Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/137305


Title: 死刑以外,生刑之極-終身刑之研究
Beyond the Death, the Ultimate Penalty─ A Study on Life Sentences
Authors: 呂欣恬
Lu, Hsin-Tien
Contributors: 謝如媛
呂欣恬
Lu, Hsin-Tien
Keywords: 終身監禁
無期徒刑
無假釋終身監禁
死刑替代刑
終身刑
Date: 2021
Issue Date: 2021-10-01 10:08:09 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 隨著世界上越來越多國家相繼廢除死刑,終身刑(Life Sentences,或稱Life Imprisonment)成為死刑以外最為嚴厲之刑罰,在國際上亦被廣泛使用。
過往,我國對於終身刑之討論大多聚焦於是否以此作為死刑之替代刑,然而終身刑之本質,及其適用與影響卻甚少被重視。有鑑於此,本文擬以終身刑為研究重點,就其源起、定義、類型,以及比較法上適用概況為介紹,並就我國是否要增訂無假釋終身刑,以及現行無期徒刑有關規定可能致生之問題為討論。
Reference: 壹、中文文獻
一、繁體文獻
(一)專書 (依作者姓氏筆劃排列)
1.王玉葉,《歐美死刑論述》,元照,2015年二版。
2.林鈺雄,《刑事訴訟法 下冊》,元照,2020年09月10版。
3.林鈺雄,《新刑法總則》,元照,2019年09月七版。

(二)專書論文 (依作者姓氏筆劃排列)
1.王榮聖,〈以鞭刑代替死刑之芻議〉,收錄於《法務部廖正豪前部長七秩華誕祝壽論文集-刑法卷》,2016年07月。
2.李佳玟,〈死刑在台灣社會的象徵意涵與社會功能〉,收錄《生活在一個沒有死刑的社會》,輔仁大學出版社,2005年03月。
3.李聖傑,〈刑法體系的基礎概念〉,收於《台灣法制導論》,元照,第四版,2018年07月。
4.張麗卿,〈假釋制度的回顧與展望〉,收錄於《刑法七十年之回顧與展望紀念論文集(二)》,元照,2001年06月。
5.謝如媛,〈刑法、犯罪與刑罰〉,收於《台灣法制導論》,元照,第四版,2018年07月。

(三)期刊論文 (依作者姓氏筆劃排列)
1.王兆鵬,〈台灣死刑實證研究〉,月旦法學雜誌,第183期,2010年08月。
2.李佳玟,〈臺灣死刑制度之在地/全球辯證發展〉,人文與社會科學期刊,第54卷2期,2016年06月。
3.李聖傑,〈侵害生命、身體法益之修法芻議〉,檢察新論,第22期,2017年07月。
4.吳志光,〈不得假釋的無期徒刑作為廢除死刑替代措施?—以受刑人「再社會化」基本權利的保障為核心〉,本文發表於:「鬼島」生與死:2014 台灣國際廢死研討會(International Conference Against the Death Penalty: Life and Death in Taiwan),2014年。
5.林山田,〈現代刑事政策之矯治與保安處分制度〉,中興法學,第8卷,1973年。
6.林順昌,〈回顧台灣假釋制度併論其問題與展望〉,全國律師,第24 卷第3 期,2020年03月。
7.周佳宥,〈德國事後安全管束監禁制度之合憲性研究──以制度發展與調整為研究中心(2004年~2013年)〉,憲政時代,第40卷,第2期,2014年10月。
8.周愫嫻,〈民意支持死刑的態度可改變嗎?〉,國立臺灣大學法學論叢,第46卷,第2期,2017年06月。
9.邱垂發,〈重大刑事案件論處死刑之相關法制問題研析(下)〉,國會季刊,第46卷第4期,2018年12月。
10.法務部司法官學院,〈高齡受刑人統計分析〉,刑事政策與犯罪防治研究專刊,第16卷,2018年03月。
11.陳玉林,〈我國現行成年假釋制度相關法律問題之研究〉,研究與動態,第12期,2005年06月01日。
12.陳志祥、陳荔彤,〈論我國如何從停止死刑到廢除死刑之立法政策〉,軍法專刊,第 56 卷,第 6 期,2010年12月。
13.陳淑貞,〈廢除死刑重大議題解析〉,全國律師,第15卷第8期,2011年08月15日。
14.許福生,〈臺灣死刑制度之回顧與展望〉,刑事政策與犯罪研究論文集,第20期,2017年11月。
15.張麗卿,〈臺灣死刑存廢之現況與解決〉,警察法學,第8期,2009年11月。
16.謝煜偉,〈寬嚴並進刑事政策之省思〉,月旦法學雜誌,第126期,2005年10月15日。
17.蕭宏宜,〈保安處分與罪刑法定〉,法令月刊,第 57卷,第4期,2006年04月。

