Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/139571


Title: 湄公河流域的「水外交」: 資源、價值與管理
Water Diplomacy within Mekong: Resources, Value and Management
Authors: 施越兒
Shih, Yueh-Erh
Contributors: 黃奎博
Huang, Kwei-Bo
施越兒
Shih, Yueh-Erh
Keywords: 湄公河
湄公河委員會
大湄公河次區域經濟合作
下游湄公河倡議
瀾滄江─湄公河合作
新自由制度主義
Date: 2022
Issue Date: 2022-04-01 15:08:08 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 水資源對於國家的生存和發展至關重要,以東南亞來看,湄公河是一條極為重要河流,也因為其存在跨國界特性,導致這條流域面臨衝突並產生戰爭的機率更大。然而,從歷史到現在,這條流域卻未產生這種現象。

本研究認為這歸功於該流域存在相關合作機構,包含三個主要機構湄公河委員會(Mekong River Commission, MRC)、大湄公河次區域經濟合作(Greater MekongSub-region Cooperation, GMS)、《下游湄公河倡議》(Lower Mekong Initiative,LMI)和瀾滄江-湄公河合(Lancang-Mekong Cooperation, LMC),以及大國如:美國、日本與中國的資金及技術援助。其中,大國的援助不只為了區域穩定,同時也意涵著其戰略意涵。

本研究主要採取新自由制度主義理論制度之觀點作為研究途徑,討論慣例、建制以及國際機構互相作用的效果,以及這些因素對於合作的重要性。除了從學者的文獻理解流域相關研究,同時針對官方資料進行搜集以分析各機構運作的重點和方法。

本研究有三個發現。首先,湄公河流域三個主要機構都對區域合作做出了貢獻。雖然著重項目不同,如:MRC著重環境問題、GMS和LMC則較強調經濟發展,但各機構也因為存在這些差異而產生互補性,但這種互補式的合作關係是湄公河區域合作的特點也是誘因。再來,第三方的參與,對於湄公河發展與合作亦存在重要性。除了資金,大國也為湄公河流域的環境與基礎建設做出努力。在這之中也體現出大國的政治戰略,尤其美中兩國在流域合作機構中的互動,其政治戰略展露無遺。

最後,從上述兩項發現找出了湄公河流域的合作限制。強調主權的沿岸國家,導致該流域制度建立面臨挑戰,以及合作項目的局限性。此外,沿岸國存在的經濟發展差距也導致公共產品分配不均的問題,進一步阻礙了區域合作與整合。最後,大國的政治競爭成為一個雙面刃,良性競爭可以促成區域發展,而惡性競爭則會導致區域進一步的不穩定。
Reference: 中文文獻
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二、 專書
宋興洲。《大湄公河次區域地緣經濟角力:衝突與調和》。香港:香港城市大學,2021。

三、 期刊
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金新、張夢珠,「瀾湄水資源治理: 域外大國介入與中國的參與」,國際關係研究 6期 (2019):90-109。
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四、論文
胡慶和,「流域水資源衝突集成管理研究」(碩士論文, 河海大學 2007)。

