Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/138023


Title: 聊天機器人機制融入英語數位學習之整合型科技接受模型分析
UTAUT Model for Evaluating the use of Chatbots in EFL Learning
Authors: 周詩雅
Chou, Shih-Ya
Contributors: 陳聖智
蔡欣叡

Chen, Sheng-Chih
Tsai, Hsin-Ruey

周詩雅
Chou, Shih-Ya
Keywords: 聊天機器人
使用者體驗
英語學習
素養
整合型科技接收模型
Chatbots
User experience
English learning
Literacy
Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology
Date: 2021
Issue Date: 2021-12-01 14:47:10 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 隨著數位學習時代的進步,資訊科技融入教學逐漸趨於成熟且多元,透過網際網路在平台中提供使用者各種交流與互動,為資訊分享達到聯繫、學習的目的。學習方式的改變,不再局限於傳統的課程講述而是與生活接軌,學習者為學習中心的教學方式,也為當今教育改革的主軸。這也顯示隨著知識經濟下與後疫情時代數位服務的需求增加,在創新科技推動模式從「技術導向」轉為重視「需求導向」,面對未來環境中借重科技學習的趨勢,以及對於新媒介科技使用,所需要建立的關鍵核心素養為之重要。
近年來AI機器學習、自然語言處理的進步,自科技大廠紛紛宣布開放Chatbot API後,已發展出不同的應用,教育型聊天機器人在教育界中作為學習者在娛樂、語言學習、及教學上的工具,已有實際案例,卻缺乏相關文獻以了解背後之歸因。因此本研究旨在探討數位工具導入英語數位學習之應用,應用聊天機器人之多媒體形式互動的學習歷程,了解學習過程中的自我學習的態度與動機,以期能對學習者有利與幫助學習。研究透過使用者測試、訪談、分析回饋,納入互動相關概念,也利用問卷調查班級學生共29位,與2位專家進行半結構式訪談,並搜集7位學習者的使用者訪談回饋與觀察後,整理出實際使用行為與回饋。
研究結果發現,數位工具導入英語數位學習之應用對使用者行為與回饋上有正向的影響,而分群為高低成就學生,兩者間在系統特性上都一致認同聊天機器人具有互動性,而差異在於學習高成就的學習者較重視系統特性的持續性與反覆性,學習低成就的學習者則是重視系統特性的鼓勵與回應。而在教材特性回饋上,學習者會因為與生活的想像連結、課外補充而加以使用;最後學習者認為使用聊天機器人更能夠完成複習跟精進英語,進一步加強學習與補充課外知識為之重要。
With the advancement of the digital learning era, the integration of information technology into teaching has gradually become more mature and diversified. Through the Internet, various exchanges and interactions are provided on the platform for users to communicate and learn information sharing. The changes in learning methods are no longer limited to traditional curriculum narration but are in line with life. The learner-centered teaching method is also the main axis of today's education reform. This also shows that with the increasing demand for digital services in the knowledge economy and in the post-epidemic era, the mode of promoting innovation and technology has shifted from “technology-oriented” to “demand-oriented”. The key core qualities that need to be established for the use of media technology are important.
In recent years, the advancement of AI machine learning and natural language processing has developed different applications since major technology companies announced the opening of the Chatbot API. Educational chatbots are used as learners in the education industry in entertainment, language learning, and teaching. There are actual cases, but there is a lack of relevant literature to understand the underlying attribution. Therefore, this research aims to explore the application of digital tools into English digital learning, and the interactive learning process of using the multimedia form of chatbots to understand the attitude and motivation of self-learning in the learning process, to be beneficial to learners and help to learn. Through user testing, interviews, and analysis of feedback, the research incorporates interactive concepts. It also uses questionnaires to survey a total of 26 students in the class, conducts semi-structured interviews with experts, and collects user interview feedback and observations from 7 learners. Show actual user behavior and effectiveness.
The results of the study found that the introduction of digital tools into the application of English digital learning has a positive impact on user behavior and feedback, and the groups are divided into high and low achievement students. Both of them agree that chat robots are interactive in terms of system characteristics, but there are differences. It is that learners with high achievements pay more attention to the continuity and repetition of system characteristics, while learners with low achievements pay more attention to the encouragement and response of system characteristics. In terms of feedback on the characteristics of textbooks, learners will use them because they are connected to their imaginations in life and supplementary extracurricular. In the end, learners think that using chat robots can better complete reviews and improve English, and it is important to further strengthen learning and supplement extracurricular knowledge.
Reference: 王全興(2008)。認知負荷理論及在其e化學習的應用。慈濟大學教育研究學刊,4,173 - 194。

