政大學術集成


Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/33273


Title: 風險認知、危機溝通策略與形象報導之關聯—以兩岸媒體對「杜邦鐵氟龍事件」的報導為例
Authors: 莊靜怡
Contributors: 黃懿慧
莊靜怡
Keywords: 風險認知
危機溝通策略
形象報導
跨地區比較
Date: 2005
Issue Date: 2009-09-17 15:56:38 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本研究以「杜邦鐵氟龍事件」為個案,海峽兩岸的媒體報導為研究對象,描述與比較媒體報導所呈現的杜邦公眾風險認知、杜邦的危機溝通策略與媒體形象報導,並以杜邦的媒體形象報導作為應變項,進行變項間的關聯性研究,藉跨地區的比較,討論背後可能的文化意涵。

本研究的主要研究結果分成三部分:
(一)風險認知:研究結果顯示,「個人暴露於風險之中」「後果嚴重」「對風險有控制權」三項風險特質,最能解釋和預測公眾感到危險的程度。在杜邦與其公眾的比較上,杜邦較常採用量化或然率來詮釋風險,作為其否認風險危害的輔助工具。在海峽兩岸的比較方面,呈現在台灣媒體報導中的公眾,比較認為風險的「後果嚴重」,中國大陸的媒體報導裡,公眾則較感到該風險「可佈」、對於該風險的相關知識較低。

(二)危機溝通:研究結果發現,杜邦最常使用「否認」、「提供資訊」、「討好」策略,貫徹了「相信,而不是原諒杜邦」的訴求。此外,杜邦在二地所採取的危機溝通策略並無顯著差異,杜邦並未因應地區不同而改變溝通策略。在組織形象報導方面,分析結果顯示,杜邦在「道德」、「信譽」方面遭受到質疑,與中國大陸媒體報導相比較,杜邦在台灣媒體報導所呈現的形象,信譽較低、較不能信任。

(三)風險認知與危機溝通間的關聯:研究結果顯示,危機溝通策略和媒體對杜邦的形象報導間,並無顯著關聯,不過風險認知對於杜邦形象報導的影響達到顯著水準,當公眾的風險認知愈高,組織形象報導愈差,而風險認知影響組織形象報導的程度,台灣大於中國大陸。此外,本研究分別檢驗地區差異、風險認知作為危機溝通策略和形象報導間中介變項的可能性,結果發現,危機溝通策略和風險認知會交互影響組織形象報導,風險認知作為危機溝通策略與組織形象報導中介變項的關聯效果模式,獲得支持。

