Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/138126


Title: Pre-Song Daoist Exorcism (道教法術) and its Relationship with Heavenly Masters Daoism
宋代以前的道教法術和天師道之間的關係
Authors: 常志靜
Reiter, Florian C.
Contributors: 華人宗教研究
Keywords: Daoist exorcism (Wulei fa 五雷法) ; Heavenly Masters Daoism (Tianshi dao 天師道) ; Wang Wenqing 王文卿 (1093-1153) ; Ye Fashan 葉法善 (631-720) ; Ye Qianshao 葉千韶 (fl. 9^(th) cent.) 
五雷法 ; 天師道 ; 王文卿 ; 葉法善 ; 葉千韶
Date: 2019-07
Issue Date: 2021-12-07 09:04:54 (UTC+8)
Abstract: This article challenges common assumptions concerning Song 宋 (960-1279)and Yuan 元 (1279-1368) Daoist exorcism called Wulei fa 五雷法, also referred to as Thunder Magic rituals, and Divine Empyrean Daoism (Shenxiao dao 神霄道)that suggest these traditions introduced a new Daoism in the Song-period or augmented Daoism by adapting to folk-traditions of healing practices and other magic competencies. The author argues that, contrary to assumptions, Daoist exorcist practices were a religious phenomenon that always was associated with Heavenly Masters Daoism (Tianshi dao 天師道). The article explains that Daoist exorcism was conceived as a crucial part of liturgical Daoism in the Heavenly Masters tradition. The author also considers potential reasons for the late inclusion of exorcist rituals in the Daozang 道藏 and their further documentation therein. Arguments are mainly based on canonical biographical sources and expert statements by high ranking Daoists of the Tang 唐 (618-907). Such sources refer to the purposes of Heavenly Masters Daoism and claim the presence and practical reality of Daoist exorcism to be genuine elements of Daoist religious culture.
研究道教法術的一般學者重視宋代和元代時的法術是因為這些時代的材料很豐富,譬如道法會元和法海遺珠那兩套類書。作者認為宋代以前天師道的傳統就已經包容各種道教法術﹐只因為唐代高官和高道在編道藏沒編入這種法術的書籍。明朝清微派的高道編正統道藏時才把道教法術的書籍編入。文中引用唐代兩位天師張修和張士元的列傳以分析他們的法術和內修文化。並以高道葉千韶和葉法善的列傳為材料描寫他們求雨祈晴和治療病況的法術。他們主要的法具是各種道符和咒語以及天師道的香案。本文特別提到木郎咒和天蓬神咒兩個大咒語。因為它們在早期上清派到宋元代的五雷法裡重複地出現,就能證明宋元以前和以後法術共同的傳統和來源。宋代的道士如林靈素、王文卿等使用內丹和天文把自古傳流下來的道教法術理論化。他們用他們的學術修養和意旨把古代的法術編成書籍。這個發展是基於宋徽宗對天師道和道教理論的重視和提倡。本文也提到唐代一個很特殊的新發展道教靈寶派法術,因受唐代密宗很深的影響而發展成一種新的關於吉事的法術。作者引讀者注意到宋代以前的道教法術,使用這些法術的人們代表漢代天師道、道士的文化和職業的傳統。
Relation: 華人宗教研究, 14, 83-110
Data Type: article
DOI 連結: https://doi.org/10.6720/SCR.201907_(14).0003
Appears in Collections:[華人宗教研究] 期刊論文

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