王宏仁(2017)。Chatbot三大技術關鍵與最新研究方向。上網日期: 2021年5月23日。檢自:http://www.ithome.com.tw/news/ 113445。


古明地正俊、長谷佳明(2020)。AI大局:鳥瞰人工智慧技術全貌,重塑AI時代的領導力。臺北市 : 旗標。

朱敬先(1997)。教育心理學:教學取向。臺北:五南。

朱蕙君、孫之元、賴秋琳(2020)。數位學習科技期刊特殊主題: XR學習融入教學。數位學習科技期刊,12(3)。


何文瓊(2018)。以整合性科技接受模式探討教師使用智慧型手機教學之意願與行為。吳鳳科技大學應用數位媒體研究所碩士論文,嘉義縣。

吳昀臻、鄭雅婷(2020)。淺談鷹架理論與課程的效益。臺灣教育評論月刊,9(2),69 - 73。

吳清山(2020)。新冠肺炎疫情時代教育治理之探究。教育行政與評鑑學刊,27,1 - 28。

呂雪彗、郭佩凌(2018)。政院2030打造臺灣成雙語國家願景。取自:https:// www.chinatimes.com/realtimenews/20181206002636-260407。

宋曜廷、張國恩、侯惠澤(2005)。資訊科技融入教學:借鏡美國經驗,反思臺灣發展。教育研究集刊,51(1),31 - 62。

李佳穗(2004)。數位學習平台對不同年資員工學習成果之探討。銘傳大學,未出版碩士論文,臺北市。

李美慧(2001)。科技接受模式在非同步網路學習系統使用意向之應用。中正大學,未出版碩士論文,嘉義縣。
李展全、李雅靖(2011)。英語學習市場之資源競爭研究-以區位理論分析。中原企管評論,9(1),53 - 73。

李雅筑、侯良儒(2020)。雲端教育大爆發:病毒比108課綱更快翻轉學習觀念!觸發遠 距商機。商業周刊,1963,48 - 57。

李鎮宇、吳欣蓉、郭慧中(2011)。數位學習科技化教學教材發展趨勢,課程研究期刊,6(1),1 - 26。

沈中偉、黃國禎(2012)。科技與學習理論與實務。台北市:心理出版社。

谷瑞勉(2001)。教室中的維高斯基:仲介的讀寫教學與評量。台北:心理出版社。

岳修平(2003)。網路英語教學資源與支援。上網日期:2021年5月5號。檢自:http://cmp.nkuht.edu.tw/cu/htm/artical/artical-11.htm。

林淑媛(2018)。英語學習素養,從生活中培養。上網日期:2021年5月5日。檢自:https://flipedu.parenting.com.tw/article/4376。

林淑惠、黃韞臻(2009)。大專院校學生英語學習現況與學習環境之分析。臺中教育大學學報, 23(1),153 - 173。

林鈺娟(2019),以整合性科技接受模式探討國中教師使用補救教學科技化評量系統意願之研究-以雲林縣國中教師為例。吳鳳科技大學碩士論文,嘉義縣。

林維真(2012)。圖書館學與資訊科學大辭典。上網日期:2021年7月5號。檢自:http://terms.naer.edu.tw/detail/1678794。

