Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/139290


Title: 日治時期臺灣與韓國初等唱歌教育比較分析 -以『公學校唱歌集』和『新編唱歌集』為中心-
Comparative Analysis of Elementary Music Education Between Taiwan and Korea During Japanese Occupation - Focused on ";Public School Singing Collections";and ";New Singing Collections";-
Authors: 王詩雯
Wang, Shi-Wen
Contributors: 朴炳善
Park, Byung-Sun
王詩雯
Wang, Shi-Wen
Keywords: 唱歌
日治時期
唱歌教育
韓國唱歌
臺灣唱歌
殖民教育
Singing
Japanese rule
Singing education
Korean singing
Taiwan singing
Colonial education
Date: 2022
Issue Date: 2022-03-01 18:04:48 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本研究主要探討日治時期臺灣及韓國所實施的唱歌教育之差異,並以日治時期總督府最早編纂發行的國定唱歌教科書『公學校唱歌集』、『新編唱歌集』為中心,比較同一時期臺灣與韓國的唱歌教育有何異同,並透過分析教科書,探討臺韓兩地所實施之唱歌教育關聯性,期許能夠拼湊出更加完整的歷史記憶。
  第二次世界大戰以前,日本於19世紀末、20世紀初先後佔據臺灣與韓國,並對兩地分別實施強力的殖民政策,以教育、文宣、獎勵等方式意圖從根本上消除當地人民民族信仰。而教科書作為國民教育中最重要的藍本,與一個國家的歷史演變有不可分的關係,透過國民教育的手段可以養成當下執政者所期望之未來國民。「唱歌」,顧名思義是以旋律搭配歌詞歌唱,在日治時期末期被改為「音樂科」之前,作為初等教育的科目之一,透過歌曲較易朗誦好記的特質,經常被學者廣泛認為是殖民教育中重要的思想改造工具之一,而當時的總督府便以傳唱歌曲的方式,向臺灣學童及韓國學童傳授日本帝國主義思想。
  臺灣和韓國擁有被日本長期殖民的共同記憶,因為有類似的時空背景,研究日治時期的學者們經常以兩地為比較分析的對象。然而關於日治時期唱歌教育的現存文獻中,大部分的研究都是殖民地與殖民母國的相互比較,至今仍然沒有臺灣及韓國的比較研究。故本文秉持著完整日治時期教育歷史的想法,希望能夠讓兩地的歷史輪廓更加鮮明。
  由於日治時期的「唱歌」是日本受到西方音樂傳入的影響,進而學習外國音樂並將其納入新式教育中,故本文第二章先從兩地的西方音樂傳入史出發,洞察臺韓西方音樂的發展過程,並探究「唱歌」一詞在兩地出現的時間點,再分析日治時期隨著教育令的更迭,其唱歌教育的政策、上課時數及教材的演變。臺灣由於比較早成為日本的殖民地,所以沒有發展自己的唱歌集,但由於地理位置的特性,自17世紀以來就長期被世界列強佔據,而由於早期被荷蘭及西班牙統治過,使得臺灣人民較早接觸西式音樂。反觀韓國雖然較晚接觸西方音樂,但由於江華島條約的簽訂,進而發動了甲午改革,爾後又有國外留學歸國的先驅創立的雜誌、發行的唱歌集,或開港通商後從西方教會接觸的聖歌禮樂等,使得韓國雖然較晚傳播西方音樂,但其流行程度較臺灣來得更加活絡且迅速。
  第三章個別分析前述日治時期最先發行之唱歌集:1915年由臺灣總督府發行之『公學校唱歌集』、1914年由朝鮮總督府發行之『新編唱歌集』,從第一小節爬梳出版動機、出版背景、編輯過程等脈絡,到第二小節細觀教科書所收錄之曲目來源,及與國語教科書的關聯,最後第三小節仔細分析音樂特性與歌詞內容等,細細解剖兩本唱歌書的由來及構造。
  第四章將第三章已經細探過的兩本唱歌集,依序做時空背景、編輯方式、排版形式、收錄曲目、音樂特質、歌詞比例之比較分析,以各個層面探討兩者的異同,並找出臺灣總督府及朝鮮總督府在編纂過程中,所重視的內容為何,若有相同之處,便加以分析其曲目在唱歌教育中的意義。
  透過本文分析,可見由於日治時期前的西方音樂或教育機構發展的差異,導致在日治時期之後,總督府在編纂唱歌集的時候,所考量的層面有所不同。首先,臺灣進入日治時期前,雖然有清朝巡撫劉銘傳所建立的近代化設施,但是教育機構仍嫌不足,所以日本渡臺前期,大部分的時間在完備教育設施,並培養日語教職員,為殖民教育做準備,所以遲至1915年才能發行『公學校唱歌集』;韓國則是在被日本武力統治之前,已經由日本派遣官員督導教育政策與教科書的編纂,且民間私立學校在唱歌教育上也已經有韓國保護自身民族之愛國主義、國民精神的歌曲出現,而當韓國被日本強占之後,也較有經驗迅速規劃教科書的編纂。而本文著重教科書的內文分析之外,也探究歌曲收錄之目的及特性,相較於前行研究較著重於日本帝國主義的侵略及洗腦,本論文應能為日治時期的教科書分析,提供較廣的面向。
This research mainly explores the differences in singing education between Taiwan and South Korea during the Japanese rule, and focuses on the national singing textbooks "Public School Singing Collection" and "Newly Compiled Singing Collection" compiled and distributed by the Governor's Office during the Japanese rule, comparing the same period what are the similarities and differences between singing education in Taiwan and South Korea, and through the analysis of textbooks, to explore the relevance of singing education implemented in Taiwan and South Korea, hoping to piece together a more complete historical memory.