本研究根據上述發現,對「風險認知」和「危機溝通」作出理論與實務上的回應與建議。
Reference: 中文部分
〈鐵氟龍不沾鍋可能致癌?大賣場:先下架再說〉(2005年1月20日)。東森新聞報。
王石番(1989)。《傳播內容分析法:理論與實證》。台北:幼獅。
王奕晴(2003)。《海峽兩岸網路廣告中價值觀之比較研究》。政治大學心理學研究所碩士論文。
沈耀華(2005年4月22日)。〈杜邦在中國上了一堂震撼教育課〉,《商業週刊》。 上網日期:2005年8月27日,取自http:// www.businessweekly. com.tw/
article.php?id=20091
李秀珠、遲嫻儒(2004)。〈組織中上行影響策略之研究:西方及中國式上行影響模式之比較〉,《新聞學研究》,80: 89-126。.
吳祉芸(2003)。《兩岸品牌個性之跨文化比較 以報紙廣告為例》。政治大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。
吳宜蓁(2004)。〈SARS 風暴的危機溝通與現階段宣導策略檢視:以臺灣政府為例〉,《遠景基金會季刊》,5(4): 107-150。
吳宜蓁(2000)。〈危機溝通策略與媒體效能之模式建構研究──關於腸病毒風暴的個案研究〉,《新聞學研究》,62: 1-34。
邱皓政(2000)。《量化研究與統計分析》。台北,五南。
徐亦橋(2004年10月16日)。〈鐵氟龍材料含致癌物 大陸官方檢驗未發現 國內賣場傳出要下架 不沾鍋致癌?杜邦急澄清〉,《中國時報》,頁E4。
徐美苓(2001)。《愛滋病與媒體》。台北:巨流。
孫秀蕙(1997)。《公共關係:理論、策略與研究實例》。台北:正中。
消費者文教基金會(2005年12月31日)。〈正式宣告『鐵氟龍塗層』為不受歡迎產品〉(消費新聞發佈)【公告】。台北市:消費者文教基金會。上網日期:2006年4月9日,取自http://www.consumers.org.tw/unit412.aspx?id=584
詹乃璇(2003)。《跨文化形象修復策略理論初探-黃義交緋聞案與柯林頓緋聞案之比較》。政治大學廣告學研究所碩士論文。
郭婉玲(2002)。《兩岸新聞交流歷程之探索(1987-2003)》。中國文化大學中國大陸研究所碩士論文。
黃宇(2004年7月26日)。〈杜邦CEO:請相信,而不是原諒杜邦〉,《國際金融報》(中國大陸),頁B6。
黃浩榮(2003)。〈風險社會下的大眾媒體:公共新聞學作為重構策略〉,《國家發展研究》,3(1): 99-147。
黃振家等譯(2002)。《大眾媒體研究》,台北:學富出版社。(原書Wimmer, R. D., & Dominick, J. R. [2000]. Mass media research: An introduction (6th ed.) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing)。
黃懿慧(2001)。〈淺談形象修復策略—危機回應〉,《公關雜誌》,42: 38-41。
黃懿慧(1993)。〈從反核運動看核四溝通問題〉,《理論與政策》,7(4): 86-102。
黃懿慧(1994)。《科技風險與環保抗爭—台灣民眾風險認知個案研究》。台北:五南。
黃懿慧(1999)。〈西方公共關係理論學派之探討──90年代理論典範的競爭與辯論〉,《廣告學研究》,12: 1-38。
張紹勳(2004)。《研究方法》。台中:滄海。
黎敏如(2005)。《危機指控之真實性與形象修復策略、框架策略之關聯性研究──以「呂秀蓮疑散佈總統府緋聞案」為例》。政治大學廣告研究所碩士論文。
劉玉珍、洪茂蔚、戴維芯(2004)。〈從展望理論看選舉決策〉,《貨幣觀測與信用評等》,45: 3-12。
羅文輝、陳韜文、潘忠黨、蘇鑰機、陳懷林、李金銓、魏然(2004)。《變遷中的大陸、香港、台灣新聞人員》。台北:巨流。
蘇世欣(2001)。《企業危機溝通管理初探:以台灣企業公關業務負責人調查為例》。世新大學傳播研究所碩士論文。
蔡琰、臧國仁(1999)。〈新聞敘事結構:再現故事的理論分析〉,《新聞學研究》,58: 1-28。
鄭伯壎(1998)。〈海峽兩岸組織文化之比較研究〉,鄭伯壎、黃國隆、郭建志(編),《海峽兩岸之企業文化》。台北:遠流出版公司。
英文部分
Alsop, R. J. (2004). The 18 Immutable Laws of Corporate Reputation. New York: Free Press.
Benoit, W. L. (1997). Image repair discourse and crisis communication. Public Relations Review, 23(2), 177-187.
Benoit, W. L., & Brinson, S. L. (1994). AT&T: Apologies are not enough. Communication Quarterly, 42, 75-88.
Benoit, W. L., & Brinson, S. L. (1999). Queen Elizabeth's image repair discourse: Insensitive royal or compassionate Queen? Public Relations Review, 25, 145-156.
Berge, P. L. & Luckmann, T. (1967). The social construction of reality. Garden City, NY: Anchor.
Bishop, R. L. (1989). Qi Lai! Mobilizing one billion Chinese: The Chinese communication system. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.
Boholm, A. D. (2003). The cultural nature of risk: Can there be an anthropology of
uncertainty? Ethnos, 68(2), 159-178.
Bontempo, R. N., Bottom, W. P. & Weber, E. U. (1997). Cross-cultural differences in risk perception: A model-based approach.
Bradford, J. L. & Garrett, D. E. (1995). The Effectiveness of Corporate Communicative Responses to Accusations of Unethical Behavior, The Journal of Business Ethics, 14(11), 875-892.
Brinson, S. L., & Benoit, W. L. (1996). Dow Corning's image repair strategies in the breast implant crisis. Communication Quarterly, 44, 29-41
Caillouet, R. H., & Allen, M. A. (1996). Impression management strategies employees. use when discussing their organization’s public image, Journal of Public Relations Research, 8(4), 211-227.
Cancel, A. E., Mitrook, M. A., & Cameron, G.. T. (1999). Testing the contingency theory of accommodation in public relations. Public Relations Review, 25(2), 171-197.
Chang, T. K., Shoemaker, P. J., & Brendlinger, N. (1987). Determinants of international news coverage in the U.S. media. Communication Research, 14, 396-414.
Conlisk, J. (1989). Three variants of the Allais example. American Economic Review, 79, 392-407.
Coombs, W. T. (1995). Choosing the right words: The development of guidelines for selection of the appropriate crisis-response strategies. Management Communication Quarterly, 8(4), 447-476.
Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (1996). Communication and attributions in a crisis: An experimental study in crisis communication. Journal of Public Relations Research, 8, 279-295.
Coombs, W. T.(1999). Ongoing Crisis Communication. Sage Publications.
Coombs, W. T., & Schmidt, L. (2000). An empirical analysis of image restoration: Texaco’s racism crisis. Journal of Public Relations Research, 12, 163–178.
Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (2001). An extended examination of the crisis situation: A fusion of the relational management and symbolic approaches. Journal of Public Relations Research, 13(4), 321–340.
