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Title: 規模與取捨:近世黃籙齋儀變遷與明初儀式改革
Scale and Choice: The Transformation of Yellow Register Retreats (huanglu zhai 黃籙齋) in Early Modern Times and Ritual Reform in the Early Ming
Authors: 張超然
Chang, Chao-jan
Contributors: 華人宗教研究
Keywords: 道教 ; 齋醮 ; 功德 ; 儀式規模 ; 儀式改革
Daoism ; retreat (zhai 齋) and offering (jiao 醮) rituals ; merit (gongde 功德) rites ; ritual scale ; ritual reform
Date: 2019-07
Issue Date: 2021-12-07 09:05:09 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 基於長期的調查成果,我們已能了解當代台南道士通過增減、替換不同儀節,提供大小規模不一的拔度齋儀,用以滿足不同地方社會階層的需求。只是,這並不是道教齋儀興起之初便已存在的做法,更多是為了因應兩宋時期齋儀規模異常擴增,以致明初官方有意介入道教儀式發展的結果。為了具體說明這個過程,本文以明初官方主導的道教儀式改革方案-《大明玄教立成齋醮儀範》為中心,考察宋明之際黃籙齋儀的變遷情形,尤其是不同規模的齋儀規劃,及其因應時間限制而做的儀節調整。簡單地說,明初官方介入道教儀式發展的主要考量在於經濟層面,希望能夠藉此有效抑制過度發展的拔度齋儀,但又同時希望提供一般家庭能夠負擔的齋儀項目,用以維持社會教化功能。當時受命管理道教的中央道官各自以其配合方式,程度不一地落實這樣的政策。其中,如何同時兼顧齋儀典型並對政策有所回應的處置之道,則與當代台南做法相近:當規模受限,無法維持典型齋儀結構時,儀式實踐將側重於亡者祭煉之上,作為架構齋儀的主要儀節則被漸次捨去。
Based on the results of long-term fieldwork investigations, we already understand that Daoists in contemporary Tainan 台南 offer zhai salvation rituals of varying scale, by adding, subtracting, and substituting different rites, and do so in order to satisfy the demands of different local social classes. However, this was not the existing method when zhai rituals first arose ; many changes to the ritual took place in response to the exceptional expansion of the scope of zhai rituals during the Northern and Southern Song. The expansion was so extensive that officials intended to intervene in the consequences of this Daoist ritual development in the early Ming. In order to concretely explain this course of events, this paper takes a case of early Ming officials directing Daoist ritual reforms-Ritual Protocols of the Great Ming for Daoist Retreats and Offerings (Da Ming xuanjiao licheng zhaijiao yifan 大明玄教立 成齋醮儀範)-as its central focus to examine the changing circumstances of the Yellow Register Retreat between the Song and Ming, especially with regard to zhai ritual programs of different scale and the adjustments in rites in response to time limitations. Simply put, the primary consideration for early Ming officials’ intervention in the development of Daoist ritual was economic factors, in the hope that they could effectively check the excessive growth of zhai salvation rituals. But at the same time, officials also hoped to offer ordinary households a way to bear the financial cost of the ritual, so as to preserve the ritual’s capacity for social education. At that time, the central Daoist officials appointed to supervise Daoist affairs had their respective coordinating methods and implemented policies to varying degrees. In this, how did Daoists of the Ming simultaneously balance zhai ritual models with a way to respond to the policies? In fact, their management of the situation was quite similar to practices in Tainan ; when ritual scale is restricted, and there is no way to preserve the model ritual framework, ritual practices will emphasize the ceremonial salvific refinement of the dead, and those principal rites that serve as the framework of the zhai ritual are then excised one by one.
Relation: 華人宗教研究, 14, 111-145
Data Type: article
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Appears in Collections:[華人宗教研究] 期刊論文

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