Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/33446


Title: How to Improve Low-Achievers' Listening Abilities─Using PE students as An Example
如何增進低學習成就者英聽能力─以體育生為例
Authors: 黃永蓮
Huang,, Yung-lien
Contributors: 葉潔宇
Yeh, Chieh-yue
黃永蓮
Huang,, Yung-lien
Keywords: 低學習成就者
聽英文歌
聽一段文章
週記書寫
low achievers
listening to English songs
listening to passages
journal writing
Date: 2005
Issue Date: 2009-09-17 16:37:01 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本研究旨在探討如何增進低學習成就者英聽能力,除了研究何種聽力教材符合低學習成就者認知上的需求之外,並在英聽課從情意因素著手,引起低學習成就者學習動機,而且英聽課程設計也融入多元智慧,從外在成績的提昇激勵低學習成就者內發性地自主學習動機。
本研究以14位高三體育生為研究對象,研究時間持續一學期從2003年9月到2004年1月,研究工具以日記方式由學生記錄聽英文歌曲以及英文文章段落的課後心得。資料分析取自學生日記。
本研究結果如下:〈一〉淺顯易懂與學生日常生活相關而且包括學生先前學過的生字、片語、句型的英文歌曲以及文章段落有益於增進低學習成就者英聽能力。〈二〉愉快而且充滿互助的教室氣氛減少英文學習的焦慮,維持低學習成就者自尊,增加低學習成就者自信,引起學習動機。〈三〉融入六種多元智慧〈語文智慧、音樂智慧、視覺空間智慧、肢體-動覺智慧、人際智慧、內省智慧〉的英聽課程以聽前(pre-listening)、聽時(while-listening)、聽後(post-listening)三階段可有效的加強低學習成就者英聽能力。〈四〉外在的獎賞可激勵低學習成就者內發性自主學習。
This research investigated how to improve low achievers’ listening ability, using PE students as the subject of the study. The purpose was (a) to investigate what kind of listening materials meet low achievers’ cognitive needs; (b) to motivate low achievers in listening course affectively; (c) to apply MI theory into listening curriculum development for low achievers; (d) to trigger low achievers extrinsically and intrinsically in English class.
A total of 14 high school PE seniors in Taipei County in Taiwan participated in the study. The research period lasted for a semester from September 2003 to January 2004. Journals on listening to songs and listening to passages were employed as instruments. Data for the research were collected from students’ journals.
The results of the study are summarized as follows. (1) Comprehensible English songs and English passages related to learners’ daily life, including lexis, phrases, and sentence patterns they previously learned were especially beneficial for low achievers to improve their listening ability. (2) A pleasant and supportive classroom atmosphere enables low achievers to reduce language learning anxiety and maintain low achievers’ self-esteem. (3) Courses integrating six intelligences (i.e. verbal/linguistic, musical, visual-spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal intelligences) were designed into three stages; i.e. pre-listening, while-listening, and post-listening in the listening treatment, and proved to be effective. (4) Low achievers were inspired by extrinsic rewards and intrinsic factors. Better grades and positive feedback inspired low achievers’ extrinsic motivation. Besides, intrinsic motivation derived from comprehensible input and listening to English songs.
The findings of the study suggest that low achievers’ listening ability can be effectively improved as long as listening materials are carefully designed to suit students’ needs.
Reference: Chinese (中文部份):
葉 潔 宇。 英語系一年級學生對會話課之態度及看法:學生週記研究。國立
治大學學報第68期抽印本。中華民國83年3月。
葉 潔 宇。 英語聽力教學。英語教學雜誌社:第25卷第1期編號97號。
中華民國89年7月。
江慧英。 國小級任老師以歌謠韻文將英語融入各科教學之模式研究─以一個四年級的班級為例。國立台北師範學院兒童英語教育研究所碩士論文。中華民國92年7月。
English (英文部份):
Aronson, Joshua. (2004). The threat of stereotype. Educational Leadership, Volume 62, No. 3 November.
Asher, J. (1977). Learning another language through actions: The complete teacher’s guidebook. Los Gatos, CA: Sky Oaks Productions.
Auerbach, E. R. 1992. Making Meaning, Making Change. Washington, D. C.: Center for Applied Linguistics and Delta System.
Benson, M. J. (1989). The academic listening task: a case study. TESOL QUARTERLY, 23, 421-445.
Crane Publishing Co., Ltd.