(四)學位論文 (依作者姓氏筆劃排列)
1.陳志祥,《從國際人權法論罪刑相當原則》,國立臺灣海洋大學,法律研究所,碩士論文,2013年07月。
2.黃琪雯,《長刑期不得假釋受刑人在監適應及處遇需求之研究》,中央警察大學,犯罪防治研究所,碩士論文,2016年08月。

(五)其他 (網路新聞、網路資料、官方報告,依筆劃排列)
1.上報(2020/01/18),【職權上訴被動手腳】無期徒刑一審定讞 錢建榮轟:為法官開後門,檢自:https://www.upmedia.mg/news_info.php?SerialNo=79027
2.王士齊(2015/06/01),【讀者投書】以「終身監禁、不得假釋」取代死刑,「獨立評論@天下」,https://opinion.cw.com.tw/blog/profile/52/article/2903
3.內政部統計處(2020),〈內政統計通報〉,檢自:https://ws.moi.gov.tw/001/Upload/OldFile/news_file/109%E5%B9%B4%E7%AC%AC32%E9%80%B1%E5%85%A7%E6%94%BF%E7%B5%B1%E8%A8%88%E9%80%9A%E5%A0%B1_%E7%94%9F%E5%91%BD%E8%A1%A8.pdf
4.今日新聞NOWnews (2020/11/26),「最新民調:贊成「廢死」只有4.7%」,檢自:https://news.campaign.yahoo.com.tw/2020election/article.php?u=99e2a30b-4066-3654-9fd8-c5e96ffc9097
5.立法院公報(2004),第94卷,第二期(3384),上冊,院會紀錄。
6.立法院第8屆第8會期第1次會議議案關係文,收文編號:1040005391,https://lci.ly.gov.tw/LyLCEW/agenda1/02/pdf/08/08/01/LCEWA01_080801_00273.pdf
7.民視新聞(2020/09/07),「惡龍」張錫銘拚假釋 不滿遭駁回再提行政訴訟,檢自:https://www.ftvnews.com.tw/news/detail/2020907S01M1
8.光緒二十三年刑律草案,刑律(大清光緒新法令 第十九冊),檢自:http://web.nchu.edu.tw/~hftsai/downloads/course/library/1.pdf
9.自由時報(2015/06/01),「梁文傑重申不廢死 應立法增加終身監禁」,檢自:https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/politics/breakingnews/1335627
10.自由時報 (2015/02/02),「93歲服刑獄友當看護 還有老囚更高齡!」,檢自:https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/society/breakingnews/1221568
11.李佳玟(2020/10/27),「司法院會台字第11541號 盧恩本等聲請釋憲案爭點題綱一、二、四、五之鑑定意見」,檢自:https://cons.judicial.gov.tw/jcc/Uploads/files/yafen/4_%E9%91%91%E5%AE%9A%E4%BA%BA%E6%9D%8E%E4%BD%B3%E7%8E%9F%E6%95%99%E6%8E%88%E4%B9%8B%E9%91%91%E5%AE%9A%E6%84%8F%E8%A6%8B.pdf
12.吳景欽(2018/07/02),〈死刑存廢─用終身刑替代死刑,行不行?〉,ETtoday法律新聞,檢自: https://www.ettoday.net/news/20180702/1203457.htm#ixzz6ofVDn8p3
13.周怡孜(2016/03/31),「殺童處死刑或無期徒刑不得假釋?法務部:恐無裁量空間」,風傳媒。檢自:https://www.storm.mg/article/96657
14.法務部(2002/12/16),「中華民國法務部有關廢除死刑之政策」,檢自:https://www.moj.gov.tw/2204/2205/2323/2353/8712/
15.陳新民,《法務部委託研究計畫「廢除死刑暨替代方案之研究」期末報告》,2007年12月10日。檢自:https://www.moj.gov.tw/media/1714/7121118305576.pdf?mediaDL=true
16.歐陽夢萍(2020/03/23),「立委盼增終身監禁 每10年公投決定廢死與否」,中央廣播電台,檢自:https://www.rti.org.tw/news/view/id/2056640
17.蘋果新聞網(2020/09/30),「穿山甲」詹龍欄關18年出獄!34次求假釋破紀錄 回老家親友認不得,檢自:https://tw.appledaily.com/local/20200930/T3YHS45V7NFD5DHOPI76WFES5A/
18.Central News Agency(2015/06/01),「談廢死 柯文哲:用終身監禁取代死刑」,台灣英文新聞,檢自:https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/ch/news/2746795

