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Electrophysiological signatures of semantic and phonological processing in mandarin Chinese speech production
Chang, Hui Chuan
Kuo, Wen Jui
Sah, Wen Hui
Chang, Hui Chuan
Lateral readiness potential
|Issue Date:||2009-09-14 12:59:45 (UTC+8)|
根據完整語音理論 (Brown & Watson, 1987)，我們認為當作業要求完整的語音訊息，則習得年齡越早，提取速度越快，唸名作業如是；當作業要求片段的語音訊息，則習得年齡越早，提取速度越慢，額外時間用於解構完整語音訊息，我們的圖片判斷作業如是。實驗二中因少數圖片重複出現，習得年齡對語意處理的正面作用減少，習得年齡對片段語音處理的負面作用卻維持，使得習得年齡組別間，側化準備電位沒有顯著差異，且早習得組圖片分類反應時間反而較長。
Age-of-acquisition (AoA) is one of the most robust variables for language processing. But its cause and locus during the processing are still under debate. Based on previous behavioral studies and established hypotheses, this study aims to find electrophysiological evidence for the locus of AoA effect during speech production. The continuous measure of speech production is approached by event-related potential (ERP) in conjunction with a manual, dual choice Go/Nogo paradigm. In this paradigm, participants need to choose the correct response according to two linguistic attributes of the target picture. The presumption of this paradigm is that the lateralized readiness potential (LRP), a motor preparation related component, would be absent once the Nogo decision has been made, and its onset marks the time point at which critical information for hand selection is available.
In Experiment 1, which hand to respond depends on the target picture’s semantic attribute (artifact or non-artifact), to respond or not relies on its phonological attribute (the tone value of its first syllable). It is expected that if AoA influences lexical/semantic processing, LRP onset latency would be different under early and late AoA condition. AoA effect on phonological stage would be reflected on the duration of Nogo LRP. In Experiment 2 the reverse mapping between linguistic attribute and response types was also tested and variables other than AoA were more strictly controlled.
Both experiments replicate previous finding in that Nogo LRP only occurs when response hand is contingent on semantic information, which indicates that semantic stage precedes phonological stage. In Experiment 1, naming latency, picture classification RT (reaction time), and LRP onset latency were shorter for the early AoA group, indicating accelerated lexical/semantic retrieval. However, in Experiment 2, AoA effect on LRP onset latency was not found. And for items with early AoA, picture classification RT is significantly longer, despite that their naming latency is shorter in the pretest. Experiment 3 further validates the coexistence of the positive AoA effect on naming and negative AoA effect on tone classification and the resistance of the negative AoA effect to repetition.
Following the phonological completeness hypothesis (Brown & Watson, 1987), we suggest that when the unitary phonological form is demanded, as in the naming task, the early learned words has advantage. When a fraction of the unitary form is demanded, as in the tone classification task, extra time is needed to decompose the retrieved unitary form. The positive AoA effect on semantic stage is larger in Experiment 1 due to material selection and number of repetition. Thus in Experiment 1, the positive AoA effect on semantic stage remains, but in Experiment 2, it is overpowered by the negative AoA effect on fractional phonological extraction, resulting in the absence of AoA effect on LRP pattern and longer picture classification RT under early AoA condition.
In sum, results of this study indicate that semantic feature can be retrieved faster under early AoA condition, which is in line with concept/lemma competition hypothesis. Our results also imply slower tone retrieval under early AoA condition, which need to be further testified by future studies.
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