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The Development of Constitutional Review in China
|Keywords:||合憲性審查 ; 憲法監督 ; 人大制度 ; 依法治國 ; 習近平 |
Constitutional Review ; Constitutional Supervision ; the People's Congress System ; Rule by Law ; Xi Jinping
|Issue Date:||2021-11-17 09:13:13 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||習近平接班後強調「依法治國」道路，讓合憲性審查的議題重新浮上檯面。延續江澤民、胡錦濤時期從《立法法》到《監督法》之基礎，雖然進一步規範合憲性審查的機關、對象、啟動主體與程序。但迄今為止，依然存在審查體系不統一、審查程序不透明以及迄今無審查法律之紀錄。突出的是尋求國家權力法制化，並維護法制統一的等級體系。但是在審查的程序中，從申請到進入正式審查的制度通道太長，在進入法規備案程序，針對法規進行修廢，或透過人大解釋與修法，藉此來消化、彌補法律體系內的漏洞與歧異。使得中共在「解決問題」的同時，實際上迴避了對法律合憲性進行審查和判斷的可能 ; 也讓強調「他律」的法治精神，最終被「自律」的組織運作所取代。這也意味在威權憲法架構下，中國大陸的合憲性審查及其判斷，在本質上始終遵從黨的領導的絕對性與權力分工邏輯。|
Since succeeding Hu Jintao, Xi Jinping has made a continuous effort to reform law-based governance and promote the issue of constitutional review. He has maintained the foundational legislation and supervision laws while further defining the guidelines for constitutional review under the NPC Standing Committee (NPCSC). The purpose of constitutional review is to revoke and correct administrative and regional legislation that is incompatible with the terms and the spirit of the Constitution and ensure the uniformity of regulations within its framework. While the CCP has maintained the constitutional review mechanism put in place by the NPCSC, the NPCSC has yet to deem a law or administrative action unconstitutional. The current review system's focus on legality has directed attention away from the goal of constitutional review. This means that under the framework of the party-state regime, the work of constitutional review is always undertaken under the leadership of the CCP, and this work is divided between the party and state departments. Though a working procedure for constitutional review has been created, the activation process remains in its initial stage, and the potential for meaningful constitutional review is limited.
|Relation:||東亞研究, 51(1), 77-113|
|Appears in Collections:||[East Asia Studies] Periodical Articles|
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