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Title: 香港首屆立法會直選與政黨體系的發展
Other Titles: Legco's Direct Elections and the Development of Hong Kong's Political Party System
Authors: 梁玉英
Liang, Yu-Ying
Keywords: 比例代表制;投票率;比例性偏差;政黨效應;政黨體系
proportional representation;voting rate;disproportionality;party factor;political party system
Date: 1999-02
Issue Date: 2009-01-16 11:20:18 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 香港的立法機關雖然在一九九一年才舉行第一次直選,而且直選議席迄今僅佔總席位的三分之一,但不可否認立法機關直選是促進香港政黨體系發展的主要推動力。一九九一年及一九九五年的立法局直選分別採用複數選區相對多數決的全額連記法和單一選區相對多數決,一九九八年首屆立法會直選則改採比例代表制中的名單比例代表法,中共及特區政府堅持使用這一種選舉制度的主要原因是有效降低民主黨的席次率以及確保「行政主導」體制得以繼續順利執行。首屆立法會採取比例代表制的結果,除了投票率大為提高外,過去的比例性嚴重偏差情況已大為改善,政黨效應則持續擴大。選後香港的政黨體系已逐漸發展成為一個溫和的多黨體系,但大部分的政黨必須面對內部分裂、路線調整和開拓票源三方面的問題。當前香港的貧富差距日漸拉大,社會分化程度也略為增加,但不致於令到現階段的溫和多黨體系轉變為極端多黨體系,但比例代表制保障小黨的誘因令到政黨分裂的可能性依然存在。
Direct elections to Hong Kong's Legislative Council (Legco) have been held three times since the introduction of this electoral system in 1991 and have chosen only one third of all the Legco members. Regulations for the past three direct elections have varied: the practice of block voting was followed in 1991 under the plurality with multi-member-district system; the plurality with single-member-district system was used in 1995; and the list proportional representation system was adopted in 1998. The authorities in Beijing and Hong Kong adopted the proportional representation system in order to decrease the number of seats under control of the democratic parties. The practice of proportional representation has not only increased Legco's voting rate but has also significantly overcome the phenomenon of disproportionality. As a result, parties have been able to play a greater role in Hong Kong politics. One could even argue that a moderate multi-party system has gradually been developing in Hong Kong. Most parties have been confronted with the following challenges: splits in the party, the need to readjust policy lines, and obstacles to soliciting greater support. In Hong Kong today, although the gap between the rich and the poor has widened and although divisions in society have intensified, it is not likely that an extreme multi-party system would appear. Since the proportional representation system provides protection to small parties, we cannot exclude the possibility of irreparable splits in some political parties.
Relation: 中國大陸研究,42(2),3-18
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[國際關係研究中心] 期刊論文
[中國大陸研究 TSSCI] 期刊論文

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