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Title: 從天妃的朝封與道封思考國家與道教對於地方宗教的一陽一陰的雙重治理
The Need for Both the State and Liturgical Daoism to Complete the Imperial Metaphor: A Case Study of the Cult of Mazu 媽祖
Authors: 張珣
Hsun, Chang
Contributors: 華人宗教研究
Keywords: 朝封 ; 道封 ; 帝國隱喻 ; 媽祖 ; 天妃
State canonization ; Daoist canonization ; imperial metaphor ; Mazu 媽祖 ; Tianfei 天妃
Date: 2019-07
Issue Date: 2021-12-07 09:04:32 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 在帝制中國時期,朝封與道封互相協調,前後搭配,賦予一位神祇的政治合法性與宗教神聖性,二者相輔相成,是中國神祇的靈力與權威來源。而朝封與道封也使國家與宗教互相證成,一方面,道教是國家政權合法性來源,另一方面,朝廷也是道教神聖權威的合法性來源。朝廷與道教共同完成人民對於帝國的想像與順從。其次,道教與地方宗教之間有競合關係,道教賦予地方宗教神聖性,而地方宗教賦予道教靈驗性。本文以媽祖林默娘在明朝所獲封號說明朝封(陽)與道封(陰),一陽一陰先後攜手合作完成對媽祖的承認。亦即,除了帝國對於神鬼加以誥封或取締的治理,還有道教對於民間信仰神鬼的馴服。此一陰陽雙重的宗教治理,在當代臺灣仍可見,文末以臺南玉二媽為例。
In imperial China, state canonization and Daoist canonization bestowed political legitimacy and religious sanctity on a local god. These two bureaucratic canonization processes were mutually complementary, and were the source of local deities' spiritual efficacy and authority. The two processes mutually conveyed charismatic authority, with the state guaranteeing the Daoist clergy's role as the arbiters of orthodox Daoism, and the Heavenly Master Zhang 張天師 recognizing the emperor as the true Son of Heaven. The imperial state and liturgical Daoism thus worked to ensure subjects' belief in and obedience to the imperial state. Furthermore, both competition and cooperation existed between liturgical Daoism and local religion. Liturgical Daoism conferred sanctity on local cults, while local deities ensured the efficacy of Daoism. In this paper, I take the canonization of the local deity Mazu as an example to demonstrate the dual process of the acknowledgement of a new deity. The goddess Mazu was granted several dozen honorary titles by imperial decree, and thus had an intimate relationship with the state. In addition, in the fifteenth century, the goddess received the title of Tianfei 天妃, and was given her own scripture composed by the Daoist clergy. Many anthropologists have already discussed how Chinese folk religion helped to maintain the bureaucratic system in imperial China. Here, I would like to go further by elaborating how Daoism supported imperial ideology. Mazu was granted both political authority and religious legitimacy, which has made her the most popular goddess in the Chinese world. In present day Taiwan, as the final part of the paper shows, the results of Mazu's canonization are still valid.
Relation: 華人宗教研究, 14, 1-22
Data Type: article
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Appears in Collections:[華人宗教研究] 期刊論文

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