二、簡體文獻
(一)專書
李贵方,《自由刑比较研究》,吉林人民出版社,1992年12月,一版。

(二)期刊論文 (依作者姓氏筆劃排列)
1.李立丰,〈终身刑:死刑废止语境下一种话语的厘定与建构〉,刑事法评论,第30卷,2012年。
2.黄礼登,〈德国终身自由刑的历史、根据与适用〉,中国应用法学,第3期,2019年05月30日。
3.黄永维、袁登明(2016),〈刑法修正案(九)中的终身监禁研究〉,法律适用,第3期。
4.张明楷,〈死刑的废止不需要终身刑替代〉,法学研究,2008年,02期。

(三)學位論文 (依作者姓氏筆劃排列)
1.张秀玲,《无期徒刑研究》,吉林大学,博士学位论文,2010年04月。
2.张新苏,《终身自由刑替代死刑制度研究》,吉林大学,博士论文,2013年。
3.廖晓玲,《中俄剥夺自由刑比较研究》,中国政法大学,硕士学位论文,2006年04月。

三、翻譯文獻 (依作者姓氏字母排列)
1.[意] Cesare Beccaria著/黄风译,《论犯罪与刑罚》,北京大学出版社,2008年11月一版。
2.[義]Cesare Beccaria著/李茂生譯,《犯罪與刑罰》,協志工業叢書,1993年5月一版。
3.[美]埃德温·萨瑟兰(Edwin Hardin Sutherland)、唐纳德·克雷西(Donald R. Cressey)和戴维·卢肯比尔(David F. Luckenbill)/吴宗宪等译,《犯罪学原理》(Principles of Criminology),中国人民公安大学出版社,2009年,第11版。
4.[德]Pit Koehler著/蔡瑩瑩譯,〈60年沒有死刑的德國〉,司法改革雜誌,第76期,2010年02月。
5.[法]Régis de Jorna著/李鎨澂譯,〈法國對於「無期徒刑重罪」 之刑罰與處遇〉,臺灣人權學刊,第3卷第2期,2015年12月。
6.《歐洲人權法院裁判選翻譯(三)》,司法院,2013年12月。

