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Title: 中共「黨的領導」原則在全國人民代表大會的運作
Party Leadership and the National People's Congress
Authors: 趙建民(Chien-Min Chao)
賴榮偉(Rong-Wei Lai)
Date: 2000-08
Issue Date: 2009-07-29 21:52:44 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 全國人大出現若干的自主性,反映了經濟發展與人大權威的結構關聯,特別是非國有企業和市場化改革的進展,將為競爭性政治提供良好的社會基礎。新利益集團的出現必然尋找自己的利益代表,形成不同的政治訴求。制度的變遷與立法功能的強化,也反映中共政權對於法制的迫切需要。市場體系的開展和計畫經濟的衰退,使得政府無法再以計畫經濟的方式,管理帶有資本主義色彩的經濟,法制成為取代計畫作為調節和管理不同部門間經濟關係與社會活動的最有效的手段。 然而,黨國機關以黨領政的結構,致使全國人大的政治合法性終需緊密依附中共。全國人大在若干法案和人事任命,或能發揮些許制衡作用,不過整個議程的設定以及法案的審議仍待中共中央決定。中共當局仍然嚴格控制各級人大的選舉,以致人大系統的內環境欠缺民意壓力,全國人大缺乏健全的內部運作機制。
Economic development has enhanced the discretion of the National People’s Congress. Reforms on the state enterprises and the drive towards further marketization have provided grounds for the emergence of a competitive political system. Newly-surfacing interest groups are poising to establish representation for the protection of their interests. Efforts made by the Beijing authority towards institutionalization since the 1980s and the invigoration of the legislature have reinforced the resolve to rule by law. The old ways of centralization can no longer manage the complex economy reshaped by the semi-free market. Legalization has become the only alternative for the government to deal with the ever-more complicated economy and the increasingly lively social activities. However, the party-system is still firmly in place. Consequently, the NPC still has to rely on the communist party for legitimacy. While the NPC has gained some autonomy in legislation and in deciding government personnel, the overall powers of agenda-setting and operation of the NPC are still under Party control. The Party is careful in selecting NPC membership and the internal workings of the institution need revamping.
Relation: 中國大陸研究
Data Type: article
Appears in Collections:[國家發展研究所] 期刊論文

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