Cottle, S. (1998). Ulrich Beck, ‘risk society’ and the media. European Journal of Communication, 13(1): 5-32.
Dake, K. (1991). Orienting dispositions in the perception of risk: An analysis of contemporary worldviews and cultural biases. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 22, 61-82.
Douglas, M., & Wildavsky, A. (1982). Risk and culture. Berkley: University of California Press.
Englander, T., Farago, K., Slovic, P., & Fischhoff, B. (1986). A comparative analysis of risk perception in Hungary and the United States. Social Behaviour: An International Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 1, 55-66.
Fearn-Banks, K. (1996). Crisis communications: A casebook approach. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum .
Fischhoff, B., Slovic, P., Lichtenstein, S., Read, S., & Combs, B. (1978). How safe is safe enough? A psychometric study of attitudes towards technological risks and benefits. Policy Sciences, 9, 127-152.
Frewer, L., Miles, S., & Marsh, R. (2002). The media and genetically modified foods: evidence in support of the social amplification of risk. Risk Analysis, 22(4), 701-711.
Gonzalez-Herrero, A. & Pratt, C. B. (1996). An Integrated Symmetrical Model for Crisis-Communications Management. Journal of Public Relations Research, 8(2), 79-105.
Gamson, W. A. (1992). Talking Politics. Cambridge University Press.
Grunig J.E., & Grunig, L. (1992). Models of Public relations and Communication. In J.E. Grunig (Ed.), Excellence in Public Relations and Communication Management (pp.31-64). Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hallman, W. K. & Wandersman, A. (1992). Attribution of responsibility and individual and collective coping with environment threats. Journal of Social Issues, 48(4), 101-118.
Haruta, A., & Hallahan, K. (2003). Airline Crisis Communication: A Japan-U.S. Comparative Study, Asian Journal of Communication, 13(2), 122-150.
Hearit, K. M.(1994). Apologies and public relations crises at Chrysler, Toshiba, and Volvo. Public Relations Review, 20(2), 113-125.
Hearit, K. M.(1996). The use of counter-attack in apologetic public relations crises: The case of General Motors vs. Dateline NBC. Public Relations Review, 22, 233-248.
Hearit, K. M.(1997). On the use of transcendence as an apologia strategy: The case of Johnson Controls and its Fetal Protection Policy. Public Relations Review, 23(3), 217-231.
Heath, R. L.(1997). Strategic Issues Management—Organizations and Public Policy Challenges. CA: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (1983). Dimensions of national cultures in fifty countries and three regions. In J. Deregowski, S. Dzirawiec, & R. Annis (Eds.), Explications in Cross-Cultural Psychology (pp. 389-407). Lisse, the Netherlands: Swets and Zeitlinger.
Hofstede, G., & Bond, M. H. (1988). The confucius connection: From cultural roots to economic growth. Organizational Dynamics, 16 (4), 5-21
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences, comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Hohenemser, C., Kates, R. W., & Slovic, P. (1983). The nature of technological hazard. Science, 220, 378- 384.
Holtgrave, D. R., Weber, E. U. (1993). Dimensions of risk perception for financial and health risks. Risk Analysis, 13(5), 553-558.
Horlick-Jones, T., Sime, J., & Pidgeon, N. (2003). The social dynamics of environmental risk perception: implications for risk communication research and practice. In N. Pidgeon, R. E. Kasperson & P. Slovic (Eds.), The social amplification of risk (pp. 262-285). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Johnson, B. L. (1989). Qualitative Risk Assessment. In V. T. Covello, D. B. McCallum & M. T. Pavlova (Eds.), Effective risk communication: The role and responsibility of government and nongovernment organizations. New York: Plenum.
Jones, T. M. (1995). Instrumental stakeholder theory: A synthesis of ethics and economics. Academy of Management Review, 20, 404-437.
Jordan, G. (2002). NGOs and Risk: The politics of changing decision venues. In A. Weale (Ed.), Risk, democratic citizenship and public policy (pp. 59-71). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press
Kahneman, D., & Tverskey, A. (1979). Prospect theory: Analysis of decision under risk. Economica, 47, 263-289.
Kanayama, T & Cooper-Chen, A. (2005). Hofstede’s masculinity/femininity dimension and the pregnancy of princess Masako: An analysis of Japanese and international newspaper coverage. Keio Communication Review, 27, 23-42.
