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Title: Comparison of internet-based and paper-based questionnaires in Taiwan by using a multi-sample invariance approach
Authors: 余民寧
Yu, Sen-Chi;Yu, Min-Ning
Date: 2007-10
Issue Date: 2008-12-17 09:49:32 (UTC+8)
Abstract: This study examines whether the Internet-based questionnaire is psychometrically equivalent to the paper-based questionnaire. A random sample of 2,400 teachers in Taiwan was divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was invited to complete the electronic form of the Chinese version of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) placed on the Internet, whereas the control group was invited to complete the paper-based CES-D, which they received by mail. The multisample invariance approach, derived from structural equation modeling (SEM), was applied to analyze the collected data. The analytical results show that the two groups have equivalent factor structures in the CES-D. That is, the items in CES-D function equivalently in the two groups. Then the equality of latent mean test was performed. The latent means of “depressed mood,” “positive affect,” and “interpersonal problems” in CES-D are not significantly different between these two groups. However, the difference in the “somatic symptoms” latent means between these two groups is statistically significant at α = 0.01. But the Cohen's d statistics indicates that such differences in latent means do not apparently lead to a meaningful effect size in practice. Both CES-D questionnaires exhibit equal validity, reliability, and factor structures and exhibit a little difference in latent means. Therefore, the Internet-based questionnaire represents a promising alternative to the paper-based questionnaire.
Relation: CyberPsychology & Behavior 10(4),501-507
Data Type: article
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