James, N. Herndon. (1987). Learner interests, achievement, and continuing motivation in instruction. Journal of Instructional Development, v10,n 3,p11-14.
Jedynak, M. (2000). Using Music in the Classroom. In English Teaching Forum, 38, 4, pp.30-32.
Johnson, D. W. and Johnson, R. T. (1994). Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Joiner, E. G. (1984). Listening from the inside out. Foreign Language Annals, 17(4), 335-338.
Karge, Belinda. (1998). Knowing what to teach: using authentic assessment to improve classroom instruction. Reading and Writing Quarterly, v14, n3, p319-31.
Kent, B. David. (1999). Reviewing time with the song ‘Rock Around the Clock’. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol.V, No. 4. from http://iteslj.org/
Kerman, Sam. (1979). Teacher expectations and student achievement. Phi Delta Kappan, v60, n10, p716-18.
Kingen, Sharon. (1995). Journal writing from retreat to reward. English Journal v84 n2 p99-102 Feb
Ko, C., Y. (2002). A case study on applying MI theory to improve low
Bernhardt, E.B., & James, C. J. (1987). The teaching and testing of comprehension in foreign language learning. In D.W. Birckbichler (Ed.), Proficiency, Policy, and Professionalism in Foreign Language Education (pp. 68-81). Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company.
English proficiency students’ learning competences in senior high. MA thesis. National Chengchi University.
Ko, Chih-yi. (2002). A case study on applying MI theory to improve low English proficiency students’ learning competences in senior high. MA thesis. National Chengchi University.
Kohler,W. F., Ezell, H., Hoel, K., & Strain, S. P. (1994). Supplemental peer practice in a first-grade math class: effects on teacher behavior and five low achievers’ responding and acquisition of content. Elementary School Journal, v94 n4 p389-403.
Krashen, Stephen D. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon.
Krashen, Stephen D. (1985). The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. London & New York: Longman.
Kydd, Gillian. (2002). Thinking deeply about literacy. Early Childhood Education, Vol.35, No.1.
Lamme, L. L., Sabis-Burns, D. & Gould, J. (2004). Project booktalk: library books and lap reading in childcare homes. Early Childhood Education Journal, Vol. 32, No. 1.
Landsman, J. (2004). Confronting the racism of low expectations. Educational Leadership, Vol.62, No. 3.
Lazear, D. (1999). Eight ways of teaching. USA: SkyLight Training and Publishing Inc.
Lee, W. H. & others. (1970). Schooling and earnings of low achievers. American Economic Review 60, 3, 409-418.
Blachowicz, L. Z., Camille, Obrochta, Connie, & Fogelberg Ellen. (2005). Literacy coaching for change. Educational Leadership, Vol.62, No. 6.
Leslie, Eloise, Somers. (2000). The effects of rhythm, music, song, and chant in the Korean English language classroom. Proquest Dissertations and Theses p.148 p.(148p.p) from http://proquest.umi. Com/pqdweb?did=731969361/&Fmt=2& clientld=17319& RQT=309&VNa
Li, Yu-Fen. (1999). The effects of slow speech on Chinese EFL learners’ listening comprehension. MA thesis. National Changhua Normal University.
Lie, Teh-wang. (2002). Junior high school English teachers’ attitudes toward and strategies for teaching English songs. MA thesis. National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Lin, Bor-ing. (2003). Multiple Intelligences Theory and English Language Teaching, from http://highschool.english.nccu.edu.tw
Lin, S., O., & Hung, H., N. (2003). Effective listening. Taipei, Taiwan: Lung Ten Company.
Lin, Shu-hua. (2000). A study of English listening comprehension strategies used by senior high school students in Taiwan. MA thesis. National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Lin, Yi-ju. (2003). A case study on the effects of applying authentic material as listening comprehension supplements for EFL senior high school students. MA thesis. National Chengchi University.
Liu, Ming-yi. (1999). An experimental study of English relative clauses by Chinese junior high school students in Taiwan. MA thesis. National Taiwan Normal University.
Lo, Mei-lan. (2002). The effects of teachers’ beliefs and musical intelligence on teaching songs and rhymes. MA thesis. National Taipei Teachers College.
