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Title: 修辭視野下的《墨子.兼愛》三篇
The Three Chapters of "Jian ai" in Mozi from a Rhetorical Perspective
Authors: 張書豪
Chang, Shu-hao
Contributors: 政大中文學報
Keywords: 墨子 ; 墨家 ; 修辭 ; 十論 ; 兼愛 
Mozi ; Mohist ; Rhetoric ; Ten Core Chapters ; Jian Ai
Date: 2020-12
Issue Date: 2021-11-16
Abstract: 本文試圖從「可能說服方式」的修辭視野,探究〈兼愛〉之所以分成三篇的原因。比對三篇,可以看到修辭策略的失敗嘗試,作為關鍵用語「兼」字詞義、詞性的轉變,反方意見的對換調整,以及未經證實前提的挪移安頓。這些變動,都符合修辭意義上,為了說服的有效性所作的努力。據此可排列出〈兼愛〉從上篇到中篇,最後到下篇的論證次序,勾勒出觀念衍變的修辭系譜。這並不表示兼愛理論的建構隨著下篇的完成而終止。單靠一個兼愛理論是不夠的,還要擴充到其他論點,構築出更大的理論網絡(「十論」),個別論點才有機會互相支持,有效成立。正是在這種命題不確定而所論趨向又大抵一致的情形中,可以看出古代思想家調整說服方式的運作概況。因為,他們並非在給定的題目下展開論證。而是正在思索真理的過程中,不斷充實、深化論題的意義與性質。
From the rhetorical perspective of "possible persuasion methods," the article attempts to investigate the reasons why "jian ai" was divided into three chapters. Comparing these three chapters, we can see failed endeavors of rhetorical strategies: changing the meaning and part of speech of the word "jian" as the key term, exchanging and adjusting the opposition side's opinions, and relocating and settling unverified premises. In terms of rhetorical significance, however, these changes are consistent with the effort made for the validity of persuasion. This is sufficient to support the article's argument that the three chapters follow an irreversible rhetorical sequence of evolution of ideas, from the first chapter to the second chapter and finally to the third chapter. This does not mean that the construction of "jian ai" theory ends with the completion of the third chapter though. Solely relying on the theory of "jian ai" is not enough; it is necessary to expand it to other arguments and build a larger theoretical network ("Ten Core Chapters"), so that the individual arguments are able to support and validate one another. It is in this kind of situation where the proposition is uncertain but the orientation of arguments generally tends to be consistent, that we can take an overview of how ancient thinkers adjusted their persuasion methods. They did not develop arguments limited to a given topic but constantly enriched and deepened a proposition's meaning and nature in the process of contemplating the truth.
Relation: 政大中文報, 34, 19-44
Data Type: article
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Appears in Collections:[政大中文學報 THCI Core] 期刊論文

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