Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Social Mobility in a Caste System in Relation to Motor Cars in British Ceylon: Changing Values of Landscape and Sinhalese Social Transformation
Wijesuriya, Mutukuda Wijesuriya Arachchige Dinithi Nadeera
Mutukuda Wijesuriya Arachchige Dinithi Nadeera Wijesuriya
19 世紀末至 20 世紀中葉
British Colonial Ceylon
Late 19th century to mid-20th century
Perception of landscape
|Issue Date:||2022-03-01 18:10:46 (UTC+8)|
本研究是對英屬錫蘭僧伽羅人各種姓群體中社會流動性之調查。基於英國人為追求其殖民經濟 事業而引入錫蘭種種所帶來之機會，本研究側重於與種姓制度平行之社會組織制度之發展。僧 伽羅種姓制度是基於對傳統種姓職業之遵守，而英國引進之技術使某些低種姓得以填補新職位， 獲得成功並採用英國之新技術成為自己之技能。
本論文之重點是僧伽羅各種姓對英國引進之機動車輛之採用。本人提出，居住在沿海低 地之僧伽羅低種姓，與歐洲殖民企業有更多之接觸，更有可能將機動車輛用作個人交通工具， 並且主要負責機動車輛之進口。另一方面，居住地遠離海岸、享受傳統政治影響之高種姓發現 其狀況滯後，因此也將機動車輛用於自己之種姓環境。本論文是對錫蘭之機動車輛首次進行全 面研究。其方法要求分析發生橫向與縱向流動之僧伽羅人採用和使用機動車輛之相關現象。本 人在研究中利用歷史及人類學之觀點。本研究就英國殖民時期之人員、交通、所有權和個人使 用機動車輛情況進行了訪談來收集數據。
本人用主位法來解釋僧伽羅社會結構轉型之過程及歷史景觀概念化之變化。本人從主位 法之角度提供了關於僧伽羅種姓結構變化之洞見。本研究有助於提供從 19 世紀末到 20 世紀中 葉島上新社會轉型之資訊。
This research is an investigation of the social mobility which occurred in the Sinhalese caste groups of British Colonial Ceylon. It focuses on the development of a parallel system of social organization to that of the caste system, based on opportunities arising from British introductions to Ceylon in pursuit of their colonial economic enterprises. The Sinhalese caste system is based on adherence to traditional caste-based occupations, and the technology introduced by the British enabled certain lower castes to fill new niches, prosper, and adopt the new British technology as their own.
This dissertation focuses on the adoption of the British-introduced motor car by Sinhalese castes. I propose to show that the lower Sinhalese castes, living in the coastal lowlands, who had more contact with the European colonial enterprise, were more likely to adopt the motor car for personal transportation, and were primarily responsible for importing motor vehicles. On the other hand, the higher castes who lived away from the coasts, and who enjoyed traditional political influence, found themselves falling behind in status, and so too adopted the motor car for their own caste contexts. This is the first comprehensive study of motor cars in Ceylon. The methodology has required the analysis of related phenomena to the adoption and usage of the motor car by Sinhalese with horizontal mobilty and vertical mobilty. For my research, I utilize historical and anthropological perspectives. The research gathered its data through interviews about the people, transportation, ownerships, and personal use of motor vehicles during the British colonial period.
I have used the emic approach to interpret the process of Sinhalese social structure transformation and the changes in the historical landscape conceptualization. And I have provided insight from emic approaches to understanding Sinhalese caste structural changes and this research serves to provide new social transformation on the island from the late 19th century to the mid-20th century.
Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. (2001). The colonial origins of comparative development: An empirical investigation. American Economic Review. 91(5): 1369-1401.
Adelman, Jeremy. (1994). Frontier Development: Land, Labor, and Capital on the Wheatlands of Argentina and Canada, 1890–1914. New York: Clarendon.
Aiyer, Subramaniam. (2007). From Colonial Segregation to Postcolonial 'integration' Constructing Ethnic Difference through Singapore’s Little India and the Singapore ‘Indian’. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Canterbury. School of Culture, Literature and Society. Christchurch, New Zealand.
Akbar, Ali. (2013). Vintage and Classic cars in Ceylon. Colombo: Hermitage.
Amarasuriya, N. R. (1995). Women and technology. Economic Review. Colombo: People’s Bank Publication. 26-30.
Ambedkar, B. R. (1979). Caste in India: Their mechanism, genesis and development. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar: Writings and Speeches. Vol. 1. Bombay: Government of Maharashtra.
Amarathunga, Geethani. (2019). A study on unique cultural characteristics of the Kinnara community in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Research in Social Sciences. 9(2) February: 344-351.
Amaratunga, Geethani. (2015). A sociological study on the modern changes within the Rodi caste community in Sri Lanaka. International conference on Trends in Social Sciences and Humanities (TSSH-2015), 19th -20th August, Barley, Indonesia. 59-65.
Ariyapala, M. B. (1964). Middyakalina Lanka Samajaya. Colombo: Government Bhasha Department.
Ashmore, W., and A. Knapp (eds). (1999). Archaeologies of Landscape. Contemporary Perspectives. Oxford: Blackwell.
Aurell, Jaume. (2006). Autobiographical texts as historiographical sources: Rereading Fernand Braudel and Annie Kriegel. Biography. 29(3): 425-445.
Baldaeus, Philip. (2000). A True and Exact Description of the Most Celebrated East-Indian Coasts of Malabar and Coromandel and Also of The Isle of Ceylon (Around A.D.1640). New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.