Lu, J. J. (2002). An analysis of the reading comprehension test given in the
Blanche Wilma, Wilcox (1995). Music cues from classroom singing for second language acquisition: prosodic memory for pronunciation of target vocabulary by adult nonnative English speakers. Dissertation. University of Kansas. Proquest Dissertations and Thesis. p.151. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=741164301&Fmt=2&clientld=17319&RQT=309&\VNa
English subject ability test in Taiwan and its pedagogical implications. MA thesis. National Chengchi University.
Lukinsky, J. (1990). Reflective withdrawal through journal writing. In J. Mezirow & Associates (Eds.), Fostering Critical reflection in adulthood (pp.213-234). San Francisco: JosseyBass.
MacIntyre P D. (1999). Language anxiety: A review of the research for language teachers. In Young D J (ed.) Affect in foreign language and second language learning. McGraw-Hill, Boston, MA pp24-45.
Madelyn, B., A. (1982). Listening: The forgotten skill. U.S.A.
Maloney, K. & Saunders, T. (2004). Mentoring minority students. Educational Leadership, Vol.62, No.3.
Manyak, C. P. (2004). Literacy instruction, disciplinary practice, and diverse learners: a case study. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, Vol.4, No. 1.
Marshall, G. (1974). Two remedial. Mathematics in School 3, 2, 4-6.
Maslow, Abraham H. (1970). Motivation and Personality. Second Edition. New York: Harper & Row
Masur, E. F. (1978). Preschool boys’ speech modifications: the effect of listeners’ linguistic levels and conversational responsiveness. Child Development v49 n3 p924-27.
Mendelson, D., & Rubin, J. (Eds.) (1995). A guide for the teaching of second language listening. San Diego: Dominie Press.
Bonesronning, Hans & Rattso, Jorn. (1994). Efficiency variation among the Norwegian high schools: consequences of equalization policy. Economics of Education Review, vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 289-304.
Mitchell, R. and Myles, R. (1998). Second language learning theories. London: Arnold.
Mizelle, B. N. (2005). Moving out of middle school. Educational Leadership, Vol.62, No. 7.
Mohan, B., A. (1979). Relating language teaching and content teaching. TESOL
QUARTERLY 13, 171-182.
Muijs, D. & Reynolds, D. (2003). The effectiveness of the use of learning support assistants in improving the mathematics achievement of low achieving pupils in primary school. Educational Research, Vol.45, No.3.
Murphey, T. (1996). Music & Song. New York: Oxford University Press.
Murphey, J., M. (1991). Oral communication in TESOL: Integrating
speaking ,listening, and pronunciation. TESOL QUARTERLY 25, 51-74.
Nelson, D. M. (1999). Middle school improvement initiatives: an exploratory study. NASSP Bulletin v83 n605 p106-19.
Norton, B. (1998). Using journals in second language research and teaching. In T. Smoke (ed.), Adult ESL: Politics, Pedagogy, and Participation in Classroom and Community Programs. Hillside, N.J.: Erlbaum.
Braio, Ann, Beasley, T. Mark, Dunn, Rita, & Quinn, Peter. (1997). Incremental implementation of learning style strategies among urban low achievers. Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 1, No. 1, p15-25.
Nunan, D. (1990). Language teaching methodology: A textbook for teachers. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Nunan, D. (1992). Research methods in language learning. New York: Cambridge
University Press.
Nunan, D., & Miller, L. (Eds.) (1995). New ways in teaching listening.
Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to speakers of other languages.
Orem, Richard, A. (2001). Journal writing in adult ESL: Improving Practice through Reflective Writing. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education n90 p69-77 summer.
Orlova, F. N. (2003). Helping prospective EFL teachers learn how to use songs in teaching conversation classes. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. IX, No. 3.
Pellegrini, D. A. & Bohn, M. C. (2005). The role of recess in children’s cognitive performance and school adjustment. Educational Researcher v34 n1.
Piaget, Jean. (1972). The Principles of Genetic Epistemology. New York: Basic Books.
Pica, T., Felicia, L., P., Paninos,D., & Linnell, J. (1996). Language learners’
Brindley, G. (1998). Assessing Listening Abilities. In W. Grabe (ed.), Foundations of second language teaching, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 18: 178-98
interaction: How does it address the input, output, and feedback needs of language
learners? TESOL QUARTERLY 30, 59-84.
Plata, M., Trusty, J. & Glasgow, D. (2005). Adolescents with learning disabilities. Are they allowed to participate in activities? The Journal of Educational Research, v98,n3.
Pope, D. C. & Simon, R. (2005). Help for stressed students. Educational Leadership, Vol.62, No.7.