Kasperson, R.E., Renn, O., Slovic, P., Brown, S., Emel, J., Goble, R., Kasperson, J.X., & Ratick, S. (1988). The social amplification of risk: A conceptual framework. Risk Analysis, 8(2), 177 187.
Kauffman, J.(2001). A successful failure: NASA’s crisis communications regarding Apollo 13. Public Relations Review, 27, 437-448.
Keil, M., Tan, B. C. Y., Wei, K. K. (2000). Cross-cultural study on escalation of commitment behavior in software project. MIS Quarterly, 24(2), 299-325.
Keown, C. F. (1989). Risk Perception of Hong Kongese versus Americans. Risk Analysis. 9(3): 401–407.
Kerlinger, F. N. (1986). Foundations of behavioral research. Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Kleinhesselink, R. R. & Rosa, E. A. (1991). Cognitive representation of risk perceptions- a comparison of Japan and United States. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 22(1), 11-28.
Kluckhohn, F. R., & Strodtbeck, F. L. (1961). Variations in value orientations. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Lam, L. T. (2005). Parental risk perceptions of childhood pedestrian road safety: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Safety Research, 36(2), 181-187.
Langford, I. H., Marris, C., McDonald, A. L., Goldstein, H., Rasbash, J., & O'Riordan, T. (1999). Simultaneous analysis of individual and aggregate responses in psychometric data using multilevel modeling. Risk Analysis, 19(4), 675-683.
Lee, B. K. (2004). Audience-oriented approach to crisis communication: A study of Hong Kong consumers’ evaluation of an organizational crisis", Communication Research, 31(5), 600-618.
Leiss, W. (2003). Searching for the public policy relevance of the risk amplification framework. In N. Pidgeon, R. E. Kasperson & P. Slovic (Eds.), The social amplification of risk (pp. 355-373). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Lerbinger, O. (1997). The crisis manager: facing risk and responsibility. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Lundgren, R. E. & McMakin, A. H. (1998). Risk Communication: A Handbook for Communicating Environmental Safety and Health Risks.(2nd ed). Columbus, OH: Battelle.
Marcus, A. A., & Goodman, R. S. (1991). Victims and shareholders: the dilemmas of presenting corporate policy during a crisis. Academy of Management Journal, 34, 281 -305
Marris, C., Langford, I., Saunderson T., & O’Riordan, T. (1997). Exploring the ''psychometric paradigm'': Comparisons between aggregate and individual analyses. Risk Analysis, 17(3), 303-312.
McDaniels, T. L., & Gregory, R. S. (1991). A frame work for structuring cross-cultural research in risk and decision making. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 22(1), 103-128.
Mishra, A. K. (1996). Organizational reponses to crisis: The centrality of trust. In R. M. Kramer & T. R. Tyler (Eds.), Trust in organizations: Frontiers of theory and research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
National Research Council (1989). Improving risk communication. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Ohbuchi, K., Kameda, M., & Agarie, N. (1989). Apology as aggression control: Its role in mediating appraisal of and response to harm.
Palenchar, M. J. & Heath, R. L. (1991). Another Piece in the Risk Communication Model: An Analysis of Risk Communication Process and Communication Content. Journal of Public Relations Research, 14(2), 127-158.
Poortinga, W., & Pidgeon, N. F. (2005). Trust in Risk Regulation: Cause or Consequence of the Acceptability of GM Food? Risk Analysis, 25(1), 199-209.
Peters, R. G., Covello, V. T., & McCallum, D. B. (1997). The determinants of trust and credibility in environmental risk communication: An empirical study. Risk Analysis, 17, 43-54.
Rosa, E. A. (2003). The logical structure of the social amplification of risk (SARF): Metatheoretical foundations and policy implications. In N. Pidgeon, R. E. Kasperson & P. Slovic (Eds.), The social amplification of risk (pp. 47-79). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Savadori, L., Savio, S., Nicotra, E., Rumiati, R., Finucane, M., Slovic, P. (2004). Expert and Public Perception of Risk from Biotechnology . Risk Analysis, 24(5), 1289-1299.
Siegrist, M., (2000). The influence of trust and perception of risks and benefits on the acceptance of gene technology. Risk Analysis, 20(2), 195-203.
Siegrist, M., Cvetkovich, G., & Roth, C. (2000). Salient value similarity, social trust, and risk/benefit perception. Risk Analysis, 20(3),353-362.