貳、外文文獻
一、日文文獻 (依作者姓氏五十音筆劃排列)
(一)專書
1.菊田幸一,《犯罪學》,成文堂,第六版,2005年01月10日。
2.斎藤靜敬、覺正豊和,《刑事政策論》,八千代,改訂版第一刷,2011年05月30日。
3.団藤重光 著,《死刑廃止論》,有斐閣,第六版,2000年04月30日。
4.日本弁護士連合会第59回人権擁護大会シンポジウム第3分科会実行委員会【編】,《死刑廃止と拘禁刑の改革を考える―寛容と共生の社会をめざして,第59回人権擁護大会シンポジウム第3分科会基調報告書》,2016年10月。
5.三原憲三,《死刑廃止の研究》,成文堂,第六版,2010年03月20日。

(二)期刊論文 (依作者姓氏五十音字母筆劃排列)
1.生田勝義,〈「終身刑」論と刑法のあり方(1)――国家的統制法の縮減と社会的調整(規整)法の展開,Control からregulation へ〉,立命館法学 ,2020年3号(391号)。
2.菊田幸一,〈長期受刑者の諸問題〉,法律論叢,第73卷,2001年。
3.謝如媛,〈台湾における仮釈放の動向—過剰収容と社会防衛の挟間に〉,神戶法學年報,第30卷,2017年11月24日。
4.吉開多一,〈英国の無期刑(3)―重大犯罪における行為と危険性との関係が問題になる一場面として―〉,國士舘法學第51号,2018年12月。
5.吉開多一,〈英国の無期刑(2) ―重大犯罪における行為と危険性との関係が問題になる一場面として―〉,國士舘法學,第50号,2017年12月。
6.吉開多一,〈英国の無期刑(1)-重大犯罪における行為と危険性との関係が問題になる一場面として-〉,国士舘法学,第49号,2016年12月。

(三)其他 (官方報告、民間報告,依五十音筆劃排列)
1.厚生労働省,〈令和元年簡易生命表の概況〉,檢自:https://www.mhlw.go.jp/toukei/saikin/hw/life/life19/index.html
2.日本弁護士連合会,〈死刑制度の廃止を求める要請書〉,2020年10月23日,檢自: https://www.nichibenren.or.jp/document/opinion/year/2020/201023.html
3.法務省,〈無期刑の執行状況及び無期刑受刑者に係る仮釈放の運用状況について〉,2020年11月,檢自:http://www.moj.go.jp/hogo1/soumu/hogo_hogo21.html

二、英文文獻
(一)專書 (依作者姓氏字母排列)
1.Leon Shaskolsky Sheleff (1987). Ultimate penalties : capital punishment, life imprisonment, physical torture, Columbus : Ohio State University Press.
2.Roger Hood, Carolyn Hoyle (2015), The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective. Oxford, the fifth edition.
3.Van Zyl Smit, D., & Appleton, C (2019), Life imprisonment a global human rights analysis. Harvard University, Harvard Law School.

(二)專書論文 (依作者姓氏字母排列)
1.Beatriz López Lorca (2016), “Life Imprisonment in Latin America”, in Van Zyl Smit, D., & Appleton, C. Life Imprisonment and Human Rights, Chapter 2 (2016), [Kindle version]. Retrieved from Amazon.com.
2.Francisco Javier de León Villalba (2016), “Long-Term Imprisonment in Latin America”, in Van Zyl Smit, D., & Appleton, C. Life Imprisonment and Human Rights, Chapter 14 , [Kindle version]. Retrieved from Amazon.com.
3.Inês Horta Pinto (2016), “Punishment in Portuguese Criminal Law: A Penal System without Life Imprisonment”, in Van Zyl Smit, D., & Appleton, C. Life Imprisonment and Human Rights, Chapter 12, [Kindle version].
4.Jessica S. Henry (2012), “Death-in-prison sentences: Overutilized and underscrutinized”, in Charles Ogletree and Austin Sarat, Eds, Life without parole: America’s new death penalty?
5.Lydia Bertram (2012), “Imprisonment as an Alternative to the Death Penalty. Historical Observations Complementary to an Emerging Discussion”, in Beyond the Death Penalty: The Development In Catholic Social Teaching, 1st edition.
6.Marie Gottschalk (2012), “No Way Out? Life Sentences and the Politics of Penal Reform”, in Charles Ogletree and Austin Sarat, Eds. Life without Parole: America’s New Death Penalty. New York: New York University Press.
7.Marion Vannier (2016), “A Right to Hope? Life imprisonment in France” in Van Zyl Smit, D., & Appleton, C (Eds.). Life Imprisonment and Human Rights, Chapter 8, [Kindle version]. Retrieved from Amazon.com.

