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Co-constructed narrative in mandarin mother-child conversation
|Issue Date:||2022-03-01 16:31:36 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||本研究探討漢語親子對話中的共同建構敘事、母親在敘事中所使用的鷹架策略 (scaffolding strategy)，以及母親言語和兒童敘事表現之間的關係。研究語料為四組親子互動的自然語料，各取一個小時，兒童的年紀約為五歲。文中的分析涵蓋了六個層面: (1)共同建構敘事的特徵 (2)共同建構敘事的敘事元素 (narrative component) (3)母親和兒童在敘事元素上的使用分佈 (4)母親和五歲兒童在共同建敘事中的貢獻 (5)母親在敘事中所使用的鷹架策略 (6)母親的敘事表現和鷹架策略對兒童敘事表現的影響。首先，研究結果顯示對話中的共同敘事通常不超過50句話語，然後敘事的主題大多與個人經歷有關，並且不同長度的敘事都有重新介紹 (reintroduction) 這個特徵。第二，五歲兒童和媽媽所共同建構的長敘事都包含所有的敘事元素。第三，母親和兒童在敘事元素使用上的分佈是相似的。不論母親或者兒童都傾向在敘事中使用主要情節 (complicating action) 而較少使用背景介紹 (orientation)。第四，母親和五歲兒童在共同建敘事中的貢獻也是相似的。第五，母親在鷹架策略方面都傾向使用信息請求 (information request) 去幫助兒童敘事。最後，研究結果指出母親的敘事表現和他們的鷹架策略似乎都跟兒童的敘事表現有正相關。|
The present study investigated co-constructed conversational narratives (CCNs) produced by Mandarin-speaking children and their mothers. In addition, maternal scaffolding strategies and the relationship between the mothers’ scaffolding and the children’s performance in the CCNs were also examined. The data included four hours of five-year-old Mandarin-speaking children’s conversations with their mothers. Based on an adaption of the high point approach (Chang, 2003; Haden et al., 1997; Peterson & McCabe, 1983), the mothers’ and children’s utterances in the CCNs were categorized into five narrative structure components: orientation, complicating action, evaluation, description, and relevant non-narrative utterance. Moreover, the maternal scaffolding strategies were analyzed based on the framework of Zevenbergen et al. (2016). Regarding the characteristics of the CCNs, first, the topics of most of the CCNs were about personal experiences and the lengths rarely exceeded 50 utterances. Second, the CCNs of different lengths were all reintroduced by either of the speakers. Furthermore, the longer the length of the CCN was, the more narrative structure components the CCN had. Consequently, most of the long CCNs contained all five narrative structure components. Concerning the distribution of the mothers’ and children’s utterances across different narrative structure components, they both produced complicating action utterances more often and orientation utterances less frequently. Regarding the mothers’ and the children’s contribution of narrative structure components in the CCNs, the mothers’ contribution was similar to the children’s contribution. As for the maternal scaffolding strategies, the mothers preferred using information requests to scaffold their child in the CCNs. Finally, there was a positive correlation between the maternal scaffolding strategies and the children’s narrative performance. This study revealed Mandarin-speaking children’s and mothers’ daily performance in interactive narratives in natural conversations. Given that this type of narrative is on the fringe of narrative research, the findings from this study extend the current understanding of narratives and provide a fuller picture of narrative acquisition.
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