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Title: 外顯內隱自尊的落差現象與自我設限
Discrepancies between explicit and implicit self esteem: Implication on self handicapping
Authors: 張玉萍
Chang, Yu Pin
Contributors: 李美枝
Li, Mei Chi
張玉萍
Chang, Yu Pin
Keywords: 外顯自尊
內隱自尊
IAT
落差現象
自我設限
非口語焦慮行為
explicit self esteem
implicit self esteem
IAT
discrepancy
self-handicapping
non-verbal behavior
Date: 2007
Issue Date: 2009-09-17 13:23:56 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 自我設限是指人們因為害怕失敗帶來傷害,或想要在成功時更顯得自己特別優異的方法。本研究主要探討不同類型自尊者使用不同自我設限行為的狀況。受試者接收數學能力的正向評價回饋後,即接受壓力或練習效果對測驗表現是否有影響的操弄指導語,在4組(策略暗示:宣稱、行為、宣稱與行為,控制組)實驗設計中,研究者測量所有受試者的宣稱策略使用程度、練習時間與練習題數,研究進行中亦錄影其非口語焦慮行為。研究結果有六大發現:(1)內隱自尊與外顯自尊無關,表示它們是不同的構念;(2)情境對宣稱式自我設限有主要效果:接受宣稱式自我設限會影響表現訊息的人,他們的宣稱策略使用程度明顯比無接受訊息者來得高;(3)外顯自尊與情境對行為式自我設限有交互作用效果:當暗示其練習效果會影響表現時,高外顯自尊者比低外顯自尊者有較少的練習行為,會比較容易有行為式自我設限的表現出現;(4)內隱自尊對宣稱式自我設限亦有主要效果:低內隱自尊者比高內隱自者會比較傾向使用宣稱性自我設限,容易表達出他注意力不集中、有壓力等口語訊息;(5)外顯與內隱自尊對宣稱式自我設限有交互作用效果:高外顯/低內隱自尊者(威脅性自尊者)比高外顯/高內隱自尊者(安全性自尊者)容易使用宣稱式的自我設限策略;(6) 外顯與內隱自尊對非口語焦慮行為頻率有交互作用效果:高外顯/低內隱自尊者(威脅性自尊者)比高外顯/高內隱自尊者(安全性自尊者)表現出更多的不安、緊張等臉部與行為的表情。研究中亦嘗試討論情境、內隱自尊、外顯自尊對宣稱式自我設限的三因子交互作用,與兩類自尊各自在不同情境中的主要效果。
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Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
心理學研究所
93752007
96
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