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The Development and Impacts of the Politicization of Civil Service System: With Reference to the U.K. Case
|Keywords:||文官體系政治化 ;政治回應性 ;功績制 ;文官選用 ;政治顧問 |
politicization of civil service ;political responsiveness ;meritocracy ;recruitment ;political advisors
|Abstract:||專業取才的功績制一向被視為現代化文官體制的核心原則，政治力介入文官的選用則被視為應極力避免的現象，然而過去十多年來大量出現的「文官體系政治化」（politicization of civil service）的研究主張文官的功績制有所侷限，文官體系的政治化在所難免。究竟文官體系政治化的意涵是什麼？呈現何種趨勢？對既有文官體系產生何種衝擊？是值得深入研究的課題。本研究首先爬梳國外文獻，從理論的角度探討文官體系政治化兩種主要的類型，第一種是擴大民選首長及其政務官對文官選用的影響力，以政治標準取代功績制標準選用文官，稱為文官選用的政治化，第二種是運用政治顧問強化對文官的溝通與管理，以提升其政治回應性。跨國調查資料的分析顯示大部分OECD國家政務領導者介入高階文官選用有增加的現象，政治顧問的人數也呈現增加的趨勢。英國個案分析的結果則顯示，不同政策或改革訴求可能引發文官系統政治化的需求，在選取文官的標準上，政策或改革理念比起政黨認同更為重要，選用的政治化可能使得文官不願意提供正直而坦白的政策建議，但並未使得文官系統走回政黨恩寵制，政治顧問的擴增則引發許多爭議以及後續制度上的改革。本文最後以跨國資料分析和英國個案探討的結果為基礎，就台灣文官體系政治化的研究與實務提出反省與建議。|
Most modern civil service systems are merit-based which place emphasis on the selection of civil servants based on their skills and abilities, rather than their political or personal connections. For the past decade or so, research on the politicization of the civil service has increased rapidly, arguing that merit-based selection has its limitation and there is an urgent need to enhance the political responsiveness of civil servants. Research on the meaning, the trend and the potential impacts of the politicization of civil service is needed. Based on the existing literature, this paper first explores the meanings and typology of the politicization of civil service. The first type of politicization refers to the recruitment of civil servant based on political criteria rather than merits. The second type of politicization is the increase of political advisors to make civil servants more responsive. The analysis of data from expert surveys demonstrates the increase in the degree of politicization in most countries. Furthermore, this papers analyzes the development of the politicization of the UK civil service. The change in the direction of policy of reform triggered the demand for the politicization of civil service, which led to civil servants' reluctance to provide free and frank advice. However, political patronage was not a major concern. The number of special advisors has increased. The inappropriate behaviors of special advisors raised many debates and consequently more regulations are put in practice. This paper concludes with some reflection on the idea of politicization and provides some suggestions on the development of the civil service in Taiwan.
|Relation:||公共行政學報, 59, 31-65|
|Appears in Collections:||[Journal of Public Administration] Journal Articles|
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