五、網路資料
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Mekong River Commission. Procedures for the Maintenances of Flows on the Mainstream. 2006. https://www.mrcmekong.org/assets/Publications/policies/Procedures-Maintenance-Flows.pdf.
Mekong River Commission. Report from the International Conference on the Mekong River Commission (MRC). 2007. https://www.ais.unwater.org/ais/aiscm/getprojectdoc.php?docid=3017.
Mekong River Commission. “Adaptation to Climate Change in the Countries of the Lower Mekong Basin: Region Synthesis report.”MRC Technical Paper, 2009. http://archive.iwlearn.net/mrcmekong.org/download/free_download/Technical_paper24.pdf.
Mekong River Commission. Initiative on Sustainable Hydropower (ISH) 2011-2015 Document. 2010a. https://www.mrcmekong.org/assets/Publications/Programme-Documents/2011-2015-Initiative-Final-Version-30-OctISH.pdf.
Mekong River Commission. Strategic Plan 2011-2015. 2010b. https://www.mrcmekong.org/assets/Publications/strategies-workprog/Stratigic-Plan-2011-2015-council-approved25012011-final-.pdf.
Mekong River Commission. MRC Work Programme 2011. 2011a. https://www.mrcmekong.org/assets/Publications/strategies-workprog/work-program-11.pdf.
Mekong River Commission. Procedures for Notification, Prior Consultation and Agreement Form for Reply to Prior Consultation. 2011b. https://www.mrcmekong.org/assets/Consultations/2010-Xayaburi/Viet-Nam-Reply-Form.pdf.
Mekong River Commission. Proposed Xayaburi Dam Project – Mekong River. 2011c.
Mekong River Commission. Annual Report 2014. 2015. https://www.mrcmekong.org/assets/Publications/governance/MRC-Annual-Report-2014.pdf.
Mekong River Commission. Procedures for Notification, Prior Consultation and Agreement (PNPCA). 2016a. https://www.mrcmekong.org/assets/Publications/PNPCA-brochure-11th-design-final.pdf.
Mekong River Commission. Strategic Plan 2016-2020. 2016b. https://www.mrcmekong.org/assets/Publications/strategies-workprog/MRC-Stratigic-Plan-2016-2020.pdf.
Mekong River Commission. Annual Report 2017. 2017a. https://www.mrcmekong.org/assets/Publications/MRC-Annual-Report-2017-final-for-web-19June18.pdf.
Mekong River Commission. Transboundary Dialogue under Mekong Integrated Water Resources Management Project. 2017b. https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/MRC-TBDialogue-FINAL-WEB.pdf.
Mekong River Commission. “MRC Council Study: Flood Sector Key Findings Report.”Mekong River Commission, Vientiane, 2018a. https://www.mrcmekong.org/assets/Publications/Council-Study/Flood-sector-key-findings-report_Council-Study.pdf.
Mekong River Commission. The Study on the Sustainable Management and Development of the Mekong River Basin including Impacts of Mainstream Hydropower Projects. 2018b. https://opendevelopmentmekong.net/topics/agriculture-and-fishing/.
Mekong River Commission. State of the Basin Report, Mekong River Commission, Vientiane. 2018c. https://www.mrcmekong.org/assets/Publications/SOBR-v8_Final-for-web.pdf.
Mekong River Commission. Mekong Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan. 2018d. https://www.mrcmekong.org/assets/Publications/MASAP-book-28-Aug18.pdf.
Mekong River Commission. A Journey towards integrated water resources management in the Lower Mekong River Basin. 2019. https://www.mrcmekong.org/assets/Publications/I-WRMP-Photo-book-22-Apr-19-Final-LRes.pdf.
Mekong River Commission. Japan Provides $3.9 million to Tackle Mekong Flood and Drought Issues. 2020a. https://www.mrcmekong.org/news-and-events/news/japan-provides-3-9-million-to-tackle-mekong-flood-and-drought-issues/
Mekong River Commission. Joint Environmental Monitoring (JEM) Programme Pilots Project - Factsheet. 2020b. https://www.mrcmekong.org/assets/Publications/leaflet/Jem-factsheet.pdf.
Mekong River Commission. China to provide the Mekong River Commission with year-round water data. October 22, 2020c. https://www.mrcmekong.org/news-and-events/news/china-to-provide-the-mekong-river-commission-with-year-round-water-data/.
Mekong River Commission. Climate. 4 July, 2021a. https://www.mrcmekong.org/about/mekong-basin/climate/.
Mekong River Commission. Mekong Integrated Water Resources Management Project. 12 May , 2021b. https://www.mrcmekong.org/our-work/mekong-integrated-water-resources-management-project
Mekong River Commission. Procedures for Data and Information Exchange and Sharing (PDIES), 2021c. https://portal.mrcmekong.org/procedure/pdies-overview.
Mekong River Commission. Basin Development Strategy for the Mekong River Basin 2021–2030 & MRC Strategic Plan 2021–2025. 2021d. https://reliefweb.int/report/cambodia/basin-development-strategy-mekong-river-basin-2021-2030-mrc-strategic-plan-2021-2025.
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Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Second Friends of the Lower Mekong Initiative (LMI) Ministerial Meeting – Overview. 2012a. https://www.mofa.go.jp/region/asia-paci/mekong/lmi_1207.html.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Tokyo Strategy 2012 for Mekong-Japan Cooperation. 2012b. https://www.mofa.go.jp/region/asia-paci/mekong/summit04/joint_statement_en.html.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Third Friends of the Lower Mekong Initiative (FLM) Ministerial Meeting. 2013. https://www.mofa.go.jp/region/page6e_000118.html.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Fourth Friends of the Lower Mekong Initiative (FLM) Ministerial Meeting. 2014. https://www.mofa.go.jp/s_sa/sea1/page3e_000221.html.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. New Tokyo Strategy 2015 for Mekong-Japan Cooperation (MJC2015). 2015. https://www.mofa.go.jp/s_sa/sea1/page1e_000044.html.
U.S Department of Interior of the United States of America . “Memorandum of Understanding Between the U.S Department of Interior of the United States of America and the Ministry of the Natural Resoureces and Environment of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam Concerning Scientific and Technical Cooperation in Earth Sciences and Effecitve Management of Natural Resources in the Context of Climate Change.” December ,2010a. https://www.doi.gov/sites/doi.gov/files/uploads/2010_doi-monre_vietnam_mou.pdf.
U.S Department of State. “Joint Statement of the Second U.S-Lower Mekong Ministerial Meeting.” Mekong-U.S Partnership. July, 2010b. https://mekonguspartnership.org/2010/07/22/joint-statement-of-the-second-u-s-lower-mekong-ministerial-meeting/.
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WWF-Greater Mekong. Mekong River in the Economy. WWF–Greater Mekong, Bangkok, 2016. https://wwfasia.awsassets.panda.org/downloads/mekong_river_in_the_economy_final.pdf.

