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Title: 六朝道教文獻的道士稱號
Titles of Daoist Priests in the Daoist Texts of the Six Dynasties Period
Authors: 廣瀨直記
Naoki, Hirose
Contributors: 華人宗教研究
Keywords: 道教史 ; 流派(宗派) ; 法位制度 
History of Daoism ; Daoist schools ; Daoist Ordination Ranks
Date: 2019-07
Issue Date: 2021-12-07 09:04:37 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本文通過全面收集和梳理六朝道教文獻中所見的道士稱號(頭銜),嘗試理清上清經、靈寶經、正一經等經典群的背後存在何種道士群體的問題。首先,本文指出六朝道教文獻中的稱號可以分為如下四種:(A)江南道士的基本稱號「嶽帝稱號」 ; (B)隨著上清經、靈寶經等經典之傳授而得到的「受經稱號」 ; (C)天師道的基本稱號「籙戒稱號」 ; (D)與天師道的治職有關的「治職稱號」。其次,指出六朝中期以前的文獻中,只是單獨的(A)、(B)、(C)、(D)或(AB)、(CD)組合出現,但是到了六朝後期的文獻,開始出現(AB)群和(CD)群相結合的「複合稱號」。我們認為,這是六朝中期以後持(AB)群稱號的江南道士和持(CD)群稱號的天師道道士之間進行了交流,使得雙方的自我認識逐漸開始交錯。以往的六朝道教研究,總是用「上清派」、「靈寶派」等模糊的流派概念進行討論,然而通過如上梳理和分析,可以基於文獻的現實基礎,更加精確地把握經典群背後存在的道士們,這也是本文的意義所在。
Through a comprehensive collection and analysis of official titles of Daoist priests seen in Six Dynasties Daoist texts, this paper attempts to clarify the question of what kind of Daoist communities existed behind the collections of Shangqing 上清(Upper Clarity), Lingbao 靈寶 (Numinous Treasure), and Zhengyi 正一 (Orthodox Unity) scriptures. This paper indicates that the titles of Daoist priests in Six Dynasties Daoist literature can be divided into four groups: (A) titles of "Thearchs and Marchmounts (yuedi 嶽帝), the basic titles of Daoist priests in the Jiangnan 江南 region ; (B) titles of "Receiving Scriptures" (shoujing 受經) obtained upon receipt of transmitted Shangqing and Lingbao scriptures ; (C) titles of "Registers and Precepts" (lujie 籙戒), the basic titles for Celestial Masters Daoists (Tianshi dao 天師道) ; (D) titles of "Parish Posts" (zhizhi 治職) related to the parishes of Celestial Masters. Next, the paper points out that in texts prior to the middle period of the Six Dynasties, we only see titles appear independently from categories A, B, C, or D, or in combinations of AB or CD. However, in texts from the later part of the Six Dynasties, "compound titles," in which categories AB and CD are combined, begin to appear. I argue that, after the middle period of the Six Dynasties, there was interaction between Daoist priests of the Jiangnan region (AB) and Celestial Masters (CD), and the self-identities of the two groups gradually began to mesh. The article discusses the previous usage of vague concepts of schools such as "Shangqing school" and "Lingbao school" in studies on Daoism in the Six Dynasties period. But by combing through textual sources and analyzing the use of titles as noted above, we can, based on an actual textual foundation, gain a more accurate grasp of the Daoist priests behind these bodies of Daoist texts. This is also the significance of this paper.
Relation: 華人宗教研究, 14, 23-82
Data Type: article
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Appears in Collections:[華人宗教研究] 期刊論文

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