施宥廷(2016)。英語學習動機與學習困擾:理論的觀點。嘉義大學教育系碩士,臺灣教育評論月刊,5(7),111 - 128。

洪詠善(2020)。停課不停學:當自主學習成為日常。課程研究期刊,15(1),15 - 33。

計畫辦公室(2002)。計畫清單:數位典藏與數位學習國家型科技計畫(行政院國家科學委員會數位典藏與數位學習國家型科技計畫技術報告)。臺北市:中央研究院資訊科技創新研究中心。

涂豐恩(2014)。〈數位人文的國際趨勢〉,國史研究通訊,7,15 - 20。

翁雅萍(2009)。線上英語資源與大學生英語學習動機之研究-以高師大為例。

行政院國家科學委員會補助大專學生參與專題研究計畫研究成果報告,未出版。

高翎紘、吳政叡(2016)。英語數位資源的學習動機與滿意度之研究:以輔仁大學大學部學生為例。圖資與檔案學刊,89,77 - 107。

國家教育研究院(2018)。十二年國民基本教育課程綱要國民中小學暨普通型高級中等議題融入說明手冊。上網日期:2021年6月3日。檢自:https://cirn.moe.edu.tw/WebContent/index.aspx?sid=11&mid=5800。

張春興(1994)。教育心理學:三化取向的理論與實踐。臺北:東華。

張春興(1998)。教育心理學:三化取向的理論與實踐(2版)。臺北:東華。

張偉男、劉挺(2016)。「聊天機器人技術的研究進展」,中國人工智能學會通訊,6(1),17 - 20。

張嘉倩(2015)。網路資源與自主學習:以理學院大一英文混合型教學為例。東吳外語學報,40,1 - 36。

張瓊穗(2012)。圖書館學與資訊科學大辭典。上網日期:2021年6月10號。檢自:http://terms.naer.edu.tw/detail/1678794。


教育部(2014)。《十二年國民教育課程綱要總綱》。上網日期:2021年5月20號。檢自:https://cirn.moe.edu.tw/Facet/Home/index. aspx?HtmlName=Home&ToUrl=。


莊秀儒(2011)。探討Live ABC數位學習系統對EFL國小學童英語學習動機之影響。圖資與檔案學刊,89,77 - 107。


莊哲宜(2019)。以整合性科技接受模式來探討台北市國小教師使用平板電腦融入教學之意願。樹德科技大學碩士論文,高雄市。

許筱芸(2004)。探討現有電腦輔助語言學習教材在英語閱讀策略上之分析。淡江大學,未出版碩士論文,台北市。

陳又菱、孫之元、陳薇暄(2020)。行動社群應用軟體融入美感教育活動對大學生的美感經驗與情境興趣之影響:以Instagram為例。數位學習科技期刊,12(2),1 - 24。



陳聖智(2021)。後疫情時代的數位傳播—科技創新、智慧教育、與數位人文的觀點。人文與社會科學簡訊,22(3),66 - 72。


陳舜文、魏嘉瑩(2013)。大學生學習動機之「雙因素模式」:學業認同與角色認同之功能。中華心理學刊,55(1),41 - 55。

陳德懷、黃亮華(2003)。邁向數位學習社會。台北市:遠流。

單文經(1993)。鷹架支持的譬喻在大班教學上的應用。視聽教育雙月刊,39(6),1 - 22。

楊家興(2001)。「網路虛擬教室的完全設計」。國立空中大學管理與資訊學報,6,113 - 134。


楊偲敏(2005)。學習風格對線上課程學習成效之影響。網路社會學通訊期刊,44,檢自:http // mail.nhu.tw /〜society / e-j / 44 / 44- 06.htm。


楊惠合(2004)。以科技接受模型探討數位學習滿意度之研究。大葉大學,碩士論文,彰化縣。


楊愛嬋、楊愛施(2010)。九年一貫國小英語教學之現況調查。檢自:http://research.ctu.edu.tw/vra/resources/99/11407/B02/733/5/f8ed86eb3096cffe0130d
。