Bandaranayake, Senaka. (1974). Sinhalese Monastic Architecture: The Viháras of Anurádhapura. Leiden: E.J. Brill Publications.
Bandarage, Ashoka. (1983). Colonialism in Sri Lanka: The Political Economy of the Kandyan Highlands,1833-1886. Colombo: Lake House Investments Limited.
Beckford, George. (1983). Persistent Poverty: Underdevelopment in Plantation Economies of the Third World. London: Zed books.
Beckford, George L. (1972). Persistent Poverty: Underdevelopment in Plantation Economics in the third world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bernard, Russell H. (2006). Research Methods in Anthropology – Qualitative & Quantitative Approaches. Oxford: A division of Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Berreman, Gerald. (1960). Caste in India and the United States. American Journal of Sociology. 6(2): 120-127.
Berreman, G. D. (1972). Race, Caste and Other Invidious Distinctions in Social stratification. Berkeley: University of California.
Becker, J. P. (1989). Das Automobile und die amerikanische Kultur [The automobile and the America]. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier.
Bertolacci, Anthony. (1817). A view of the Agricultural, Commercial, and financial interests of Ceylon. London: Black, Parbury and Allen.
Bell, H.C.P. (1891). Archaeological survey of Ceylon: Annual Report, (North-Central Province). Colombo: Ceylon Government Press.
Bender, Barbara et al. (1993). Landscape: Politics and Perspectives. Barbara Bender, ed. Oxford: Berg.
Binford, Lewis R. (1962). Archaeology as anthropology. American Antiquity. 28(2): 217-225.
Blundell, David. (1994). Masks: Anthropology on the Sinhalese Belief System. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc.
Blundell, David. (2012). Vedda (Vanniyaletto) as folk life intangible cultural heritage in Sri Lanka. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association (Journal of Indo-Pacific Archaeology). 32: 23-28.
Boas, Franz. (1919). Scientists as spies. The Nation. 109(2842): 797.
Boller, Alessandra. (2017). Celtic Tiger in Ireland and the car as a liminal space: Movement and paralysis in Gerard Donovan’s Country of the Grand. Estudios Irlandeses. 12: 12-25.
Boyd, Kelly. (1999). Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing. London: Fitzroy Dearborn.
Brohier, R. L. (1984). Changing Places of Colombo. Colombo: Lake House.
Boyce, Daniel.G. Marlon R. Lewis, and Boris Worm. (2011). Boyce et al. reply. Nature. 62: 472.
Casinader, Rex. (1974). The Evolution of Graphite Industry in Sri Lanka, Putterns of Trade and Entrepreneurship. Ceylon Studies Seminar No. 51. Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Carden, R. A. (2006). Sign of times: An examination of the self-concept and emotional motivation of travelers on Route 66. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing. 2(2): 51-62.
Chen, Yayut Yi-Shuian, Da-Wei Kuan, Sandie Suchet-Pearson, and Richard Howitt. (2018). Decolonizing property in Taiwan: Challenging hegemonic constructions of property. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 36(6): 987-1006.
Childs, S. T. (1998). Find the ekijunjumira: Iron mine discovery, ownership and power among the Toro of Uganda. Social Approaches to an Industrial Past: The Archaeology and Anthropology of Mining. A. Knapp, V. C. Pigott, and E. W. Herbert, ed. London: Routledge.
Cipolla, Carlo M. (1993). Between History and Economics: An Introduction to Economic History. Oxford: Blackwell.
Cleere, Henry. (1995). Cultural landscapes as World Heritage. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites. 1: 63-68.
Clark, Colin, and Margaret Haswell. (1970). The Economics of Subsistence Agriculture. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Clark, C. M. (1987). Trouble at T’Mill: Industrial archaeology in the 1980s. Antiquity 6(232): 169-179.
Ceylon. (1914). “Ceylon” from Great Britain Parliament House of Commons Sessional Papers, Colonial Reports - Annual. No. 797. Ceylon. Report (Supplementary) for 1912. Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection. Sri Lanka Maps. University of Texas at Austin. Web. <https://legacy.lib.utexas.edu/maps/sri_lanka.html>
Coatsworth, John H. (1993). Notes on the comparative economic history of Latin America and the United States. Development and Underdevelopment in America: Contrasts of Economic Growth in North and Latin America in Historical Perspective. Walther L. Bernecker and Hans Werner Tobler, eds. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. 264-302.
Codrington H. W. (1922). Notes on Ceylon topography in the 12th century. JRASCB. 29(75).
Codrington H. W. (1925). Notes on Ceylon topography in the 12th century. JRASCB. 30(78).
Connah, Graham. (1996). Kibiro, The salt of Bunyoro, Past and Present. London: The British Institute in Eastern Africa.
Cordiner, Rev. James. (1807). A Description of Ceylon, Containing an Account of the Country, Inhabitants, and Natural Productions with a Narrative of a Tour Around the Island in 1800, the Campaign of Kandy in 1803 and Journey to Ramisseram. 2 Vols. London.
Cook, Elsie K. (1951). Ceylon its Geography, Its Resources and Its People. London: Macmillan.
Coomaraswamy Ananda K. (1922). Introduction and Dancing and the Drama East and West. New York: Stella Block.
Cordella, Antonio & Maha Shaikh. (2006). From epistemology to ontology: Challenging the constructed “truth” of ANT. Working Paper Series 143. London: London School of Economics and Political Science.