Porter, P. A., L. M. Goldstein, J. Leatherman, and S. Conrad. (1990). An ongoing dialogue: learning logs for teacher preparation. In J. Richards and D. Nunan (eds.), Second Language Teacher Education. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Postovsky, L. (1974). Effects of delay in oral practice at the beginning of second language learning. Modern Language Journal, 58, 229-39.
Powell, W. & Napoliello, S. (2005). Using observation to improve instruction. Educational Leadership, Vol.62, No.5.
Quigley, B. A., and Kuhne, G. W. (1997). (eds.). Creating practical knowledge through action research: posing problems, solving problems, and improving daily practice. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, no. 73. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Rardin, J. ( 1977 ). The language teacher as facilitator. TESOL Quarterly 11,383-387.
Richards, J., C. ( 1983 ). Listening comprehension: Approach, design,
Brown, Gillian, and Yule, G. 1983a. Discouse Analysis. Cambridge: CUP
procedure.TESOL Quarterly 17, 219-240.
Richards, J., C. (1990). The Language Teach Matrix. Cambridge University Press.
Richards, J., C., Platt, J., & Platt, H. ( 1997 ). Dictionary of language &
Applied linguistics ( 7th impression ). Malaysia: Longman Malaysia, GSP.
Richards, C.J. & Rodgers, S. T. (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching p115-124. Cambridge University Press.
Rodiguez, F. L. (2005). Yo, mister! Educational Leadership, Vol.62, No.7.
Roe, F. M. (2004). Real reading interactions. Childhood Education, v81,n1
Rosenshine, B., & Stevens, R. (1986). Teaching functions. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed., pp376-391). New York: Macmillan.
Rossell, C. (2004). Teaching English through English. Educational Leadership v62 n4.
Rost, M. (1990). Listening in language learning. Longman Singapore Publishers (pte) Ltd.
Brown, H. D. ( 2000 ). Principles of language learning and teaching ( 4th ed. ). New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
Rost, M.(1991). Listening in action: Activities for developing listening
in language teaching. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Rost, M. (2002). Teaching and researching listening. Great Britain: Longman: Pearson Education Limited.
Rost, M., & Uruno, M. (1995). Basics in listening. Hong Kong: Longman Asia
Ltd.
Rubin, J. (1975). ‘What the “Good Language Learner” can teach us.’ TESOL Quarterly 9/1.
Sampson, N. (2001). Moving up: Listening and conversation. Hong Kong:
Macmillan Publishrs (China) Limited.
Saricoban, A. & Metin, E. (2000). Songs, Verse and Games for Teaching Grammar. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 10.
http://iteslj. org/ Techniques/Saricoban-Songs.html
Brown, H. D. ( 2001 ). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. New York: Pearson education.
Schoepp, K. (2001). Reasons for using songs in the ESL/EFL classroom. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VII, No. 2. http://iteslj. org/Articles/Schoepp-songs. html
Sensenbaugh, Roger. (1992). Journal writing in K-12 and Beyond. (ERIC Research Reviews). Reading Psychology v13 n4 p345-51 Oct-Dec.
Shalaway, L. (1990). Learning how to think helping discouraged learners succeed. Instructor v100 n2 p16. 18 .
Shechtman, Z., Lea Fos, I. G. & Flasher A. (1996). Brief group therapy with low-achieving elementary school children. Journal of Counseling Psychology v43 n4 p376-82.
Short, D. & Echevarria, J. (2004). Teacher skills to support English language learners. Educational Leadership, Vol. 62, No. 4.
Sireci, G. S. (2005). Unlabeling the disabled: a perspective on flagging scores from
accommodated test administrations. Educational Researcher v34 n1.
Slavin, R. (1989). Cooperative learning and student achievement. In: SLAVIN, R. (Ed) School and Classroom Organization. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Slavin, R. E. (1996). Education for All. Lisse: Swets and Zeitlinger.
Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford: Oxford
Brown, J. D.,& Hudson, T. (1998). The alternatives in language assessment. TESOL QUARTERLY, 32, 653-75.
University Press.
Smith, P. G. (2003). Music and mondegreens: extracting meaning from noise. ELT Journal volume 57/2.
Snow, B., G., Perkins, K. (1979). The teaching of listening comprehension and
communication activities. TESOL QUARTERLY 13, 51-63.