(三)期刊論文 (依作者姓氏字母排列)
1.Ashley Nellis (2021), “No End In Sight: America’s Enduring Reliance on Life Imprisonment”, The Sentencing Project.
2.Ashley Nellis (2017) , “ Still Life - America’s Increasing Use of Life and Long-Term Sentences”, The Sentencing Project.
3.Ashley Nellis (2013), “Life Goes On: The Historic Rise in Life Sentences in America”, The Sentencing Project.
4.Ashley Nellis & Ryan S. King (2009), “No Exit: The Expanding Use of Life Sentences in America”, The Sentencing Project.
5.“A Matter of Life and Death: The Effect of Life-without-Parole Statutes on Capital Punishment” (2006). Harvard Law Review, 119(6).
6.Berry, William W (2015), “Life-with-Hope Sentencing: The Argument for Replacing Life-Without-Parole Sentences with Presumptive Life Sentences”. Ohio State Law Journal, C. 76, S. 5.
7.Catherine Appleton & Bent Grøver (2007), “The Pros and Cons of Life Without Parole”, The British Journal of Criminology 47 (4).
8.Craig S. Lerner (2015), “Who's Really Sentenced to Life Without Parole?: Searching for 'Ugly Disproportionalities' in the American Criminal Justice System” .
9.Craig S. Lerner (2013), “Life Without Parole as a Conflicted Punishment”, Wake Forest Law Review, Vol. 48.
10.Ergul Celiksoy (2019) ,“Ongoing Problem of Irreducible Life Sentences in Turkey”, European Journal of Crime Criminal Law and Criminal Justice 27.
11.Gomes, S., Leote de Carvalho, M.J., Oliveira, R.V., & Duarte, V. (2019), “Trends and challenges in the Portuguese penitentiary system: from law to practice”, IV International Symposium EDiSo, Santiago de Compostela.
12.Hartmut-Michael Weber (2006),“Life Imprisonment and Secure Preventative Detention: Problems and Pitfalls”, Zeitschrift fur Internationale Strafrechtsdogmatik 8.
13.Henry, J. S., Salvatore, C., & Pugh, B.-E. (2018). “Virtual Life Sentences: An Exploratory Study”. The Prison Journal, 98(3).
14.Jeffrey Abramson (2004), “Death-is-Different Jurisprudence and the Role of the Capital Jury”, Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, vol 2, no. 1.
15.Julian H. Wright, Jr (1990), “Life-Without-Parole: An Alternative to Death or Not Much of a Life at All?”, Vanderbilt Law Review 529.
16.Meritxell Abella´n Almenara & Dirk van Zyl Smit (2015), “Human Dignity and Life Imprisonment:The Pope Enters the Debate”, Human Rights Law Review, Volume 15, Issue 2.
17.Olga Semukhina & John F. Galliher (2009), “Death penalty politics and symbolic law in Russia,International Journal of Law Crime and Justice”.
18.Peter B. Hoffman (2003), “History of the Federal Parole System - Department of Justice”, U.S. Department of Justice United States Parole Commission.
19.Robert Blecker (2010), “Less than We Might: Meditations on Life in Prison Without Parole”. Federal Sentencing Reporter, Vol. 23, No. 1, NYLS Legal Studies Research Paper No. 10/11 #7.
20.Ross Kleinstuber ,Sandra Joy, & Elizabeth A. Mansley (2017), “Into the Abyss: The Unintended Consequences of Death Penalty Abolition”, 19 U. Pa. J.L. & Soc. Change 185.
21.Van Zyl Smit, D (2010), “Outlawing Irreducible Life Sentences: Europe on the Brink?”, Federal Sentencing Reporter, Vol. 23, No. 1, Life Without Parole.
22.Van Zyl Smit, D (2004), “The death penalty in Africa”, African Human Rights Law Journal.
23.Villaume, A. C. (2005). “Life Without Parole” and “Virtual Life Sentences”: Death Sentences by Any Other Name. Contemporary Justice Review, 8(3).
24.William W. Berry III (2015), “Life-with-Hope Sentencing: The Argument for Replacing Life-Without-Parole Sentences with Presumptive Life Sentences”, Ohio State Law Journal, vol. 76, no. 5.
25.William W. Berry III (2013), “The Mandate of Miller”, American Criminal Law Review, Vol. 51, No. 1.