Cossons, Neil. (1993). The BP Book of Industrial Archaeology. Newton Abbot, Devon, United Kingdom: David and Charles Publications.
Crossman, Ashley. (2020, August 28). What Is Social Mobility? Web. <https://www.thoughtco.com/social-mobility-302659>.
Coulls, A. (1999). Railways as World Heitage Sites. ICOMOS/TICCIH Publication. Web. <www.icomos.orgjstudies/railways.html>.
Daraniyagala, Siran. (1992). The Prehistory of Sri Lanka (Vol. I and II). Colombo: Department of Archaeology Survey, Colombo
Daumas, M. (1980). L'Archeologie Industrielle en France. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Davy, J. (1983). An Account of the Interior of Ceylon and of its Inhabitations with Travels in that Island. Deliwala, Sri Lanka: Tisara Publications.
Daniel, Aharon. (2010). Caste System in Modern India. Adaniel’s Info Site. Bombay, India. Web. 4 Nov. 2010. <http://adaniel.tripod.com/modernindia.htm>.
Da Matta, R. (1977). Constraint and license: A Preliminary study of two Brazilian rituals. Secular Ritual. S. Moore, B. Meyerhoff, ed. Amsterdam: Van Gorcum. Pp. 244-264.
De Alwis, M. (2002). The Changing Role of Women in Sri Lankan Society. Colombo: Social Research Publications.
De Alwis, Malani. (1976). “Women and development”. Economic Review. Colombo: People’s Bank Publication.
De Mel, Neloufer. (2001). Woman and the Nation’s Narratives, Gender and Nationalism in Twentieth Century Sri Lanka. New Delhi: Kali for Woman.
De Silva, Colvin R. (1942). Ceylon under the British Occupation 1795-1833. Vol I. Colombo: Apothecaries Co., LTD.
De Silva, Colvin R. (1962). Ceylon under the British occupation 1795-1833. Vol II. Colombo: Apothecaries Co., LTD.
De Silva, K. M. (1977). Historical Survey. S & L Lanka: A Survey. K.M. De Silva, ed. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii. Pp. 31-85.
De Silva, S. B. D. (1982). The Political Economy of Underdevelopment. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
De Silva, Chandra Richard. (1997). Sri Lanka: A History. New Delhi: Vikas.
Dre’ze, Jean, and Amartya Sen. (1989). Hunger and Public Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Denham E. B. (1912). Ceylon at the Census of 1911. Colombo: Government Printer.
Deraniyagala, S. U. (1992). The Prehistory of Sri Lanka: An Ecological Perspective. Colombo: Department of Archaeological Survey, Government of Sri Lanka.
Dewaraja, L. (1994). The Muslims of Sri Lanka One Thousand Years of Ethnic Harmony 900-1915. Colombo: The Lanka Islamic Foundation.
Droste, Bernd von, Harald Plachter, and Rössler Mechtild. (1995). Cultural Landscapes of Universal Value. Components of a Global Strategy. New York: Gustav Fischer in collaboration with UNESCO.
Doronin, Dmitry Yu. (2015). ‘Fifty shades of Toyota’: The life of an aar in an Altai city. Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia 54(1): 36–52.
Dorson, R. (1977). American Folklore: with revised bibliographical notes. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
Elangarathna T. B. (1957). Amba Yahaluwo. Colombo: Sarasavi Publications
Ellis, Carolyn. (2004). The ethnographic I: A methodological novel about autoethnography. Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press.
Ember, Carol R., Melvin Ember, and Peter N. Peregrine. (2002). Physical Anthropology and Archaeology. Delhi: Pearson Education.
Engerman, Stanley L., and Kenneth L. Sokoloff. (2002). Factor endowments, inequality, and paths of development among new world economies. Economia. 3: 41-88.
Ferguson, John. (1994). Ceylon in the Jubilee Year: With an Account of the Progress made Since 1803 and the Present Conditions of its Agricultural and Commercial Enterprises. New Delhi: Asian Education Service Publication.
Ferguson, John. (1903). Ceylon in 1903. Colombo: A M & J Ferguson.
Fernando, Mario. (2007). Spiritual Leadership in the Entrepreneurial Business: A Multipath Study. London: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Fernando, Edgar. (1986). Informal Credit and Savings organiations in Sri Lanka: The Cheetu system. Savings and development Giordano Dell-Amore Foundation. 10(3): 253-263
Geertz, Clifford. (1988). Works and Lives: The Anthropologist as Author. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Gieger, Wilhelm. (2003). Mahawansha: The great Chronicle of Ceylon. Trans. Wilhelm Gieger. Dehiwala, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Cultural Center.
Geiger, Wilhelm. (1960). Culture of Ceylon in Medieval Times. Ed. Heinz Bechert. Wiesbaden, O. Harrassowitz.
Golder, Peter N. (2000). Historical Method in Marketing Research with New Evidence on Long-Term Market Share Stability. Journal of Marketing Research. 37(2): 156-172. Web. <https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.126.96.36.19932>.
Good, Kenneth. (1976). Settler Colonialism: Economic Development and Class Formation. The Journal of Modern African Studies. 14(4): 597-620.
Gottschalk, Louis. (1969). Understanding history: a primer of historical method. New York: Knopf.
Grant, E.C. (1987). Industry; Landscape and Location. Landscape and Culture – Archaeological Perspective. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd.