Before World War II, Japan occupied Taiwan and South Korea at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, and implemented strong colonial policies on the two places, with the intention of fundamentally eradicating the local people’s national beliefs through education, propaganda, and rewards. As the most important blueprint of national education, textbooks have an inseparable relationship with the historical evolution of a country. Through the means of national education, the future citizens expected by the current rulers can be cultivated. "Singing", as the name suggests, is singing with melody and lyrics. Before it was changed to “Subject of Music" at the end of the Japanese rule, it was one of the subjects of elementary education. It is easy to recite and memorable through songs, and it is often widely regarded by scholars as one of the important ideological reform tools in colonial education, and the Government of the Governor's Office at that time used to sing songs to teach Japanese imperialism to Taiwanese and Korean students.
Taiwan and South Korea share the common memory of being colonized by Japan for a long time. Because of their similar temporal and spatial backgrounds, scholars studying the Japanese rule often use the two places as objects of comparative analysis. However, in the existing literature on singing education during the Japanese rule period, most of the studies are comparisons between colonies and colonial countries. There is still no comparative study of Taiwan and South Korea. Therefore, this article upholds the idea of a complete history of education during the Japanese occupation, hoping to make the historical outlines of the two places more distinct.
Since "singing" during the Japanese rule period was influenced by the introduction of Western music in Japan, and then learning foreign music and incorporating it into new-style education, the second chapter of this article starts with the history of the introduction of Western music in the two places and provides insights into Taiwan and South Korea. The development process of Western music and the time when the word "singing" appeared in the two places were explored, and the evolution of singing education policies, class hours, and teaching materials during the Japanese Occupation era with the change of education orders. Since Taiwan became a Japanese colony earlier, it did not develop its own singing collection. However, due to its geographical location, it has been occupied by world powers for a long time since the 17th century, and because it was ruled by the Netherlands and Spain in the early period, the people of Taiwan were earlier. Get in touch with Western music. On the other hand, although South Korea came into contact with Western music relatively late, the signing of the Treaty of Ganghwa Island led to the Gabo reform. Later, there were magazines and singing collections published by pioneers who returned from studying abroad, or contacts from Western churches after the opening of Hong Kong. Songs, rituals, etc., although South Korea spreads Western music later, its popularity is more active and rapid than that of Taiwan.
The third chapter individually analyzes the first singing collections released during the Japanese rule period: the "Public School Singing Collection" issued by the Governor's Office of Taiwan in 1915, and the "New Singing Collection" issued by the Governor's Office of Korea in 1914, starting from the first section. Combing the context of publishing motivation, publishing background, editing process, etc., go to the second section to look at the source of the tracks included in the textbook and the relationship with the Mandarin textbook. Finally, the third section carefully analyzes the characteristics of the music and the content of the lyrics, etc., carefully dissecting the two books the origin and structure of singing books.
Chapter 4 compares and analyzes the two singing collections that have been explored in Chapter 3 in order of temporal and spatial background, editing methods, typesetting forms, included tracks, music characteristics, and lyrics ratios, and discusses the similarities and differences between the two at various levels. And find out what content the Taiwan Governor's Office and North Korea's Governor's Office paid attention to in the compilation process, and if there are similarities, analyze the significance of their songs in singing education.
Through the analysis of this article, it can be seen that the differences in the development of Western music or educational institutions before the Japanese Occupation period led to different levels of consideration when compiling the singing collections of the Governor's Office after the Japanese Occupation Period. First of all, before Taiwan entered the Japanese colonial period, although there were modern facilities established by Qing Dynasty governor Liu Ming Chuan, educational institutions were still insufficient. Therefore, in the early days of Japan’s crossing to Taiwan, most of the time was to complete educational facilities and train Japanese language teaching staff for colonization. Preparation for education, so it was as late as 1915 that the "Public School Singing Collection" was released; South Korea had been sent by Japanese officials to supervise the compilation of educational policies and textbooks before it was ruled by the Japanese force, and private private schools were also involved in singing education. There have been songs about the patriotism and national spirit of Korea to defend the country, and when Korea was occupied by Japan, it was more experienced to quickly plan the compilation of textbooks. In addition to the analysis of the textbook text, this article also explores the purpose and characteristics of the songs included. Compared with the previous research, it focuses more on the aggression and brainwashing of Japanese imperialism. Broader aspect.