二、專書與專章
Agnew, J. Geopolitics: Re-visioning World Politics. London: Routledge, 1998.
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Bi, Shihong,. China and Japan, in the Mekong Region: Competition and Cooperation. In China-Japan Relations in the 21st Century, ed. Peng Er L. Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore, 2017.
Bouapao, L. Livelihoods and Migration. In: The Water-Food-Energy Nexus in the Mekong Region: Assessing Development Strategies Considering Cross-Sectoral and Transboundary Impacts. ed .Smajgl, A. and Ward, J. New York : Springer Science+Business Media, 2017.
Buzan, B. People, States & Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-cold War Era. Ecpr Press, 2008.
Campbell, I. The Challenges for Mekong River Management, In: The Mekong. Biophysical Environment of an International River Basin, ed. Ian C Campbell. Elsevier: Academic Press, 2009.
Critchley, W. H., & Terriff, T. Environment and security. In: Security studies for the 1990’s. Washington, D.C.: Brassey’s, 1993.
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Fullbrook, D. Food Security in the Wider Mekong Region. In: The Water-Food-Energy Nexus in the Mekong Region: Assessing Development Strategies Considering Cross-Sectoral and Transboundary Impacts, ed. Smajgl, A. and Ward, J. New York: Springer Science+Business Media, 2017.
Guy, Faure.‘The Asian Development Bank and Chinese and Japanese Power Plays’, In New Dynamics between China and Japan in Asia: How to Build the Future from the Past?, ed Faure, Guy, 163-186. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co, 2010:
Hirsch, P., & Mørck Jensen, K. National Interests and Transboundary Water Governance in the Mekong. Sydney: Australian Mekong Resource Centre, 2006.
Joseph, Andrew J.. The Mekong Committee: a Historical Account (1957-1998). Mekong Secretariat, 1989.
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Keohane, Robert O. International Institutions and State Power. New York: Routledge, 1989.
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Turnipseed, D. Phil.“Forecast Mekong.” US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey, 2011.
Van Evera, S. Causes of War. Power and the Roots of Conflict. Cornell University Press, 1999.



三、期刊
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四、碩博士論文
Browder Greg. Negotiating an International Regime for Water Allocation in the Mekong River Basin. ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1998.
Clements, Cole M. Downstream on the Mekong: Contrasting Cambodian and Vietnamese Responses to Chinese Water Control. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, 2017.
Cochrane, Gavin,. The Greater Mekong sub-region at 20: Japan’s Role in the Region and Its Implications for Regional Integration. 2012.
Lubner, Victoria. Transboundary Water Conflicts: A Study Focused on Large Transboundary Lakes. The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. 2015.

