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Title: 華人的人情債:「報大於施」與「非償還即結束」的特性及關係對其的影響
Renqing Debt in Chinese culture: Explorations of its Characteristics of “More Returning Than Giving” and “Reciprocation is Not the End” and the Effects of Relationship on Renqing Debt
Authors: 黎少聰
Li, Shao-Cong
Contributors: 孫蒨如
Sun, Chien-Ru
Li, Shao-Cong
Keywords: 人情債
renqing debt
more returning than giving
reciprocation is not the end
Date: 2022
Issue Date: 2022-03-01 17:16:27 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 在華人社會中當我們接受幫助後,我們常說自己欠下了「人情債」,這與西方的心理學界以社會交換理論為基礎所指涉的個體受助後的感受及回應,似乎有著本質上的不同。華人的「人情債」多出現在具有不同程度情感成分的混合性關係中,而彼此關係的不同也可能會使得個體在欠人情債時的感受與反應有所差異。然而目前有關「人情債」的研究卻極其缺乏,因此本研究針對華人人情債中是否具有「報大於施」與「非償還即結束」的特性,以及不同關係對人情債感受及後續行為所可能造成的影響進行探討。研究一為質性訪談,目的是初步了解人情債在大眾心目中的定義,欠人情債的具體感受,關係不同是否會對人情債感受有所影響,及人情債是否具有報大於施與非償還即結束的特性。研究二和三則使用2(關係:好朋友/普通朋友)× 2(回報方式:等量回報/加多回報)的參與者間設計,分別探究在物質及非物質受助情境中,不同的關係與回報方式如何影響受助者的感恩及負債感,以及在已回報後當對方提出幫助請求時,受助者感受的變化及反應。結果大致發現,華人的人情債的確有「報大於施」與「非償還即結束」的特性。而相較於好朋友,接受普通朋友幫助後負債感較高,但在已回報後之後再提供幫助意願較低。結果也顯示當受助情境性質不同(物質或非物質),後續感受和行為也會有所差異。
Chinese often feel that they owe a renqing debt after receiving help from others. Previous research often based on social exchange theories to study the possible emotional and behavioral responses of recipients; however, this might not be applicable to the Chinese. Renqing debts mostly exist in mixed relationships (mixed ties) with different amount of affective component, and therefore, Chinese recipients may have different emotional and behavioral responses after receiving help. However, there was few empirical studies on renqing debts, and therefore the present research tried to explore whether Chinese renqing debt is characterised by “more returning than giving” and “reciprocation is not the end”, and the possible effects of different relationships on recipients’ feelings and subsequent behaviors. Study 1 was a qualitative interview with the aim of understanding the definition of renqing debt, the characteristics of renqing debts, and possible feelings of owing renqing debts to helpers from different relationships. Study 2 and 3 both were a 2 (relationship: good friend/acquaintance) × 2 (return type: equal return/more return) complete between-participants design, with scenarios of material (money) and non-material (favor) helping respectively. Dependent measures were recipient's gratitude, indebtedness feeling, and how would they react when helpers asking for help after they already returned the giving. Results showed that renqing debt does have the characteristics of “more returning than giving” and “reciprocation is not the end”. Receiving help from an acquaintance increased the feeling of indebtedness, however, after returning the giving, individuals were less motivated to help an acquaintance than a good friend. Besides, results also indicated that different types of helping (material or non-material) would lead to different subsequent feelings and reactions from the recipients. Other implications were also discussed.
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