Siegrist, M., Keller, C., Kiers, H. A. L. (2005). A new look at the psychometric paradigm of perception of hazards. Risk Analysis, 25 (1), 211-222.
Singer, E., & Endreny, P. M. (1993). Reporting on Risk: How the Mass Media Portray Accidents, Diseases, Disasters, and Other Hazards. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Slovic, P., Fischhoff, B., & Lichtenstein, S. (1980). Facts and fears: Understanding perceived risk. In R. C. Schwing & W. A. Albers Jr. (Eds.), Societal Risk Assessment: How Safe is Safe Enough? (pp. 181-216). New York: Plenum Press.
Slovic, P. (1986). Informing and educating the public about risk. Risk Analysis, 6(4), 403-415.
Slovic, P. (1987). Perception of risk. Science, 236, 280-285.
Slovic, P. (1998). Do adolescent smokers know the risks? In P. Slovic (Ed.), The Perception of Risk (pp. 364-371). London: Earthscan.
Starr, C. (1969). Social benefit versus technological risk. Science, 165, 1232-1238.
Stocker, K. P. (1997). A strategic approach to crisis management. In C. L. Caywood (Ed.), The Handbook of Strategic PR & Integrated Communications (pp. 189-206). NY: McGraw-Hill.
Sturges, D. L. (1994). Communicating through crisis: A strategy for organizational survival. Management Communication Quarterly, 7(3), 297-316.
Taylor, M. (2000). Cultural variance as a challenge to global public relations:
a case study of the Coca-Cola scare in. Europe, Public Relations Review, 26, 277-293.
Teigen, K. H., Brun, W., & Slovic, P. (1988). Societal risks as seen by a Norwegian public. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 1, 111-130.
Trettin, L. & Musham, C. (2000) Is trust a realistic goal of environmental risk communication? Environment Behavior, 32(3): 410-426.
Triandis, H. C. (1989). The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts. Psychological Review, 96, 506-520.
Trompenaars, F., & Hampden-Turner, C. (1998). Riding the Waves of Culture:Understanding Cultural Diversity in Global Business (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Tverskey, A., & Kahneman, D. (1981). The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science, 211, 453-458.
Tverskey, A., & Kahneman, D. (1992). Advances in prospect theory: cumulative representation of uncertainty. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 5(4), 297-323.
Vaughan, E., & Seifert, M. (1992). Variability in the framing of risk issues. Journal of Social Issues, 48(4), 119-135.
Viklund, M. (2003). Trust and risk perception: a West European cross-national study. Risk Analysis, 23, 727–738
Weber, E. U., Hsee, C. K., Sokolowska, J. (1998). What folklore tells us about risk and risk taking: cross-cultural comparisons of American, German, and Chinese proverbs. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 75(2), 170-187.
Weber, E. U., & Hsee C. (1998). Cross-cultural differences in risk perception, but cross-cultural similarities in attitudes towards perceived risk. Management Science, 44(9), 1205-1217.
Weber, E. U., & Milliman, R. (1997) Perceived risk attitudes: Relating risk perception to risky choice. Management Science, 43(2), 122-143.
Williams, D. E. & Olaniran, B. A. (1998). Expanding the Crisis Planning Function: Introducing Elements of Risk Communication to Crisis Communication Practice. Public Relations Review, 24(3), 387-400.
Xie, X., Wang, M., & Xu, L. (2003). What risks are Chinese people concerned about? Risk Analysis, 23(4), 685-695.
Yin, R. K.(1981). The case study crisis: Some answers. Administrative Science Quaterly, 26, 58-65.
Yin, R. K.(1994). Case study research: Design and methods. London: Sage Publications.
Yu, T., & Wen, W. (2003).Crisis communication in Chinese culture: A case study in Taiwan. Asian Journal of Communication, 13(2), 50-64.
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
新聞研究所
92451023
94
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0924510231
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[Department of Journalism ] Theses

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
51023101.pdf76KbAdobe PDF927View/Open
51023102.pdf100KbAdobe PDF1008View/Open
51023103.pdf144KbAdobe PDF1016View/Open
51023104.pdf358KbAdobe PDF1841View/Open
51023105.pdf373KbAdobe PDF4818View/Open
51023106.pdf60KbAdobe PDF2035View/Open
51023107.pdf425KbAdobe PDF1366View/Open
51023108.pdf405KbAdobe PDF1367View/Open
51023109.pdf228KbAdobe PDF1506View/Open
51023110.pdf167KbAdobe PDF1028View/Open


All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


社群 sharing