Grimes, R. L. (1976). Symbol and Conquest. Public Ritual and Drama in Santa Fe. Itha- ca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press. 281.
Grimes, R. L. (1982). The lifeblood of public ritual: Fiestas and public exploration projects. See Turner 1982: 272-83.
Gusfield R Joseph and Michalowicz, Jerzy. (1984). Secular Symbolism: Studies of Ritual, Ceremony, and the Symbolic Order in Modern Life. Annual Review of Sociology. 10: 417-435.
Gunarathna, Navoda. (2010). The Colombo Galle Road in Sri Lanka. Unpublished B.A. thesis. Department of Archaeology, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.
Gunawardana, S, and J. Biyanwila. (2008). Trade unions in Sri Lanka. Trade Unions in Asia: An Economic and Sociological Analysis. Ed. J. Benson and Y. Zhu. New York: Routledge.
Gunawadhana, Prishantha. (2004). Purana Gama. J-Ala, Sri Lanka: Samanthi Publications.
Gluckman, M. (1977). On drama and games and athletic contests. See Da Matta 1977. 227-243.
Harper, Douglas. (2002). Talking about pictures: A case for photo elicitation. Visual Studies. 17(1): 13-26.
Hastrup Kirsten. (1992). Out of anthropology: The anthropologist as an object dramatic represent. Cultural Anthropology. 7(3) August: 27-345.
Habraken, N. J. (2000). The Structure of the Ordinary. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Henare, Amiria J. M. (2005). Museums, Anthropology and Imperial Exchange. London: Cambridge University Press.
Herath, H. M. A. (2008). Grassroots institutions for regional development: Sri Lankan experience. Vidyodaya Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2: 305-334.
Hermann, E. (2018) Schallsignalsprachen in Melanesien und Africa. Nachrichten de Akademie der Wissenshafen in Gottigen, phil. hist. Klasse. 5.
Hobsbawm, Eric. (2002). Interesting Times: A Twentieth-Century Life. New York: Pantheon.
Hodder, Ian. (1982). The Present Past: An Introduction to Anthropology for Archaeologists. London: B. T. Batsford.
Horowitz, Donald L. (2014). Coup Theories and Officers' Motives: Sri Lanka in Comparative Perspective. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Hudson, Kenneth. (1963). Industrial Archaeology. London: John Baker Publishers.
Hudson, Kenneth. (1979). World Industrial Archaeology. London: Cambridge University Press.
Hulugalle, H. A. J. (1960). The Life and Times of D.R. Wijewardene. Colombo: The Associated Newspapers of Ceylon.
Hulugalle, H. A. J. (1963). British Governors of Ceylon. Colombo: The Associated Newspapers of Ceylon.
Hussein, Asiff. (2013). Caste in Sri Lanka from Ancient Times to the Present Day. Battaramulla: Neptune Publications.
Hussein, Asiff. (2007). Sarandib an Ethnological Survey of the Muslims of Sri Lanka. Dehiwala, Sri Lanka: author publication.
Hyatt, David. (2000). Railways of Sri Lanka. London: Comrac.
Hyland, Ann. (2003). The Horse in the Ancient World. London: Sutton Publishing.
Jackson, M. (2002). The Politics of Storytelling: Violence, Transgression, and Intersubjectivity. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
Jayawardhane, Kumari. (1986). Feminism and Nationalism in the Third World.
London: Zed Book Pvt.
Jayawardena, Kumari. (2000). Nobodies to Somebodies: The Rise of the Colonial Bourgeoisie in Sri Lanka. Colombo: Social Scientists’ Association and Sanjiva Books.
Jayawardena, Kumari. (1972). The Rise of Labour Movement in Ceylon. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press.
Johnson, Matthew. (1999). Archaeological Theory: An Introduction. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing.
Jazeel, Tariq. 2009. Reading the geography of Sri Lankan island-ness: colonial repetitions, postcolonial possibilities. Contemporary South Asia. 17(4): 399-414.
Jeffries, Charles. 1962. Ceylon: The Path to Independence. London: Pall Mall.
Kannangra P. D. (1966). The History of the Ceylon Civil Service, A study of administrative change in Ceylon. Dehiwala, Sri Lanka: Thisara Publications.
Kearney, R. N. (1981). Women in politics in Sri Lanka. Asian Survey. 21(7): 729-746.
Kelegama, Saman and Roshan Madawela. (2002). 400 Years of Dutch-Sri Lanka Relations: 1602 - 2002. Colombo: Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka.
Kelly, Susan Croce, and Quinta Scott. (1990). Route 66: The Highway and Its People. University of Oklahoma Press.
Kennedy, K. A. R. (1975). Physical anthropology of the megalith builders of India and Sri Lanka. Canberra: Australian National University Press.
Kennedy, Stephanie M. (2010). Indigenous archaeology: Historical interpretation from an emic perspective. Nebraska Anthropologist. 55.
Killick, David. (1998). On the Value of Mixed Methods in Studying Mining Communities. Social Approaches to an Industrial Past: The Archaeology and Anthropology of Mining. A. Knapp, V. C. Pigott, and E. W. Herbert, ed. London: Routledge. Pp. 279-290.
Kim, Habeom, Christopher Bone, and Gyoung-Ah Lee. (2020). Landscapes shared by visibility: a case study on the settlement relationships of the Songgukri culture, Korea. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences. 12(42). Web. Accessed Nov. 6, 2020. <https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12520-019-00987-1>.
