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An Historical Interpretation of the Pu'an Mantra
Tam, Wai Lun
|Keywords:||普庵祖師 ; 普庵咒 ; 悉曇（談）章 ; 三回九轉 ; 古琴 |
Ancestral Master Pu'an 普庵祖師 ; Pu'an mantra ; Shitan zhang 悉曇(談)章 (Sīddhamātrkā) ; Three Rotations and Nine Revolutions (method of chanting) ; zither
|Issue Date:||2021-12-07 09:07:16 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||本文建基於過去民族音樂學、語言學、歷史學等學者的相關研究，嘗試重構普庵咒在歷史中出現的情況。普庵咒是根據梵文字母書寫練習的教科書《悉曇章》所作。據饒宗頤的研究，《悉曇章》早在劉宋時期（420-479）已傳入中國。目前未有資料顯示《悉曇章》何時、如何和為何變成咒語並與宋朝的普庵祖師扯上關係。合理的猜測是普庵咒成立於元、明之際，即宋朝普庵祖師之後。這是根據元末明初，五臺山壁峰寶金禪師（1306-1370）創制的「華嚴字母佛事」開啟了華嚴四十二字門傳持諷誦的一個事實。如是啟發了普庵咒的產生，從梵文字母教科書而演變用作佛事諷誦，又把它攀附於宋朝的普庵祖師。約於明中葉，普庵咒被江南文人譜入泉州南音。萬曆年間又開始譜入古琴。清朝再滲透北方弦索和宮廷吹打樂等不同的地方音樂 ; 最後再被佛教人士引回作為咒語誦唱及儀軌音樂。|
This essay builds on past research conducted by scholars of ethnomusicology, philology and history in an attempt to reconstruct the historical circumstances of the emergence of the Pu'an mantra. The Pu'an mantra was composed based on the Shitan zhang 悉曇章, a textbook for practicing writing Sanskrit letters. According to Jao Tsun- I's 饒宗頤 (1917-2018) research, the Shitan zhang had already been introduced into China by the Liu-Song 劉宋period (420-479). Currently, we still have no material that demonstrates when, why, and how the Shitan zhang became a mantra and was then linked to the Ancestral Master Pu'an 普庵祖師 (1115-1169) of the Song 宋 dynasty (960-1271). A reasonable guess would be that the Pu'an mantra was established during either the Yuan 元 (1279-1368) or Ming 明 (1368-1644) dynasties, after Master Pu'an passed away. This is based on the fact that the ＂Huayan Alphabet for Buddhist Liturgical Matters＂ (Huayan zimu foshi 華嚴字母佛事), formulated by the Precious Golden Chan Master Bifeng 壁峰寶金禪師 (1306-1370) of Mount Wutai 五臺山 in the late Yuan and early Ming, enabled the liturgical recitation methods of the Huayan 42 Character School (Huayan sishier zi men 華嚴四十二字門). In this way, the Pu'an mantra was born, transformed from a Sanskrit alphabet textbook into a mantra used in Buddhist liturgies, before then being connected to Master Pu'an. In roughly the mid-Ming, the Pu'an mantra was included in the repertoire of the Nanyin 南音 (lit. ＂Southern Sounds＂) musical tradition of Quanzhou 泉州 by Jiangnan 江南 literati. In the Wanli 萬曆 period (1573-1620), it was also included in the zither (guqin 古琴) musical repertoire. During the Qing (1644-1912), the mantra crept into northern Xiansuo 線索 string ensembles and imperial court wind and percussion ensembles, both in different locations, before it was finally reintroduced by Buddhists as an incantation to be recited aloud and as part of liturgical music.
|Relation:||華人宗教研究, 15, 23-62|
|Appears in Collections:||[華人宗教研究] 期刊論文|
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