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Title: 帝國晚期京城的水火記憶-清末民初的火神廟與水會組織
Memories of "Water and Fire" in Late Imperial Beijing: A Study of the Fire God Temple (Huoshen miao 火神廟) and the Organization of the Water Association (Shuihui 水會) in late Qing and Early Republic Period China
Authors: 孫美子
Sun, Mei-zi
Contributors: 華人宗教研究
Keywords: 火神廟 ; 水會組織 ; 商業行會 
Fire God Temple ; Organization of the Water Association ; Commerce Guilds
Date: 2019-07
Issue Date: 2021-12-07 09:05:35 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本文通過歷史文獻、民間傳說、口述訪談相結合的方式,從「火」與「水」兩條線索追溯北京城火神廟的信仰風貌。論述北京火神信仰及火神廟在儒家祭祀和五行風水系統層面之於城建的努力、民間信仰脈絡中的祠廟性格,以及商業行會、市井生活中消防巡緝的功能性意義。隨著商業發展及科學技術的變革,晚清時期的北京城市生活形態已發生了很大變化。伴隨煤油使用的普及,火災時有發生。慎火帶動了火神信仰的昌盛,另一方面,這一精神努力也在紳商的動員下落實為京城的民間消防組織-水會。火神信仰與水會組織因商業的繁榮而連接到一起,火神廟代表的神治中心、水會及水窩子代表的水治中心以及商會行會代表的資本中心三股勢力凝結到一起,作為舊時京城非常重要的地方權力自治中心,發揮著極其重要的作用。
This article attempts to trace, through the two themes of "fire" and "water," the aspects of belief pertaining to the Fire God Temple in Beijing by examining historical documents, folk legends, and oral reports. It discusses the power of Fire God beliefs and the Fire God Temple in Beijing on urban construction at the level of Confucian sacrifices and Five Phases (wuxing 五行) and Fengshui 風水 systems. In addition, the article addresses the nature of shrines and temples in the context of popular religious beliefs, as well as the functional significance of fire patrols within commercial guilds and marketplace life. Following the developments in business and transformations in science and technology, the shape of urban life in Beijing during the late Qing period experienced significant changes. With the widespread use of kerosene, fire disasters happened occasionally. Cautious awareness of fires spurred burgeoning Fire God beliefs. Moreover, these conscious efforts also led to the establishment, mobilized by gentry and merchants, of a fire prevention organization among the people--the Water Association (Shuihui 水會). Fire God beliefs and the organization of the Water Association became linked together because of commercial prosperity. The Fire God Temple represented the heart of the deity's sphere of influence, while the Water Association and the Water Nest (Shui wozi 水窩子) represented the heart of water's sphere of influence. The chamber of commerce and guilds represented the center of capital. When the power of all three came together, they served as an extremely important center of local authority and self-governance in old Beijing, one that played an exceedingly significant role.
Relation: 華人宗教研究, 14, 147-191
Data Type: article
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Appears in Collections:[華人宗教研究] 期刊論文

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