經濟部工業局(2019)。《108年數位內容產業年鑑》。上網日期:2021年5月13日。檢自:https://deipo.org.tw/?page_id-40
。

廖柏森(2005)。以英語為國際語EIL之義涵與教學觀。英語教學 English Teaching & Learning,30(1),1 - 14。


廖健智(2019)。國小社會科聊天機器人之學習成效研究。南華大學資訊管理學碩士論文,嘉義縣。

陳柏廷(2021)。以對話引導空間景色感受之LINE對話機器人介面設計研究。清華大學學習科學與科技所碩士論文,新竹市。


劉政宏(2009)。對學習動機最有影響力的動機成分?雙核心動機模式之初探。教育心理學報,41(2),361 - 384。


潘世尊(2002)。教學上的鷹架要怎麼搭。屏東師院學報,16,263 - 294。

薛雅純(2019)。以均一教育平台實施差異化教學之實務見解。臺灣教育評論月刊,8(1),頁 245 - 248。


韓善民(2000)。資訊教育推動現況與展望。資訊與教育,77,3 - 7。

Agbatogun, A. O., Ajelabi, P. A., Oyewusi, L. M., & Inegbedion, J. (2011). Computer-Assisted Programmed Instruction Revisited: A Study on Teaching Typewriting in Nigeria Higher Institution. Asian Journal of Information Technology. 10 (2), 60-64.


Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50 (2), 179-211.


Andrade, M. S. (2015). Effective e-learning and e-teaching - a theoretical model. In B. Gradinarova (Ed.). E-Learning: Instructional Design, Organizational Strategy and Management. Retrieved from: https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/48924.


Anshari, M., Alas, Y. B., & Guan, L. S. (2015). Pervasive Knowledge, Social Networks, and Cloud Computing: E-Learning 2.0. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 11 (5), 909-921.


Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37 (2), 122–147.

Barnard, L., Paton, V.O., & Lan, W. Y. (2010). Profiles in self-regulated learning in the online learning environment. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 11 (10), 61-80.

Barua, A., Kriebel, C. H., & Mukhopadhyay, T. (1995). "Information Technologies and Business Value: An Analytic and Empirical Investigation". Information Systems Research, 6 (1), 3-23.

Bax, S. (2003). The end of CLT: A context approach to language teaching. ELT Journal, 57, 278-287.

Berge (1998). Barriers to online teaching in post-secondary institutions: Can policy changes fix it. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration 1 (2), 1-12.

Bhattacherjee, A. (2001). An empirical analysis of the antecedents of electronic commerce service continuance. Decision support systems, 32 (2), 201-214.

Bickmore, T. W., Schulman, D., & Sidner, C. (2013). Automated interventions for multiple health behaviors using conversational agents. Patient education and counseling, 92 (2), 142-148. 

Burns, J., Clift, J., & Duncan, J. (1990). Understanding of Under-standing: Implications for Learning and Teaching. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 61, 276-289.

Casarotti, M., Filipponi, L., Pieti, L., & Sartori, R. (2002). Educational interaction in distance learning: Analysis of a one-way video & two-way audio system. PsychNology Journal, 1 (1), 28–38.

Chang, M.-H. & Ning, L.-H. (2021). The use of English in linguistics classes. Chinese-Speaking Regions, 97-123.

Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2008). E-learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning (2nd ed.). E-Learning and the Science of Instruction, Pfeiffer.

Clark, U. (2019). Language, Literacy and Pedagogy, in Developing Language and Literacy in English across the Secondary School Curriculum. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Cross, J. & Dublin, L. (2002). Implementing E-learning. Alexandria: ASTD Press.

Davis, Fred D. (1989). Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology. MIS Quarterly, 13 (3), 319-340.

Dey, P., & Bandyopadhyay, S. (2019). Blended learning to improve quality of primary education among underprivileged school children in India. Educ Inf Technol 24, 1995-2016.