Knapp, Arthur Bernard. (1998). Social Approaches to the Archaeology and Anthropology of Mining. Social Approaches to an Industrial Past: The Archaeology and Anthropology of Mining. A. Knapp, V. C. Pigott, and E. W. Herbert, ed. London: Routledge. Pp. 1-23.
Knox, Robert. (1681). An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon in the East Indies. Richard Chiswell, ed. Rose and Crown, St. Paul’s: The Royal Society.
Kodituwakku, Kusumsiri. (1994). Ancient Bridges. Unpublished thesis, Post Graduate Institute of Archaeology, University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.
Kramer, L. S. (1989). Literature, criticism, and historical imagination: The literary challenge of Hayden White and Dominck LaCapra. The New Cultural History. L. Hunt, ed. Berkeley: University of California Press. Pp. 97-130.
Kuan, Da-wei. (2021). From territorial claim to land-use plan: The experience of dialoging Indigenous ecological knowledge and state management regime in Taiwan. Indigenous Peoples, Heritage and Landscape in the Asia Pacific: Knowledge Co-Production and Empowerment. Stephen Acabado and Da-Wei Kuan, eds. New York: Routledge.
Kuruppu Premakumara Lal. (1984). Colonialism and Social Change in Sri Lanka: Implications of Socio-Economic Differentiation for Strategies of National Development. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. Hobart: University of Tasmania.
Lange, Matthew, James Mahoney, Matthias vom Hau. (2006). Colonialism and development: A comparative analysis of Spanish and British colonies. American Journal of Sociology. 111(5).
Larson, Frances. (2005). Charles Gabriel Seligman and Brenda Zara Seligman. Pitt Rivers Museum. Web. <http://history.prm.ox.ac.uk/collector_seligman.html>.
Law, John. (1999). After ANT: complexity, naming and topology. Actor Network Theory and After. John Law and John Hassard, eds. Oxford: Blackwell.
Leach, Edmund R. (1961). Pul Eliya: A Village in Ceylon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lewcock, Ronald, Barbara Sansoni, and Laki Senanayake. (1998). Architecture of An Island, The Living Legacy of Sri Lanka: A Thousand Years of Architecture Illustrated by Outstanding Examples of Religious, Public, and Domestic Buildings. Colombo: Barefoot (Pvt.) Ltd.
Lenin, Vladimir Illych. (2008). Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
Trans. Tim Delaney and Kevin Goins. Marxists.
Ley, David. (2003). Artists, aestheticisation and the field of gentrification. Urban Studies. 40(12): 2527-2544. Web. <https://doi.org/10.1080/0042098032000136192>
Lightfoot, Kent G., and Antoinette Martinez. (1995). Frontiers and boundaries in archaeological perspective. Annual Review of Anthropology. 24: 471-492.
Lindberg, S. I. (2004). Women’s empowerment and democratization: The effects of electoral systems, participation, and experience in Africa. Studies in Comparative International Development. 39(1): 28-53.
Lukacs, J. R., and Kenneth Kennedy. (1981). Biological anthropology of human remains from Pomparippu. Ancient Ceylon. 4: 97-175.
Low Setha (1996). Spatializing culture: the social construction and social production of public space in Costa Rica. American Ethnologist. 23(4): 861-879.
MacAloon, J. J. (1981). This Great Symbol: Pierre Coubertin and the Origins of the Modern Olympic Games. Chicago: University Chicago Press.
MacAloon, J. J. (1982). Sociation and sociability in political celebrations. Celebration: Studies in Festivity and Ritual. V. Turner, ed. Pp. 255-271.
Maggio, Rodolfo. (2014). The anthropology of storytelling and the storytelling of anthropology. Journal of Comparative Research in Anthropology and Sociology. 5(2).
Malalasekera, G. P. and K. N. Jayatilleke. (2010). Buddhist Studies: Caste System. Buddha Net - Worldwide Buddhist Information and Education Network. 14 Nov. 2010. Web. <http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/dharmadata/fdd53.htm>.
Malinowski, B. (1922). Argonauts of the Western Pacific: An account of native enterprise and adventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul (enhanced edition reissuied Long Grove, II: Waveland Press, 2013).
Manatunga, Seevali Bandara. (2018). Railway Monuments of Nanu Oya – Udapussellawa Railway Line. J-Ala, Sri Lanka: Samanthi Publications.
Marling, A. K. (1984). The Colossus of the Roads: Myth and Symbol Along the American Highway. Mineappolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Maréchal, Garance. (2010). Autoethnography. Encyclopedia of case study research. Albert J. Mills, Gabrielle Durepos, and Elden Wiebe, eds. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 2: 43-45.
Marx, Karl. (1902). Wage Labour and Capital. New York: New York Labour News Company.
Marx, Karl. (1906-1909). Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, Vols. 1–3. Chicago: C.H. Kerr and Company.
Mendis, E. C. (1939). Ceylon history (Purana samaya). Colombo: Apothecaries association.
Mendis, G. C. (1956). The Colebrooke-Cameron Papers: Documents on British Colonial Policy in Ceylon, 1796-1833. London: Oxford University Press.
Merrill, Babara. (2002). Biographies as collective experiences? Conference paper on ESREA: The Biography and Life History Network Conference. Geneva. March 7-9.
Meyer, Eric. (1992). From land grabbing to land dungier: High land appropriation in the plantation areas of Sri Lanka during the British period. Modern Asian Studies. 26(2) May: 321-361.
