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From Zongmi's Divinatory Knowing to Zhu Xi's Sovereignty of Moral Agency: New Findings and Methodology about the Interaction between Buddhism and Confucianism
|Keywords:||朱熹 ;宗密 ;自性本用 ;主宰 ;中和之悟 |
Zhu Xi ;Zongmi ;Chan Buddhism ;sovereignty ;the enlightenment of centrality and harmony
|Issue Date:||2022-04-08 16:00:49 (UTC+8)|
Most of the theories about how Zongmi influenced Zhu Xi are ill-grounded. The only reliable thesis is that Zhu Xi's ＂xulingbumei＂ (vacuous, divinatory and not beclouded) in his commentary on ＂the brilliant virtue＂ in the Great Learning is borrowed from Zongmi's ＂divinatory knowing.＂ In order to support this claim, I examine all the passages where Zhu Xi refers to Zongmi and his concept of knowing. Zhu Xi mentions them when he contends that the Huxiang School fails to see that the practice of seriousness (keeping the sovereign awake) should precede the observation of the manifestation of the heart/mind, and when Zhu Xi talks about the heart/mind of the Heaven. This is difficult to interpret. I submit that Zhu Xi surpasses Zongmi when he finds that the divinatory knowing contains in itself the power of ＂sovereignty＂ by which the heart/mind can maintain its ideal state. This breakthrough of Zhu Xi is the motive when Zhu Xi proposes his theory that ＂the heart/mind comprises/commands the nature and feelings＂ and that ＂seriousness penetrates tranquility and activity.＂ Both Zhu Xi and Zongmi seek to experience the state of the substance of the heart/mind in itself. Zhu Xi's ＂preserving knowing and sovereignty＂ in the state of ＂not-yet-activated＂ is comparable to Zongmi's notion of ＂vacuous knowing＂ as the ＂original functioning of the nature itself.＂ Zongmi's Buddhist context restricts him from positively talking about one's inner sovereignty, while Zhu Xi's Confucian context encourages it. Zhu Xi criticizes his master Cheng Yi, and insist that there is clear awareness in the ideal not-yet-activated state. Zhu Xi's philosophy should be compared to Zongmi, not to the Yogācāra School or the Northern Chan. The debates between Zhu Xi and Lu Jiuyuan on the methods of self-cultivation is comparable to the debates between Zong Mi's Heze School and Mazu's Hongzhou School.
|Relation:||政治大學哲學學報, 47, 1-49|
|Appears in Collections:||[政治大學哲學學報 THCI Core] 期刊論文|
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