Dotterer, A., & Lowe, K. (2011). Classroom Context, School Engagement, and Academic Achievement in Early Adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 1649-1660.

Graham, S. (2020). An attributional theory of motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61 (101861), 1-11.

Graham, S., & Weiner, B. (2012). Motivation: Past, present, & future. In K. R. Harris, S. educational psychology handbook, Theories, constructs, and critical issues, 367-397. 

Graham, S., L. Courtney, A. Tonkyn & T. Marinis. 2016. Motivational trajectories for early language learning across the primary-secondary school transition. British Educational Research Journal, 42 (4), 682-702.

Green, B. & Beavis, C. (2012). Literacy in 3D: An integrated perspective in theory and practice. Sydney: ACER.

Hattie, J., Hodis, F. A., & Kang, S. H. K. (2020). Theories of motivation: Integration and ways forward. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61, 101865. 

Huffaker, D. A., & Calvert, S. L. (2003). The new science of learning: Active learning, metacognition, and transfer of knowledge in e-learning applications. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 29 (3), 325-334.

Hughes, C. & Hewson, L. (1998). Effective teaching on the Net: Going homegrown to meet educational needs. Australian Society for Educational Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.aset.org.au/confs/edtech98/pubs/articles/hughes.html

Hung, C. Y., Sun, J. C-Y., & Liu, J. Y. (2019). Effects of flipped classrooms integrated with MOOCs and game-based learning on the learning motivation and outcomes of students from different backgrounds. Interactive Learning Environments, 27 (8), 1028-1046.

Hwang, R. H., Lin, H. T., Sun, J. C-Y., & Wu, J. J. (2019). Improving learning achievement in science education for elementary school students via blended learning. International Journal of Online Pedagogy and Course Design, 9 (2), 44-62.

Jonassen, D. H., Peck, K. L., & Wilson, B. G. (1999). Learning with computer technology: A constructivist approach. Princeton, New Jersey: Merrill.

Kennewell, S. (1995). Education for IT capability: progress and barriers in South Wales schools. Welsh Journal of Education, 4, 81-94.

Kerly, A., Hall, P., & Bull, S. (2007). Bringing chatbots into education: Towards natural language negotiation of open learner models. Knowl. Based Syst., 20, 177-185.

Khan, B.H. (1997). Web-Based Instruction: What Is It and Why Is It? In: Khan, B.H., Ed., Web-Based Instruction. Educational Technology Publications, Englewood Cliffs, 5-18.

Liao, G. Z. (2015). An Exploration of Cognitive Model Based on Interactive Learning for Taiwan Toy-based Behavioral History. The International Journal of Learner Diversity and Identities, 23(1), 1-19.

Ling, Wei & Fei, Zhu & Wensi, Li. (2020). Investigation on the Feasibility of Integrating Chinese Culture into Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language.

Liu, X., Magjuka, R. J., Bonk, C. J., & Lee, S. (2007). Does sense of community matter? An examination of participants’ perceptions of building learning communities in online courses. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 8 (1), 9-24.

Love, K., Macken-Horarik, M., & Horarik, S. (2015). Language knowledge and its application: A snapshot of Australian teachers’ views. AJLL. 38 (3), 171-182.

MacIntyre, P. D., & Rebecca, R. A. (2012). Action control, motivated strategies, and integrative motivation as predictors of language learning affect and the intention to continue learning French. System, 40 (4), 533-543.

Misson, R. & Morgan, W. (2005). Beyond the Pleasure Principle? Confessions of a Critical Literacy Teacher. English in Australia, 144, 17-26.

Moore, G. C., & Benbasat, I., (1991). "'Development of an instrument to measure the perceptions of adopting an information technology innovation". Information Systems Research, 2 (3), 192-222.

Nielsen Norman Group (2018). The User Experience of Chatbots. Retrieved June 05 2021, from: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/chatbots/.

Nolen, S. (2020). A situative turn in the conversation on motivation theories. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61, 101866.

