政大學術集成


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Title: 成年人對中、老年人生活經驗、人格特質的知覺印象
Other Titles: Adults' Perceived Images of Life Experience and Personality Traits of Middle-Aged and Older Adults
Authors: 李良哲
Date: 1999-06
Issue Date: 2008-12-31 10:51:55 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本研究的主要目的在於探討國內成年人對中年人與老年人的生活經驗與人格特質知覺印象的變化情形,並瞭解在評估中年人與老年人的生活經驗與人格特質時是否有年齡、性別、社經地位差異現象。瞭解國內成年人對人生中年期起迄年齡與中年危機的看法、對中、老年人感到煩惱而有壓力的事情與對中、老年人行為與心理特性的描述也是本研究的目的。研究以台灣地區北、中、南部505位成年人(255位男性。250位女性;158位老年人,175位中年人,172位年輕成年人)為研究對象。由國內成年人認為中、老年人的生活中較為明顯的煩惱而有壓力的事情與中、老年人較為明顯的行為與心理特性顯示,在國內成年人的印象中,中年人扮演照顧家庭老小的角色,而積極有責任的努力於工作事業的經營,但卻憂心身體健康的衰退與老化;老年人遭遇到許多的失落,包括身體健康、社會地位、人際關係、親情、工作角色的失落,且表現出一些負向、不可欲的行為特質。由國內成年人對中、老年人在各生活領域壓力、各生活課題表現、各特質屬性的評估結果顯示,在國內成年人的印象中,中年人是活得比老年人多煩惱、擔憂與辛苦,但中年人比老年人活得積極有能,中年人的得比失多,而老年人的失比得多。由中年期到老年期的人生歷程中失去了勝任能力、適應環境的能力、積極的生命力與理性的智慧能力,只是得到了對人道的同理關懷能力,且顯示出悲觀消極的人生態度。國內成年人對中、老年人在各生活領域壓力、各生活課題表現、各特質屬性的評估,年齡差異的現象比性別、社經地位差異現象明顯。這些評估的差異現象可用一些理論觀點來加以解釋。 The main purposes of this study are to investigate the perceived images change between middle-aged adults and older adults in a sample of adults of Taiwan society and to examine whether rating target subjects' life experience and traits show age differences, sex differences, and social economic status differences. The other purposes of this study are to explore when do subjects think adults enter and exit middle age, whether they think there is such a thing as midlife crisis, and subjects' description of distressed, stressful events and typical behaviors, traits of middle-aged and older adults. A sample of 505 adults (255 males, 250 females: 158 older adults, 175 middle- aged adults, 172 young adults) of broad Taiwan area are interviewed. On the basis of the results of subjects' perception of the most prominent distressed, stressful events and typical behaviors, traits of middle-aged and older adults reveal that middle-aged adults in Taiwan society play the role of taking care of family members and devote to work career responsibly but rather worry about the decline of physical health and aging; older adults in Taiwan society encounter lots of loss including physical health, social status, interpersonal relationships, relatives contact, and work role losses and show some negative, undesirable traits. Based on the results of subjects' rating of amount of stress in life domains, salience of life course issues, and nature of personal attributes for middle- aged and older adults reveal that middle-aged adults are more distressed, worrying, and hardworking in living than older adults but middle-aged adults are more positive and energetic in living than older adults. Middle-aged adults are gains more and losses less, but older adults are gains less and losses more. The life course from middle age to old age loses the ability of competence, adjusting to environment, active energies, and rational intelligence, but gains the ability of humanity and shows pessimistic, negative attitudes toward life. Age differences in rating target subjects' life experience and traits are more obvious than sex differences and social economic status differences. Those differences in rating can be explained by some theoretical perspectives.
Relation: 國立政治大學學報, 78, 1-54
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[Department of Psychology] Periodical Articles
[Issue 78] Journal Articles

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