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Title: 跨越疆界-從伊斯蘭、家庭地位與社會階層探討埃及穆斯林婦女的移動
Crossing boundaries: Egyptian Muslim women's mobility from the perspectives of Islam, family status and social class
Authors: 陳芃彣
Chen, Peng-Wen
Contributors: 王經仁
Wang, Ching-Jen
Chen, Peng-Wen
Keywords: 埃及
Muslim women
The other
Date: 2021
Issue Date: 2021-11-01 12:23:43 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 在2011年的埃及革命中,穆斯林婦女離家參與示威抗議行動對於女性賦權極具象徵性意義-女人突破傳統性別空間的限制並進入過往幾乎只由男人統御的公共領域。然而,女性地位不只沒有因為革命的成功而獲得改善,她的移動依然受到家庭及社會規範的限制。移動是一項賦權,控制與限制女人的移動皆會加劇其原本就居於弱勢的處境。根據聯合國開發計劃署(UNDP)於2020年公佈的性別不平等指數(GII),埃及的性別不平等問題仍是國家發展必須面對的課題。

為剖析埃及穆斯林婦女移動的阻礙成因和其移動慣習的養成,本研究藉由四位埃及女性作家Alīfah Rifʿat、Nawāl al-Saʿdāwī、Leila Ahmed和Nayra Atiya的著作,以女性視角探析埃及穆斯林婦女的個人空間。研究發現,四位作家和其所描繪的埃及穆斯林婦女皆未將女人遭受的貶抑歧視歸因於伊斯蘭,而是認為父權體制才是導致女人受到壓迫與限制的主因。埃及穆斯林社會與伊斯蘭、父權體制交織形成的制度與規範,在鞏固男性霸權的同時,亦將女人箝制於傳統性別角色,使其不僅內化與服膺她在家庭與社會中作為他者的角色與職責,亦難以取得能夠助她奪回個人自主權的資源。

During the Egyptian Uprising of 2011, the advancement of Muslim women from home to participate in demonstrations has been interpreted as a significant symbol of women’s empowerment. The boundary crossing of gendered spaces and entrance into the public sphere, which was almost exclusively dominated by men in the past, is a progressive signal forward. Unfortunately, after the successful overthrow of Mubārak regime, the social status of Muslim women has not been realized. Social norms and family rules continue to constrain any perceived progress made by Muslim women. Mobility is a basic right and form of empowerment. Controlling and restricting a woman’s mobility will aggravate her disadvantaged situation. According to the Gender Inequality Index released by the United Nations Development Programme in 2020, gender inequality has been an important issue in Egypt which must be addressed in the national development strategies.

In order to explore the obstacles to the Egyptian Muslim Women’s mobility and the development of personal, autonomous mobility, this study analyzed the personal space of Egyptian Muslim women through the female perspective. This was based on the works of four Egyptian female authors Alīfah Rifʿat, Nawāl al-Saʿdāwī, Leila Ahmed and Nayra Atiya. Surprisingly, these authors did not attribute the derogation and discrimination that women suffered to Islam. Instead, they argue that the patriarchy is the primary cause of women’s oppressions and constraints. The institutions and norms formed by Muslim society, intertwined with a patriarchal system not only consolidated men’s dominance over women, but also held women back with their traditional gender roles. These roles made women submit themselves to domestic responsibilities and internalize their gender roles as the “Others” in the family and society. Consequently, it made it difficult for them to obtain the resources that might help them regain autonomy.

The social practice of Egyptian Muslim women’s mobility is in conflict between the existing habitus and women’s hope toward future. Due to limited access of resources as well as the obstacles and constraints they might encounter while moving, women turn to marriage and family to ensure their survival in the patriarchal society. Although their decision will only make them perpetuate their dependence on men and family, which gradually forms a passive attitude toward their mobility. In addition, the essential capital required for mobility also leads to the disagreement on the issue of freedom of movement among women from different social classes. This is a primary reason why they have not become sufficiently strong to compete with patriarchal institutions and the ruling class that have put restrictions on their mobility.
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