Sovel, Thomas. (1978). The effect of affect on foreign language learning: A review of the anxiety research. Language Learning 28: 129-142.
Sperber, D., and Wilson, D. (1986). Relevance: communication and cognition. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Stanley, J., A. (1978). Teaching listening comprehension: An interim report on a
project to use uncontrolled language data as a source material for training foreign students in listening comprehension. TESOL QUARTERLY 12, 285-295.
Stedman, M. J. & Adams, L. R. (1973). Teacher perception of behavioral adjustment as a function of linguistic ability in Mexican-American Head-Start children. Psychology in the Schools vol.10, n2, p221-225.
Steed, J., F. (2002). Listen here book I. Taipei, Taiwan: Caves Books Ltd.
Cakir, Abdulvahit. (1999). Musical activities for young learners of EFL. The Internet TESL Journal, vol. V, No. 11, November.
Sun, Kuo-chan. (2003). The effects of teaching rhythm as a means of
pronunciation instruction in secondary EFL classes in Taiwan. MA thesis. National ChingHua University.
Summers, A. and Wolfe, B.(1977). Do schools make a difference? Am. Ec. Rev. 67(4), 639-652
Swanson, L. H. & Keogh, B. (1990). Learning Disabilities: theoretical and research issues. USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers.
Swanson, L. H. & Saez, L. (2004). Literacy and cognitive functioning in bilingual and nonbilingual children at or not at risk for reading disabilities. Journal of Educational Psychology v96 n1 p3-18.
Taylor, H., M. ( 1981). Learning to listen to English. TESOL QUARTERLY 15,
41-50.
Taylor, J. S. & Bogdan, R. (1998). Introduction to qualitative research methods (3rd ed.). USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Thaiss, C. (1987). A journal in the arts. In T. Fulwiler (Ed.), The journal book (pp.246-253). Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook.
Thomas, A. (1994). Multiple intelligences in the classroom. Philadelphia:
Call, M.E. (1985). Auditory short-term memory, listening comprehension, and the input hypothesis. TESOL QUARTERLY, 19,765-781.
association for curriculum development.
Tomlinson, C. A. & Doubet, K. (2005). Reach them to teach them. Educational Leadership v62 n7.
Tsai, Li-huang. (2002). The effects of pictures for different genres of listening materials on senior high students’ listening comprehension. MA thesis. National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Underwood, M. (1989). Teaching listening. London: Longman.
Upendran, S. (2001). Teaching phrasal verbs using songs. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VII, No. 7. http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Upendran-phrasal verbs. html
Ur, P. (1984). Teaching listening comprehension. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Van. J. P. O. & others. (1983). Effects of individualised feedback and instruction on effort attributions, ability attributions and spelling achievement. Educational Studies v9 n2 p105-13.
Vandergrift, L. (1999). Facilitating second language listening comprehension: acquiring successful strategies. ELT Journal, 53 (4): 73-8.
Vaughan, L. A. (2005). The self-paced student. Educational Leadership v62 n7.
Cardelle-Elawar, Maria. (1995). Effects of metacognitive instruction on low achievers in mathematics problems. Teaching & Teacher Education, vol. 11, no. 1, pp.81-95
Wallace, R., & McCollaum, B., Johansson, R., & Kim, R., & Bramwell, S., & Smith, S. & Brooks, W. (1999). Listen and hear I. Singapore: Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.
Wang, Wen-Yin. (2002). Effects of gender and proficiency on listening comprehension strategy use by Taiwanese EFL senior high school students—a case from Changhua, Taiwan. MA thesis. National Changhua Normal University.
Wenze. T. G. & Wenze, N. (2004). Helping left-handed children adapt to school expectation. Childhood Education v81 n1.
Wheldall, K. & Watkins, R. (2004). Literacy levels of male juvenile justice detainees. Educational Review, Vol.56, No. 1.
Wigzell, R. & Al-Ansari, S. (1993). The pedagogical needs of low achievers. Canadian Modern Language Review v49 n2 p302-315.
Winitz, H., & Reeds, J. (1975). Comprehension and problem solving as strategies for language training. Mouton: The Hague
Witty, P. J. & DeBaryshe, D. B. (1994). Student and teacher perceptions of teachers’ communication of performance expectations in the classroom. Journal of Classroom Interaction v29 n1 p1-8.
Wohlwend, E. K. (2004). Chasing friendship: acceptance, rejection, and recess play. Childhood Education v81 n2.