Meyer, Renate E. (2014). Does Institutional Theory Need Redirecting? Journal of Management Studies. 51(7): 1221-1233. Web. <https://doi.org/10.1111/joms.12089>
Milburn, H. E. (1960). Motor Cars Today. London: Oxford University Press.
Mills, Lennox A. (1964). Ceylon Under the British 1795-1932. London: Frank Cass.
Mkandawire, Thandika. (2016). Colonial Legacies and Social Welfare Regimes in Africa: An Empirical Exercise. Working Paper 2016-4. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. Geneva. Web. Accessed 11 May 2021. <https://www.unrisd.org/80256B3C005BCCF9/(httpAuxPages)/600078C0E3281680C1257FC00032132A/$file/Mkandawire-PDRM.pdf>
Morris, A. E. J. (1994). History of Urban Form: Before the Industrial Revolution. London: Routledge.
Moldrich, D. (1990). Bitter Berry Bondage: The Nineteenth Century Coffee Workers of Sri Lanka. Kandy, Sri Lanka: author’s publication.
Munasinghe, Indrani. (2000). The Development and History of Transportation in Ceylon. Colombo: author’s publication.
Munasinghe, Indrani. (2002). Colonial Economy on Track: Roads and Railways in Sri Lanka – 1800-1905. Colombo: Social Scientist Association.
Nadesan, S. (1993). A History of the Upcountry Tamil People. Colombo: Nandapala Publications.
Ndege, Peter O. (2009). Colonialism and its Legacies in Kenya. Conference Paper. Fulbright – Hays Group project abroad program. July 5-August 6, 2009. Moi University. Kenya. Web. Accessed 11 May 2021. <https://africanphilanthropy.issuelab.org/resources/19699/19699.pdf>
Neaverson, Peter, and Merlyn Palmer. (2001). Industrial Archaeology: Principals and Practice. London: Routledge.
Newson, Linda A. (1985). Indian population patterns in colonial Spanish America. Latin American Research Review. 20: 41–74.
Nicholls, Richard. (2004). Classic Cars of the World. London: Amber Books.
Nyrop, Richard, Beryl Benderly, Ann Cort, Newton Parker, James Perlmutter, RinnSup Shinn, and Mary Shivanandan. (1971). Area Handbook for Ceylon. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
The Nizhny Tagil Charter for the Industrial Heritage. (2003). Icomos. Web. Accessed July 2003. <https://www.icomos.org/18thapril/2006/nizhny-tagil-charter-e.pdf>.
Oakley, Judith and Helan Callawa. (1992). “Preface” Anthropology and Autobiography. J. Okley and H. Callway, eds. London: Routledge. Xi-Xiv
Obesekara, Mirando. (2006). Sri Lankawe Walawu Namawaliya. J-Ala, Sri Lanka: Samanthi Publications.
Obeyesekere, Gananath. 1967. Land Tenure in Village Ceylon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Obeyesekere, Gananath. (1984). The Cult of the Goddess Pattini. Chicago: Chicago University Press. University of Chicago Press.
Obeyesekere, Gananath. (1990). The Work of Culture. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Orser, Charles E., Jr. (1996). A Historical Archaeology of the Modern World. Contributions to Global Historical Archaeology. New York: Plenum Press.
Orser, Charles. (2001). Race and the Archaeology of Identity. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
Palmer, Merlyn. (1990). Industrial archaeology: A thematic or period study. Antiquity. 61: 169-179.
Palmer, Merlyn and Hilary Orange. (2016). The archaeology of industry; people and places. Post-Medieval Archaeology. 50(1): 73-91.
Paolo, Piva. (1999). Architektur and Design. Salzburg, Austria: Residenz Verlag.
Paranawithana. Senarath. (1970). Inscriptions of Ceylon. Vol. 1. Colombo: Department of Archaeology Survey, Government of Sri Lanka.
Paranavitana, K. D. (2017). Traversing through the 18th Century Colombo-Kandy Trail. Conference paper. International Conference on Locomotive Archaeology, Centre for Heritage Studies, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Parker, Henry. (1992). Ancient Ceylon. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.
Peebles, Patrick. (1973). The Transformations of Colonial Elite: The Mudaliyars of Nineteenth Century Ceylon. Ph.D. Dissertation. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Peebles, Patrick. (2006). The History of Sri Lanka. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. Web. <http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0612/2006012034.html>.
Pieris, Edmund. (1952). The fish tax in Ceylon. The Ceylon Historical Journal. 3. 1 & 2 July-Oct: 58-65.
Percival, Robert. (1803). An Account of the Island of Ceylon Containing its History, Geography, Natural History with the Manners and Customs of its Various Inhabitation. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.
Pieris, R. (1952). Society and ideology in Ceylon during a ‘times of troubles’, 1796-1850. University of Ceylon Review. 10.
Podmore, Julie. (1998). (Re)reading the ‘Loft Living’ Habitus in Montréal's inner city. Malden, USA: Joint Editors and Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
Ponnambalam, S. (1982). Law and the Marriage Relationship in Sri Lanka. Colombo: Stamford Lake Publication.
Popkin, Jeremy D. (2001). Coordinated lives: Between autobiography and scholarship. Biography: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly. 24(4): 781-788.
Popkin, Jeremy D. History, Historians and Autobiography. (2005). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Poros, Maritsa V. (2013). India, migration to British Africa. The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration.
Ragawan, M. D. (1957). Handsome Beggars: The Roḍiyās of Ceylon. Colombo: Colombo Book Centre.
