|Abstract: ||上海靈工團（Shanghai Federation of Pentecostal Churches）是中國五旬節派 在太平洋戰爭爆發後集數十餘間教會組合而成的聯合組織，其中包含使徒信心會、四方教會、神召會等有宗派背景的堂會，以及其他獨立堂會，至中日戰爭結束後，已經儼然形成一個近似宗派的五旬節派聯合教會，且具相當程度的自立地位。該團體整合上海一帶的五旬節教派以及有相關淵源的獨立堂會，兼具 合一運動和自立運動的特徵。近年來，英倫和歐陸若干大學院校的五旬節運動研究者，倡言所謂「全球五旬節派研究」（Global Pentecostal Studies），如此觀點實從「普世基督教」（World Christianity）面對基督教中心南移現象而看重非西方基督教（Non-Western Christianity）且不復以西方基督教為理解的範型和模 版的趨向而來。研究五旬節運動的學者因此主張去北美中心，重視「全球南方」 的五旬節派，但隨之而來的問題卻是泛化地視上述區域內的許多獨立教會為本土五旬節派。以中國或華人基督教而言，真耶穌教會即是一個慣常被學者認定的本土五旬節派案例，然而這與該會自我認同相左，亦忽略了1949 年之前與五旬節運動存在歷時性和共時性關係的若干本土五旬節派群體，上海靈工團即為其中一例。本文擬從二十世紀上半葉中國基督教合一運動與自立運動的意義以 及「普世基督教」和「全球五旬節派研究」的框架耙梳其歷史並進行探討。|
Shanghai Federation of Pentecostal Churches was a united association formed during the break out of the Pacific war, which includes congregations with Pentecostal denominational background such as Apostolic Faith Mission, Foursquare Church, Assemblies of God and a number of independent churches. At the end of Sino-Japanese war, it had become an autonomous Pentecostal united church that was similar to a denomination that integrated Pentecostal churches and church with Pentecostal ethos into this organization which was characterized by ecumenism and church independence. In recent years, the concept of Global Pentecostal Studies suggested by scholars of Pentecostalism from universities in UK and Europe, echoes the orientation of southward shifting of center of gravity of Christianity and Non-Western Christianity that “World Christianity” has been emphasizing. In other words, both Global Pentecostal Studies and “World Christianity” attempt to prevent from taking Western Christianity as a model or paradigm for understanding what Christianity has to be. With this tendency, scholars of Pentecostalism replace the past Americentrism in Pentecostal studies with a perspective from Pentecostals in the Global South. However, this new emphasis mentioned above has brought about a certain type of generalization to independent churches in this region that viewing and defining the former as indigenous Pentecostal churches. With respect to Chinese Christianity, the True Jesus Church has long been considered as a case of indigenous Chinese Pentecostal denomination. However, it violates not only the self-identity of the True Jesus Church but also does not allow the local Pentecostal groups to stay within the diachronic and synchronic network of the Pentecostal movement in pre-1949 era. Shanghai Federation of Pentecostal Churches is one of the cases. This article investigates the history of Shanghai Federation of Pentecostal Churches with reference to ecumenical movement and independent movement of Christianity in China at the first half of the twentieth century as well as “World Christianity” and Global Pentecostal Studies.