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Title: 阿毘達磨佛教原子論重探:以「和集」、「和合」說為線索
A Re-examination on The Doctrine of Aggregation (he ji / he he) of Atoms in Abhidharma Buddhism
Authors: 茅宇凡
Mao, Yufan
Contributors: 政治大學哲學學報
Keywords: 阿毘達磨 ;原子論 ;和集 ;世親 ;眾賢 
Abhidharma ;atomism ;aggregation of atoms ;Vasubandhu ;Saṃghabhadra
Date: 2022-01
Issue Date: 2022-04-08 16:01:47 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 原子(極微)論是阿毘達磨佛教――特別是說一切有部――的理論基石之一。原子論的一個核心議題是原子以何種方式聚集成為整體,即原子間相互碰不碰觸、有無空隙等形上學問題。此議題貫穿於《大毘婆沙論》、《俱舍論》、《二十論》、《順正理論》,並延續到後期寂護、蓮華戒師徒與輸婆毱多之間的爭論。玄奘用譯語「和集」表示原子以非結合的方式聚集在一起形成一個整體,原子彼此相互靠近,但不接觸,存在空隙。「和集」說在眾賢的《順正理論》中得到充分的辯護,有效地回應了瑜伽行派對原子「和合」的批評;由於「和合」說認為原子無間隙地結合成整體,如此則會破壞有部原子「無部分」的設定。此外,「和集」說需要進一步澄清原子間的空隙到底是以明和暗為自性的原子還是什麼都沒有、純粹的空,這就又牽涉到究竟是異種類原子聚合還是同種類原子聚集的問題。
Atomism is a fundamental theory of Abhidharma Buddhist realism, especially for Sarvāstivāda. One of the core topics of atomism is the way that atoms aggregate. For example, whether atoms touch each other; alternatively, whether there are interstices between atoms. The topic is discussed in several primary treatises such as *Abhidharma- mahā-vibhāṣā-śāstra(阿毘逹磨大毘婆沙論), Abhidharmakośa, Viṃśikā and *Abhidharma-nyāyānusāra(阿毘逹磨順正理論). A similar controversy can also be found in the debate between Śubhagupta and Śāntarakṣita, along with his disciple, Kamalaśīla. Xuanzang uses a special term "aggregation(he ji, 和集)" to indicate that atoms aggregate together to form a cluster without conjunction. The doctrine of aggregation is fully justified in the Abhidharma-nyāyānusāra. Saṃghabhadra argues that atoms are proximate to one another without touching, there are interstices between them. The doctrine of aggregation can avoid the problem of the agglomeration(he he, 和合)that is refuted by Vasubandhu in the Viṃśikā. The doctrine of agglomeration indicates that atoms agglomerate as one unity through conjoining (i.e., touching) with each other, that is, there is no interstice between them. The agglomeration of atoms implies that atoms are endowed with parts, which conflicts with the Sarvāstivāda assumption that atoms have no parts. However, for the doctrine of aggregation, it should be clarified that what are the interstices. Are they the atoms of light and darkness or just nothing, i.e., voidness? This is related to another problem that what kinds of atoms, heterogeneous atoms or homogeneous atoms, aggregate to form a cluster.
Relation: 政治大學哲學學報, 47, 115-151
Data Type: article
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Appears in Collections:[政治大學哲學學報 THCI Core] 期刊論文

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