五、報告
Antikainen, Juhani., & Rita, Gebert, and Ulf Møller. Review of the greater Mekong sub-region regional power trade. Sida Review 2011, 2011. https://cdn.sida.se/publications/files/sida61461en-review-of-the-greater-mekong-sub-region-regional-power-trade.pdf.
CGIAR Research Program on CCAFS SEA. Assessment Report: The Drought and Salinity Intrusion in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), Viet Nam, 2016. https://cgspace.cgiar.org/bitstream/handle/10568/75633/CGIAR%20ASSESSMENT%20REPORT_Mekong_June2.pdf.
Chambers, P., and P. Bunyavejchewin. Thailand’s Foreign Economic Policy Toward Mainland Southeast Asia. Singapore: ISEAS Yusof-Ishak Institute. 2019.
Fancourt, Max & Sarah, Darrah., & Marieke, Sassen. Commodities and Biodiversity in the Greater Mekong: Impacts of Commodity Development on Biodiversity and Ecosystem services in the Greater Mekong and its Headwaters. MacArthur Foundation, 2015.
Gildea, M. L.. Case 2:The Mekong River. Inouye Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies. 2014.
Hensengerth, Oliver. “Money and Security: China’s Strategic Interests in the Mekong River Basin.” Asia Programme Briefing Paper. 2009. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Oliver-Hensengerth/publication/267307303_briefing_paper_Money_and_Security_China'_s_Strategic_Interests_in_the_Mekong_River_Basin/links/580a7a3908ae2cb3a5d302c8/briefing-paper-Money-and-Security-China-s-Strategic-Interests-in-the-Mekong-River-Basin.pdf
Jensen, K. M., & Lange, R. B. “The Mekong.” 2013. http://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep13303.9
Le Hai ,Binh., & To Minh, Thu. “ Why the Mekong Matters to ASEAN: A Perspective from Vietnam.” © ISEAS Yusof Ishak Institute. 2020.http://hdl.handle.net/11540/12239.
Lu, Guangsheng. China Seeks to Improve Mekong Sub-Region Cooperation: Causes and Policies. S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies. Policy Report. 2016. https://think-asia.org/bitstream/handle/11540/6512/PR160225_China-Seeks-to-Improve-Mekong.pdf?sequence=1
Michel, David. Water Governance and Water Diplomacy. US institution of Peace. 2020. http://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep26059.9
Nathaniel Matthews. & Motta Stew. China’s Influence on Hydropower Development in the Lancang River and Lower Mekong River Basin. State of Knowledge Series 4, 2013.
Nguyen, Huu Ninh., & Kien Trung,Vu., and Xuan Niem Nguyen. “Flooding in Mekong River Delta, Viet Nam.” Human development report 2008 (2007). http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.422.5648&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
Runde, Daniel F., Romina, Bandura.,& Janina Staguhn. The Future of Work in the Mekong Subregion. CSIS. February 12, 2021

六、網路資料
Aung, Wei Yan. “Myanmar’s 1990 Election: Born of a Democratic Uprising, Ignored by the Military,” October, 2020. https://www.irrawaddy.com/elections-in-history/myanmars-1990-election-born-democratic-uprising-ignored-military.html.(Accessed June 18, 2021)
Bower, Ernest. Z. “U.S. Moves to Strengthen ASEAN by Boosting the Lower Mekong Initiative.” Center for Strategic and International Studies. July, 2012. https://www.csis.org/analysis/us-moves-strengthen-asean-boosting-lower-mekong-initiative. (Accessed March 12, 2021)
Cronin, R., and T. Hamlin. “Mekong Turning Point: Shared River for a Shared Future.” 2012. Washington, DC: The Henry L. Stimson Center. https://www.stimson.org/2012/mekong-turning-point-shared-river-shared-future/. (Accessed March 14, 2021)
DW News. “Laos Disaster Reveals the Ugly Side of Hydropower in Southeast Asia.” 22 December 2017. https://opendevelopmentmekong.net/topics/hydropower/#_edn7. (Accessed July 9, 2021)
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Eyler, Brian and Weatherby, Courtney. “New Evidence: How China Turned off the Tap on the Mekong River”. April 13, 2020. The Stimson Center: https://stimson.org/2020/new-evidence-how-china-turned-off-the-mekong-tap/. (Accessed December 29, 2021)
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Wade, Geoff. “Could ASEAN Drift Apart?” .February 25, 2011. Yale Global: http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/ content/could-asean-drift-apart. (Accessed January 3, 2022)
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
外交學系
108253023
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0108253023
Data Type: thesis
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