(四)其他 (官方報告、民間報告、網路新聞,依字母排列)
1.Adam Liptak (2005/10/05), “Serving Life,With No Chance of Redemption; No Way Out: Dashed Hopes”, N.Y. TIMES. Retrieved from: http://www.wehaitians.com/serving%20life%20with%20no%20chance%20of%20redemption.html
2.Dan Boyd(2009/03/19) ,“Richardson Signs Bill Abolishing Death Penalty in N.M.” , Albuquerque Journal, Retrieved from: https://www.atlanticphilanthropies.org/news/richardson-signs-bill-abolishing-death-penalty-nm
3.Death Penalty Information Center, Retrieved from: https://deathpenaltyinfo.org/
4.Eric Slater (1995/03/03), “Pizza Thief Receives Sentence of 25 Years to Life in Prison : Crime: Judge cites five prior felony convictions in sentencing Jerry Dewayne Williams under ‘three strikes’ law”, Los Angles Times. Retrieved from: https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1995-03-03-me-38444-story.html
5.European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment ,CPT(2016), “Situation of life-sentenced prisoners─Extract from the 25th General Report of the CPT ”.
6.Jamie Satterfield (2009/08/27), “Life without Parole: Jury Rejects Death Penalty for Letalvis Cobbins”, Knox News, Retrieved from: http://archive.knoxnews.com/news/local/life-without-parole-jury-rejects-death-penalty-for-letalvis-cobbins-ep-409663624-359242891.html
7.Jean Bérard & Gilles Chantraine (2007/01), “walled up alive”, Vacarme, Retrieved from: https://vacarme.org/article1351.html
8.Mario M. Cuomo (1989/06/17), “New York State Shouldn't Kill People”, The New York Time, Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/1989/06/17/opinion/new-york-state-shouldn-t-kill-people.html
9.Matt Taibbi (2013/03/27), “Cruel and Unusual Punishment: The Shame of Three Strikes Laws”, Retrieved from: https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-news/cruel-and-unusual-punishment-the-shame-of-three-strikes-laws-92042/
10.Ministry of Justice, “National Statistics Offender management statistics quarterly: October to December 2020 and annual 2020”, Retrieved from: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/offender-management-statistics-quarterly-october-to-december-2020/offender-management-statistics-quarterly-october-to-december-2020-and-annual-2020--2
11.Ministry of Justice, “IPP Factsheet”, Available at: http://www.justice.gov.uk/downloads/legislation/bills-acts/legal-aid-sentencing/ipp-factsheet.pdf
12.News Porto(2017/06/30), Portugal abolished the death penalty 150 years ago, Retrieved from: https://www.porto.pt/en/news/portugal_abolished_the_death_penalty_150_years_ago
13.Pope Francis (2014/10/23), “Address of Pope Francis to the Delegates of the International Association of Penal Law”, Retrieved from: https://www.vatican.va/content/francesco/en/speeches/2014/october/documents/papa-francesco_20141023_associazione-internazionale-diritto-penale.html
14.Pope John Paul II (2000/6/24), “Message of His Holiness John Paul II for the Jubilee in Prisons”, Retrieved from: http://www.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/messages/pont_messages/2000/documents/hf_jp-ii_mes_20000630_jubilprisoners.html
15.The Catholic Leader (2013/07/21), “Pope approves new criminal laws”, Retrieved from: https://catholicleader.com.au/news/pope-approves-new-criminal-laws_85803/
16.Theresa Andrasfay & Noreen Goldman (2021),“Reductions in 2020 US life expectancy due to COVID-19 and the disproportionate impact on the Black and Latino populations”, Retrieved from: https://www.pnas.org/content/118/5/e2014746118
17.United Nations Office at Vienna Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Branch (1994), “Life imprisonment”, Available at: https://cdn.penalreform.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/UNODC-1994-Lifers.pdf
18.United States Sentencing Commission, “Life Sentences in the Federal System”, Retrieved from: https://www.ussc.gov/research/research-publications/life-sentences-federal-criminal-justice-system