Ozdemir, O., & Hendricks, C. (2017). Instructor and student experiences with open textbooks, from the California open online library for education (Cool4Ed). J Comput High Educ 29, 98-113. 

P Shea, CS Li, & A Pickett (2006). A study of teaching presence and student sense of learning community in fully online and web-enhanced college courses. The Internet and higher education.

Piaget, J. (1977). The development of thought: Equilibration of cognitive structures. New York: The Viking Press.

Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1969). Psychology of the child. London:Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Rapanta, C., Botturi, L., Goodyear, P., Guàrdia, L., & Koole, M. (2020). Online university teaching during and after the Covid-19 crisis: Refocusing teacher presence and learning activity. Postdigital Science and Education, 2 (3), 923-945.

Roberson, D. N. & Merriam, S. B. (2005). The self-directed learning process of older, rural adults. Adult Education Quarterly, 55 (4), 269-287.

Rosenberg, M.J. (2001). E-Learning: Strategies for Delivering Knowledge in the Digital Age. Internet and Higher Education, 5, 185-188.

Schmulian, A. & Coetzee, S. (2011). Class absenteeism: reasons for non‐attendance and the effect on academic performance. Accounting Research Journal, 24 (2), 178-194.

Shevat (2018). Designing Bots: Creating Conversational Experiences. Retrieved June 05 2021, from: https://www.accenture.com/t20180509T102140Z__w__/us-en/_acnmedia/PDF-77/Accenture-Research-Conversational-AI-Platforms.pdf.

Snyder, L. G., & Snyder, M. J. (2008). Teaching Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills. Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 50, 90-99.

Solak, E., & Cakır, R. (2015). Exploring the effect of materials designed with augmented. language learners' vocabulary learning, 13 (2).

Sun, C-Y., & Hsu, K. Y. C. (2019). A smart eye-tracking feedback scaffolding approach to improving students’ learning self-efficacy and performance in a C programming course. Computers in Human Behavior, 95, 66-72.

Sweller, J. (2006). The worked example effect and human cognition. Learning and Instruction, 16 (2), 165-169.

Sarosa, M., Kusumawardani, M., (2020). Developing a social media-based Chatbot for English learning. IOP Conference Series. Materials Science and Engineering, 732 (1).

Thompson, R. A. (1991). Emotional regulation and emotional development. Educational Psychology Review, 3 (4), 269-307.

Turing, A. M. (1950). Computing machinery and intelligence. Mind, 59, 433-460.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G. (2000). Why Don’t Men Ever Stop to Ask for Directions?  Gender, Social Influence, and Their Role in Technology Acceptance and Usage Behavior. MIS Quarterly, 24 (1), 115-139.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward a Unified View. MIS Quarterly, 27 (3), 425-478.

Venkatesh, V., Thong, J. Y. L., & Xu, X. (2012). Consumer Acceptance and Use of Information Technology: Extending the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. MIS Quarterly, 36 (1), 157-178.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Wang, S. & Vasquez, C. (2012). Web 2.0 and Second Language Learning: What Does the Research Tell Us?. CALICO Journal, 29 (3), 412-430. 

Weiner, R. (1974). Achievement motivation and attribution theory. Morristown, N J.: General Learing Press.

Weizenbaum, J. (1983). ELIZA—a computer program for the study of natural language communication between man and machine. Commun. ACM, 26, 23-28.

Wood, D. J., Bruner, J. S., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17, 89-100.

Ye, J., Zheng, J., Yi, F. (2020). A study on users' willingness to accept mobility as a service based on UTAUT model. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 118, 270-280.

Zmuda, A., Curtis, G., & Ullman, D. (2015). Learning Personalized (1st ed.). Wiley. Retrieved from: https://www.perlego.com/book/999627/learning-personalized-pdf.
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
數位內容碩士學位學程
108462010
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0108462010
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[數位內容碩士學位學程] 學位論文
[數位內容碩士學位學程] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
201001.pdf24793KbAdobe PDF0View/Open


All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


社群 sharing