United Nations' indicators, it is divided into four major aspects: religious-cultural, political-diplomatic, economic-opportunities, and social acceptance. In the first two sections of Chapter 3, we discuss whether the "generational rupture" between immigrant descendants and their family and community and "personality traits" leading to negative interpretation weaken their resilience from "social exclusion" and thus increase their likelihood of participating in the attack.
Second, although some immigrant descendants do not have significant subjective experiences of frustration, the "downward mobility" brought about by "social exclusion" has led them to live in crime-ridden suburban areas and thus become accustomed to the use of violence; moreover, the availability of online media has opened the door to jihad for immigrant descendants who have not been exposed to violence. Therefore, the latter two sections of Chapter 3 explore whether "violent learning experiences" are sufficient for immigrant descendants to join homegrown jihad.
Finally, the author observes that foreign jihadist organizations have a large number of important cadres from French-speaking countries because of the colonial legacy. These jihadists established a presence in their home countries and used "social identity" or "group dynamics" to attract the descendants of French immigrants to join jihad. Therefore, this paper argues in Chapter 4 that the "group factor" is a sufficient condition for the descendants of French immigrants to join the homegrown jihadi attacks, while the "frustration" or "violent learning" experience plays a catalytic role on the basis of the group factor.
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
中東與中亞研究碩士學位學程
105560003
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0105560003
Appears in Collections:[中東與中亞研究碩士學位學程] 學位論文

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