Raistrick, A. (1972). Industrial Archaeology, An Historical Survey. London: Eyre Methuen.
Rathnapala, Nandasena. (1999). The Beggar in Sri Lanka. Colombo: Sarvodaya Vishva Lekha Publishers.
Rix, Michael. (1955). Industrial archaeology. The Amateur Historian. 2(8): 225-229.
Rix, Michael. (1967). Industrial Archaeology. London: Historical Association.
Roberts, Michael. (1975). Facets of Modern Ceylon History through the Letters of Jeronis pieris. Colombo: Hansa Publishers.
Roberts, Michael. (1982). Caste Conflict and Elite formation: The Rice of Karawa Elites in Sri Lanka 1500-1931. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Roberts, Michael, ed. (1979). Collective Identities Nationalism and Protest in Modern Sri Lanka. Colombo, Marga.
Ruberro, T. K. (2003). Prathikal jathika Ruberroge Lanka Ethihasaya. Colombo: S. Godage Publications.
Russell, Bernard H. (2006). Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. New York: AltaMira.
Ryan, Bryce. (1953). Caste in Modern Ceylon: The Sinhalese System in Transition. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.
Ryan, Bryce. (1958). Sinhalese Village. Miami: University of Miami Press.
Salvador-Amores, Analyn, Marlon Martin, and Stephen Acabado. (2021). Expressive Cultures: Empowering Cordillera (Philippines) weavers through textile revitalization. Indigenous Peoples, Heritage and Landscape in the Asia Pacific: Knowledge Co-Production and Empowerment. Stephen Acabado and Da-Wei Kuan, eds. New York: Routledge.
Samarasinghe, V. (1993). Access of female plantation workers in Sri Lanka to basic needs provision. Different Places, Different Voices: Gender and development in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. J. H. Momsen and V. Kinnaird, eds. London: Routledge.
Samarasinghe, Wijaya. (2005). Sri Lanka Up Country Railway Line. Unpublished thesis. Kelaniya, Sri Lanka: Post Graduate Institute of Archaeology, University of Kelaniya.
Sa´nchez-Albornoz, Nicola. (1974). The Population of Latin America: A History. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Sanderson, S. (1969). The folklore of the motor-car. Folklore. 80(4): 241-252.
Sahlins, M. 1976. Culture and Practical Reason. Chicago: University Chicago Press.
Schrikker, Alicia. (2007). Dutch and British colonial intervention in Sri Lanka, 1780–1815: Expansion and reform. TANAP Monographs on the History of Asian-European Interaction 7. Leiden: Brill.
Schaefer, Richard (2021). Sociology: A Brief Introduction. New York: McGraw Hill.
Seneviratne, H. L. (1978). Rituals of the Kandyan State. Cambridge University Press.
Sri Lanka National Archives. (1855). Despatches. 5/42. 15(8) June.
Setiffi, Francesca, and V. Scotto. (2018). Driven by nostalgia: A study of classic cars’ social representations among Italian youth. Italian Sociological Review. 8(2): 265-283.
Shanmugaratnam, N. (1981). Impact of Plantation Economy and Colonial Policy on Sri Lanka Peasantry. Economic and Political Weekly. 17 January. 69-80.
Solberg, Carl E. (1987). The Prairies and the Pampas: Agrarian Policy in Canada and Argentina, 1880–1930. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Sorokin, Pitirim. (1959). Social and Cultual Mobility. Glencoe: III Free Press.
Silva, Kalinga Tudor, P. P. Sivapragasam, and Paramsothy Thanges. (2009). Caste Discrimination and Social Justice in Sri Lanka: An Overview. New Delhi: Indian Institute of Dalit Studies.
Silva, S. B. D. (1982). Political Economy of underdevelopment. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Sirisena, Piyadasa. (1921). Waluwaka Palahilwawuwa [Sinhala Fiction]. Colombo: Godage Publications.
Sivasubramaniam, K. (2009). Fisheries in Sri Lanka: Anthropological and Biological Aspects. Vadapalani, Chennai: Kumaran Book House.
Skibo, James M., Michael Graves, Miriam T. Stark, and Patty Jo Watson. (2016). Archaeological Anthropology on Method and Theory. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Spencer, Paul. (1992). Auto mythologies and the reconstruction of ageing. Anthropology and Autobiography. J. Oakley, & H. Callaway, eds. London: Routledge. 50-63.
Sri Lanka Labour Force Survey, Annual Report – 2014. (2014). Colombo: Department of Census and Statistics, Ministry of Planning Economic Affairs, Child Youth and Cultural Affairs. Web. <http://www.statistics.gov.lk/samplesurvey/LFS_Annual%20Report_2014.pdf>.
Steckel, Richard H., and Jerome C. Rose. (2002). Patterns of health in the Western Hemisphere. The Backbone of History: Health and Nutrition in the Western Hemisphere.Richard H. Steckel and Jerome C. Rose, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sumanarathna, Aravinda Ravibhanu. 2020. Geology of Sri Lanka. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography. 2: 1-21.
Snodgrass, D. R. (1966). Ceylon an Export Economy in Transition. Homewood II Richard D Irwin. Publication of the Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
Ten Dyke, Elizabeth A. (1999). Anthropology, historical. Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing. Kelly Boyd, ed. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. Pp. 37-40.
Torfaen County Borough Council. (1999). Nomination of Blaenavon for Inclusion on the World Heritage List. Torfaen, Wales: Torfaen County Borough Council.