三、判決 (依時間先後排列)
(一)歐洲人權法院
1.ECtHR, “Ilnseher v. Germany”, Applications nos. 10211/12 and 27505/14 (2018/12/04)
2.ECtHR, “Matiošaitis and Others v. Lithuania”, Applications no. 22662/13, 51059/13, 58823/13, 59692/13, 59700/13, 60115/13, 69425/13 and 72824/13 (2017/05/23)
3.ECtHR, “Hutchinson v. The United Kingdom”, Application no.57592/08. (2017/01/17)
4.ECtHR, “Murray v. The Netherlands”, Application no. 10511/10. (2016/04/26)
5.ECtHR, “Bodein v. France”, Application no. 40014/10. (2014/11/13)
6.ECtHR, “Khamtokhu and Aksenchik v. Russia”, Applications no. 60367/08 and 961/11, (2014/05/13)
7.ECtHR, “Vinter And Others v. The United Kingdom”, Application no. 66069/09, 130/10 and 3896/10. (2013/07/09)
8.ECtHR, “M. v. Germany” , Application no. 19359/04 (2009/12/17)
9.ECtHR, “Léger v. France” , Application no. 19324/02 (2009/03/30)
10.ECtHR, “Kafkaris v. Cyprus”, Application no.21906/04. (2008/02/12)
11.ECtHR, “Sawoniuk v. The United Kingdom”, Application no.63716/00, (2001/03/29)

(二) 英國
1. UK Royal Courts of Justice, “R v Newell;R v. McLoughlin”, Case No: 2013/05646/A7 & 2013/05317/A5. (2014/02/18)
2. England and Wales Court of Appeal, “Bieber (Aka Coleman) v. R”, (2008/6/23)

(三) 美國
1.State of Louisiana v. Fair Wayne Bryant, 300 So. 3d 392 (La. 2020)
2.Graham v. Florida, 560 U.S. (2010)
3.Kansas v. Hendricks, 521 U.S. 346 (1997).
4.Harmelin v. Michigan, 501 US 957 (1991)
5.Schick v. Reed, 419 U.S.(1974)
6.Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 (1972)

(五)其他
1.〔加拿大〕R. v. Bourque (J.C.), 2014 NBQB 237 (2014)
2.〔南非〕Constitutional Court of South Africa, S v Dodo (CCT 1/01) [2001] ZACC 16; 2001 (3) SA 382 (CC); 2001 (5) BCLR 423 (CC) (5 April 2001)
3.〔德國〕BVerfGE 45, 187(1977)
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
法律學系
107651052
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0107651052
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[法律學系] 學位論文

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