Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/137759


Title: 義利分途與道德意識的優位性-馮從吾〈善利圖〉等相關圖式釐析
The Divergent Paths of Righteousness and Selfishness and the Prepotency of Moral Awareness: An Analysis of Feng Congwu's "Diagram of Righteousness and Selfishness" and Related Diagrams
Authors: 游騰達
Yu, Teng-ta
Contributors: 政大中文學報
Keywords: 馮從吾 ; 義利之辨 ; 〈舜蹠圖〉 ; 〈誠幾圖〉 ; 以圖論理 
Feng Congwu ; distinguishing righteousness and selfishness ; "The Diagram of Shun and Zhi" ; "The Diagram of Sincere Thoughts" ; using diagrams to discuss principle
Date: 2020-12
Issue Date: 2021-11-16
Abstract: 本文以明代晚期關學代表人物-馮從吾(少墟,1557-1627)於萬曆24年(丙申,1596年)在寶慶寺講學,繪製與撰作而成的〈善利圖〉及其〈圖說〉為例,探討往昔學者如何透過圖象化的方式來表述關於行動意志之辨析-「義利之辨」等相關的抽象概念。首先,說明〈善利圖〉之繪製所根據的《論語》、《孟子》文獻。繼之,以此線索展開相關圖式的溯源與比較工作,亦即將該圖式對比於范浚(香溪,1102-1150)的〈舜蹠圖〉,以及許謙(白雲,1270-1337)、程復心(林隱,1257-1340)等人對《論語.述而》「聖人吾不得而見」章的圖象論述。第三,又藉由同屬關學陣營中後繼學者王建常(復齋,1615-1701)、王弘撰(山史,1622-1702)等人的評議,省思馮氏〈善利圖〉的可議之處,進而再將該圖式對比於《朱子文集》卷59中所收錄的〈誠幾圖〉,以省思圖式繪製的哲學理據。繼之,說明三種圖式的差異,乃在對「善、利」概念的觀察視域與論述角度的不同,更包括了對「善、利」意念的理解與體會。最後,期望透過本研究掘發這些作品所具有的「圖文互詮」之表述特點,以及能為宋明理學傳統中「以圖論理」的學術思潮提供一明確的例證,以激發更多的挖掘與研究。
This study takes the "Diagram of Righteousness and Selfishness" ("Diagram") and "An Explanation of the Diagram of Righteousness and Selfishness" by the Ming Dynasty Neo-Confucian scholar Feng Congwu (pseudonym Shaoxu, 1557-1627) as an example, to discuss how in the past scholars used diagrams as a method to show their analysis of the tendency of human will to be righteous or to be selfish. First, this paper explains how the drawing of the Diagram was made according to the content of the Analects and the Mencius. Second, a comparison is made between the Diagram and other similar diagrams including the "Diagram of Shun and Zhi" by Fan Jun (pseudonym Xiangxi, 1102-1150) and the diagram made by Xu Qian (pseudonym Baiyun, 1270-1337) and Cheng Fuxin (pseudonym Linyin, 1257-1340) to demonstrate the meaning of the "a sage is not mine to see" paragraph of "Shu Er" in the Analects. Third, this paper references debates and criticisms among scholars such as Wang Jianchang (pseudonym Fuzhai, 1615-1701), Wang Hongzhuan (pseudonym Shanshi, 1622-1702), etc. to reflect on the deficiencies found within the Diagram. Furthermore, it compares the Diagram with the "Diagram of Sincerity Thoughts" in volume 59 of the Collected Writings of Zhuzi, to contemplate the philosophical foundation of the making of diagrams. The paper then makes a comparison of these three diagrams, and explains that the differences are due to varying perspectives in regard to observation and discussion methods, as well as different ways of comprehending ideas related with "righteousness" and "selfishness." Finally, the author aims to explore the expressive characteristics of "diagram and text interpreting each other," as illustrated by above diagrams and related texts, and to provide clear evidence for the academic trend of "using diagrams to discuss principle" in the Song-Ming Neo-Confucian tradition, with the hope to lead to further research in this area.
Relation: 政大中文報, 34, 123-167
Data Type: article
DOI 連結: https://doi.org/10.30407/BDCL.202012_(34).0005
Appears in Collections:[政大中文學報 THCI Core] 期刊論文

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