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張詩勤(2015), 「台灣日文新詩的誕生-以 《臺灣日日新報》, 《臺灣教育》(1895-1926)為中心」, 國立政治大學 석사논문
連憲升(2009), 「「文明之音」的變奏: 明治晚期到昭和初期臺灣的近代化音樂論述」, 『臺灣史研究』, 第十六卷 第三期, pp.39-85
黃裕元(2011), 「日治時期臺灣唱片流行歌之研究-兼論一九三零年代流行文化與社會」, 國立台灣大學 박사논문
廖晴園(2013), 「日治時期臺灣尺八音樂活動初探-以尺八的普及(1933-1937)與臺人尺八家林阿發為中心」, 國立台灣大學, 석사논문
劉麟玉(2006), 「關於日本人教師議論殖民地臺灣公學校唱歌教材之諸問題(1895-1945)-以「折衷」論及「鄉土化」論為焦點」, 『臺灣音樂研究』 第三期, pp. 45-60
賴美鈴(2002), 「日治時期臺灣音樂教科書研究」, 『藝術教育研究』 no.3, pp.3-56
魏緗慈(2011), 「日治時期「翻唱」歌曲現象研究-以李臨秋及其他作品為例」, 『大同大學通識教育年報』, 7期, pp. 22-51
일본논문(획수순)
山東 功(2004), 「台湾総督府発行『公学校唱歌』所収教材の音楽および歌詞分析」, 『女子大文學』國文篇:大阪女子大學紀要 no.55, pp. 56-69
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岡部芳広(2003), 「台湾総督府発行『公学校唱歌』所収教材の音楽および歌詞分析」, 『表現文化研究』 no.2, pp. 71-85
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외국논문
Hui-Hsuan Chao(2011), 「Singing under the Rising Sun: Music Education in Early Colonial Taiwan, 1895-1905」, 『臺灣音樂研究』 No.12, 29-63
한국 단행본(가나다순)
김병선(2007), 『창가와 신시의 형성 연구』, 소명출판
김순전, 박경수 등(2014), 『제국의 식민지 창가-일제강점기 唱歌 교과서 연구』, 제이앤씨
대만 단행본(획수순)
呂鈺秀(2003), 『臺灣音樂史』, 五南圖書
許常惠(1990), 『台灣音樂史初稿』, 全音樂譜出版社
臺北師範學校附屬公學校(1921), 『公學校敎授細目 上編』, 臺灣日日新報社
臺灣總督府警務局(1935), 『教育所用 唱歌教材集』, 臺灣總督府警務局
일본 단행본(획수순)
小泉又一, 乙竹岩造(1913), 『修正小学校各教科教授法』
小田省吾(1917), 「朝鮮総督府編纂教科書概要」, 朝鮮總督府
内務督(1945), 「朝鮮及台湾ノ現況」, 植民地關係, 『本邦内政關係雜纂』
西卷南平(1927), 『公学校教授の新研究』, 臺灣子供世界社
佐藤慶治(2019), 『翻訳唱歌と国民形成』, 九州大學出版會
岡部芳広(2007), 『植民地台湾における公学校唱歌教育』, 明石書店
高 仁淑(2004), 『近代朝鮮の唱歌教育』, 九州大學出版會
俵 孫一(1910), 「漢城府内基督教學校狀況一斑」, 朝鮮總督府. 日本植民地教育政策史料集成:朝鮮篇,第67卷
劉 麟玉(2005), 『植民地下の台湾における学校唱歌教育の成立と展開』, 雄山閣
법령과 규정
朝鮮總督府 勅令 제229호 〈朝鮮敎育令〉(1911)
朝鮮總督府 勅令 529호 〈朝鮮敎育令ヲ改正〉(1922)
朝鮮總督府 勅令 149호 「朝鮮公立学校官制中ヲ改正ス・(朝鮮教育令ノ改正ニ伴フモノ)」(1922)
朝鮮總督府令 제24호 「小學校規定」
朝鮮總督府令 제97호 「普通學校規則」
臺灣總督府 勅令 제178호 〈臺灣公學校令〉(1898)
臺灣總督府 勅令 제1호 〈臺灣敎育令〉(1919)
臺灣總督府 勅令 제20호 〈臺灣敎育令〉(1922)
臺灣總督府 府令 제78호 「臺灣公學校規則」(1898)
臺灣總督府 訓令 제32호 「蕃人ノ子弟ヲ入學セシムヘキ公學校教育ニ關スル規程」(1905)
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
韓國語文學系
108557002
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0108557002
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[韓國語文學系] 學位論文

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