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Title: 氣有體用:論王植對《正蒙》闡釋的一個向度
Qi includes Substance (ti) and Function (yong): Wang Zhi's Interpretation of Zhang Zai's Correcting Ignorance Reconsidered
Authors: 申祖勝
Shen, Zu-Sheng
Contributors: 政治大學哲學學報
Keywords: 王植 ; 正蒙初義 ; 太虛三層義 ; 氣有體用 
Wang Zhi ; The Original Meaning of Correcting Ignorance ; three aspects of meaning of the Great Vacuity ; qi includes substance and function
Date: 2021-01
Issue Date: 2021-11-17 16:19:14 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 《正蒙》一書素以難讀著稱,而朱子對張載理氣心性論的詮釋,又長時期的影響了學者們對張載氣學的理解。作為明清時期收集《正蒙》諸注最為完整的作品之一,王植《正蒙初義》一書嘗試跳出朱子學的詮釋框架,重新反思張載所面對的哲學問題與解決方式,在歷代《正蒙》諸注中,是很有代表性的一家。王植因洞見到以往《正蒙》注以「理」解「太虛」,而將「太虛」虛位化所產生的理論困境,故極力主張以「張子之說還張子」。王植闡釋《正蒙》有一明顯基調,亦即其極為反對體用殊絕、形上形下截然割裂之論。在對《正蒙》的具體闡釋上,王植以對「太虛」三層義的闡發為「入手關頭」,又以「氣有體用」把握張載哲學的整個義理架構。在他看來,張載的哲學既不是自然主義的惟氣論,也不是超絕的道論,而是承體起用的體用論。站在今天的角度看,王植也只是張載的詮釋者,其基於自身理解與理論立場而對《正蒙》之詮釋,未必都符合張載本意。如他以虛氣自為體用串言《正蒙》,雖有助於張載哲學之廓清辨明,但不免予人以《正蒙》是以「氣」為第一序之印象,無形中淡化了張載之藉「氣論」以闡明天人一貫之道的理論主旨,「氣論」實非張載之理論目的。儘管如此,在對張載哲學的詮釋力度與文獻解讀方面,《正蒙初義》仍稱得上是一個成功的注本,也是研究明清《正蒙》學所不可忽略的文獻。
Zhang Zai's Correcting Ignorance is known for its obscure content. Zhu Zi's interpretation of it, based on the theory of li-qi and xin-xing, has a great influence on later philosophers' discussions on the topic. Wang Zhi's book The Original Meaning of Correcting Ignorance, as one of most complete collections of commentaries on Correcting Ignorance during the Ming and Qing dynasties, nevertheless attempts to go beyond the interpretive framework provided by Zhu Zi and present a new approach to revisit the philosophical problems faced by Zhang Zai, and his contributions. The basic gist of Wang Zhi's interpretation of Correcting Ignorance revolves around the idea of rejecting the division of substance (ti) and function (yong). Many previous commentarial works on Correcting Ignorance tend to explain the concept of the Great Vacuity in terms of li. However, Wang Zhi argues that this understanding of the Great Vacuity is theoretically problematic because it would lead to the unacceptable result of deconstructing the concept of the Great Vacuity. Specifically, Wang Zhi starts with the analysis of three aspects of the meaning of the Great Vacuity, and then examines the structure of Zhang Zai's philosophy based on the idea that qi is consisted of substance and function. In his view, Zhang Zai's philosophy is neither a naturalistic theory of qi nor a transcendental theory of the Way (dao), but a theory of substance-function, focusing on that substance is necessarily realized in its function. From today's perspective, Wang Zhi, as one of numerous interpreters of Zhang Zai's philosophy, is certainly confined to his own understanding and theoretical position, and his interpretation of Correcting Ignorance may not strictly conform to Zhang Zai's real thoughts. Nevertheless, Wang Zhi's interpretation of Correcting Ignorance, from the perspective of hermeneutics and considering its explanatory power, does count as a distinguished commentarial work, which cannot be ignored in the study of the philosophy of Correcting Ignorance in the Ming and Qing dynasties.
Relation: 政治大學哲學學報, 46, 27-71
Data Type: article
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