Trinder, Barrie. (1982). The Making of the Industrial Landscape. London: Dent.
Turner, L. J. B. (1927). Handbook of Commercial and General Information for Ceylon. Colombo: H. R. Cottle.
Turner, V. W. (1982). Celebration: Studies in Festivity and Ritual. Washington DC: Smithsonian Inst.
Vanden, Driesen. (1953). The history of coffee culture in Ceylon. Ceylon Historical Journal. 3: 1-2.
Uyangoda, Jayadeva. (1998). Writing Research Proposals in the Social Sciences and Aumanities: A Theoretical and Practical Guide. Colombo: Social Scientists' Association.
Wesamperuma, D. (1986). Indian Immigrant Plantation Workers in Ceylon: A Historical Perspective 1880-1910. Kelaniya, Sri Lanka: Vidyalankara University.
Wenzlhuemer, Roland. (2008). From Coffee to Tea Cultivation in Ceylon, 1880–1900: An Economic and Social History. Leiden: Brill.
White, Zachary H. (2018). Cuban vintage car culture. Beyond: Undergraduate Research Journal. 2.
Wickremarathna, L. A. (1969). Religion nationalism and social change in Ceylon. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 2: 123-150.
Wickramasinghe, A. (1993). Women’s role in rural Sri Lanka. Different Places, Different Voices: Gender and Development in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. J. H. Momsen and V. Kinnaird, eds. London: Routledge.
Wickramasinghe, Martin. (1949). Yuganthatya. Colombo: Sarasa Prakashakayo.
Wickramasinghe, Martin. (1957). Kaliyugaya. Colombo: Sarasa Prakashakayo.
Wickramasinghe, M and C. Kodikara. (2013). Representation in politics: Women and gender in the Sri Lankan Republic. The Sri Lankan Republic at 40. Asanga Welikala, ed. Colombo: Centre for Policy Alternatives (CPA). Pp. 771-820. Web. <http://republicat40.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Representation-in-Politics1.pdf>
Wickramasinghe, M., and W. Jayatilaka. (2006). Beyond Glass Ceilings and Brick Walls Gender at the Workplace. Colombo: International Labor Organization.
Wickramasinghe, Nira. (2006). Sri Lanka in the Modern Age: A History of Contested Identities. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Widyarathne, Sanjeewani. (2017). Kelani Valley (KV Line) Railway Line: Lost Railway lines in Sri Lanka. Conference paper. International Conference on History of Land Transportation, Locomotive Heritage and Road Culture of South Asia. Kelaniya, Sri Lanka: Centre for Heritage Studies, University of Kelaniya.
Wijedasa, M. B. (2001). Srilankankawe Sanwardhana Rata Udarata Gama Saha Gamiya. Colombo: Godage Publications.
Wijesuriya, Dinithi. (2015). An anthropological study on the distribution of motor cars in relation to the caste system in Sri Lanka with special reference to the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Proceedings of the 2015 Australian Academy of Business and Social Sciences. University of Central Queensland, Sydney, Australia. 812-824. Web. <https://www.aabss.org.au/conference/acbss-2015-sydney/proceedings/all-papers>
Wijesuriya, Dinithi. (2016). The analytical study on regional expansion of vintage motor cars in 19th and 20th century Sri Lanka. The IAFOR Journal of the Social Sciences. 2(1). Web. <http://iafor.org/iafor-journal-of-the-social-sciences-volume-2-issue-1/>
Wilkie, Laurie A. (2005). Inessential Archaeologies: Problems of Exclusion in Americanist Archaeological Thought. World Archaeology. 37: 337-351.
Wickramarathana L. A. (1973). Economic development in the plantation sector 1900-1947. In K. M. De Silva (ed.). History of Ceylon. Vol III. University of Ceylon Press.
Wiggins, W. H. (1982). They closed the town up, man! Reflections on the civic and political dimensions of Juneteenth. See Turner. 284-296.
Wilson, Daniel C. S. (2014). Arnold Toynbee and the Industrial Revolution: The Science of History, Political Economy and the Machine Past. History & Memory. 26(2): 133-161.
Wright, Arnold. (1907). Twentieth Century Impressions of Ceylon: History People, Commerce, Industries and Resources. Colombo: Lloyds Oreatar Britain Publication.
Xue, Charlie Q. L., Han Sou, Bihao Li, and Ka Chuen Hui. (2012). The shaping of early Hong Kong: transplantation and adaptation by the British professionals, 1841-1941. Planning Perspectives. 27.
Yalman, Nur. (1971). Under the Bo Tree. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Yambisang, Alphonse Aime. (2015). Garamut (slit drums) among the Kayan: A case study of the historical and contemporary significance of garamut among the Kayan of Madang, Papua New Guinea. Ph.D. Dissertation. The University of Queensland. School of Social Science. Saint Lucia, Queensland, Australia.
Yehiya, R. (2013). Asymmetric relationship of Buddhist-Muslim bond in Sri Lanka. Web. <http://groundviews.org/2013/06/01/theasymmetric-relationship-of-buddhist-muslim-bond-in-sri-lanka/>
Zeegers, Margaret, and Deirdre Barron. (2015). Milestone moments in getting your Ph.D. Qualitative Research is a Guide for Research. New York: Elsevier.
|Appears in Collections:||[亞太研究英語博/碩士學位學程(IDAS/IMAS)] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.