Wright, T. (1987). Roles of Teachers and Learners. Oxford: OUP
Wu, Jia-rong. (2004). The effects of pictures at different time periods on the listening comprehension of junior high school students in Taiwan. MA thesis. National Chengchi University.
Chastain, K. D. (1979). Testing listening comprehension tests.
Wu, J. (2004). A view from the classroom. Educational Leadership v62 n4.
Yang, Li-chuan. (2002). Effects of an English singing program on English learning for TC and non-TC learners in junior high school. MA thesis. National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Ysseldyke, E. J., Algozzine, B., Shinn, R. M. & Mc Gue, M. (1982). Similarities and differences between low achievers and students classified learning disabled. Journal of Special Education v16 n1 p73-85.
Zachopoulou, E., Tsapakidou, A. & Derri, V. (2004). The effects of a developmentally appropriate music and movement program on motor performance. Early Childhood Research Quarterly v19 n4.
Zinnser, W. (1988). Writing to learn. New York: Harper & Row.
TESOL QUARTERLY, 13, 81-88.
Chen, I-Ju. (2000). Language learning strategies used by high and low
English proficiency students in a technology college. MA thesis. National Changhua
Normal University.
Chen, Mei-lan. (2002). The effects of repetition and pictures at different time
periods on the listening comprehension of senior high students in Taiwan. MA thesis. National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Chen, Wen-ho. (2004). Effects of jazz chant instruction on English learning for
vocational high school students. MA thesis. National Kaohsiung Normal University.
National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Chen, Yi-ming. (1996). Dialogue Journal Writing as Communication: A Descriptive Study
of a Juunior-High-School class. MA thesis. Ching Yi University.
Cheng, Yueh-chu. (2000). Effects of pictures as cues on English assessment of
listening comprehension at junior high school in Taiwan. MA thesis. National Changhua Normal University.
Chiang, C. S., Dunkel, P. (1992). The effect of speech modification, prior
knowledge and listening proficiency on EFL lecture learning. TESOL Quarterly 26, 345-374.
Cognato, C. A. (1999, October). The effects of transition activities on adolescent self-perception and academic achievement during the progression from eighth to ninth grade. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Middle Schools Association, Orlando, Florida.
Coren, S. (1992). The left-hander syndrome: The causes and consequences of left-handedness. New York: The Free Press.
Covington, M. (1999). Caring about learning: The nature and nurturing of subject-matter appreciation. Educational psychologist 34: 127-36
Cranmer, D., Laroy, C. (1993). Musical openings. Singapore: Longman
Singapore Publishers (pte) Ltd.
Crookes, Graham, and Schmidt, Richard W. (1991). Motivation: Reopening the research agenda. Language Learning 41: 469-512.
Cullen, Brian. (1998). Music and song in discussion. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol.IV,
No. 10, October.
Cullen, Brian (1999). Song dictation. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol.V, No. 10, October.
Cunningham, Paul A. (2001). Student created song exercises. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol.VII, No. 4, April. From http://iteslj. org/Lesson/Cunningham-Song Exercises. Html
Daniels, Erika. (2005). On the minds of middle schoolers. Educational Leadership, Vol. 62, No.7, April.
Davies, Peter, Shanks Becky, & Davies Karen. (2004). Improving narrative skills in young children with delayed language development. Educational Review, Vol. 56, No. 3, November.
Deci, Edward L. (1975). Intrinsic Motivation. New York: Plenum Press.
de Acosta, Martha. (1995). Journal writing in service-learning: lessons from a mentoring project. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning v2 p141-49 fall.
Dornyei, Zoltan. (2001). Teaching and researching motivation. England: Pearson Education Limited.
Dornyei, Zoltan. (2001). Motivational strategies in the language classroom. Cambridge University Press.
Dornyei, Zoltan, and Csizer, Kata (1998). Ten commandments for motivating language learners: Results of an empirical study. Language Teaching Research 2: 203-229
Dunkel, P. (1991). Listening in the native and second/ foreign language:
Toward an Integration of Research and Practice. TESOL Quarterly 25, 431-457.
Eken, D. K. (1996). Ideas for using pop songs in the English language classroom. In English Teaching Forum, 34, 1, 46-47
Ellis, R. ( 1999 ). Understanding second language acquisition. New York: Oxford University Press.
Eloise Leslie, Somers. (2000). The effects of rhythm, music, song, and chant in the Korean English language classroom. Dissertation. The Union Institute of Ohio. Proquest Dissertation and Theses. From the Website http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweh.?did=731969361&Fmt=z&clientld=17319&RQT=309&VNa
Faerch, C., & Kasper, G. (1986). The role comprehension in second-language learning. Applied Linguistic, 7(3), 257-274.
Faerch, K. (1984). Strategies in production and reception: some empirical evidence. In A. Davies, C. Criper and A. Howatt (eds), Interlanguage. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Fay, Kathleen & Whaley, Suzanne. (2004). The gift of attention. Educational Leadership, Vol.62, No. 4.
Ferris, D., & Tagg, T. (1996). Academic listening/ speaking tasks for ESL students: Problems, suggestions, and implications. TESOL QUARTERLY 30, 297-320.
Feyten, C. M. (1991). The power of listening ability: An overlooked dimension in language acquisition. The Modern Language Journal, 75(2), 73-180.
Findley, C., A., & Nathan, L., A. (1980). Functional language objectives in a competency based ESL curriculum. TESOL QUARTERLY 14, 221-231.
Finocchiaro, Mary, (1983). The Functional-National Approach: From Theory to Practice.
Oxford University Press.
Freeman, D., & Richards, J., C. (1993). Conceptions of teaching and the education of second language teachers. TESOL QUARTERLY 27, 193-216.
Fulwiler, T. (1987). Guidelines for using journals. In T. Fulwiler (Ed.), The journal book (pp.1-8). Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook.
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Harper and Row.
Gardner, H. (1997). Multiple Intelligences as a partner in school improvement. Educational Learship, 55(1), 20-21.
Gardner, H. & Hatch, T. (1989). Multiple intelligences go to school: Educational implications of the theory of Multiple intelligences. Educational Researcher, 18(8), 4-10.
Gardner, Robert C., and MacIntyre, Peter D. (1992). A student’s contributions to second language learning. Part I: cognitive variables. Language Teaching 25: 211-220.
Gass, S. M., & Madden, C.G. (Eds.). (1985). Input in second language acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Gatbonton, Elisabeth. (1983). Patterned phonetic variability in second language speech: A gradual diffusion model. In Robinett & Schachter, 1983..
Gordon, D., & Harper, A., Richards, J., C. (1997). Basic tactics for listening. New York: Oxford University Press.
Graham, C. (1993). Grammar chants: More Jazz Chants. OUP
Graham, C. (1994). Mother Goose Jazz Chants. OUP
Graunt, J., E. (1985). The use of popular songs in the ESL classroom. MA thesis. University of Kansas.
Grier,Terry & Peterson D. Kent. (2005). It’s cool to succeed. Educational Leadership, Vol. 62, No. 7, April.
Griffee, D., T. (1992). Songs in action. Prentice Hall International (UK) Ltd.
Gueskey, R. Thomas. (2004). Are zeros your ultimate weapon? The Education Digest, Vol. 70, No. 3.
Hafernik, J., J.,& Surguine, H. (1979). Using radio commercials as supplementary materials in ESL listening classes. TESOL QUARTERLY 13, 341-345.
Haggerty, A. Brian. (1995). Nurturning intelligences. USA: Innovative Learning Publications.
Hale, E. Janice. (2004). How school shortchange African American children. Educational Leadership, Vol. 62, No. 3.
Hanich, B. Laurie, & Jordan C. Nancy. (2004). Achievement─related beliefs of third-grade children with mathematics and reading difficulties. Educational Research, Vol.97, No. 5.
Hawkins, J. David, Doueck J. Howard, & Lishner M. Denise. (1988). Changing teaching practices in mainstream classrooms to improve bonding and behavior of low achievers. American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 31-50.
Haynes, M. Norris, Comer P. James, & Hamilton-Lee Muriel. (1988). Gender and achievement status differences on learning factors among black high school students. Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 81, No. 4, p233-37.
Helgesen, M., & Brown, S. (1995). Active listening: Introducing skills for understanding. New York: Cambridge University Press. Hipple, Marjorie L. (1985). Journal Writing in Kindergarten. Language Arts v62 n3 p255-61 March.
Hestwood, Diana L., & Ross, Taylor. (1973). Big bad basic skills-or, what one school system is doing to help low achievers. Mathematics Teacher, 66, 8, 687-693.
Hipple, Marjorie L. (1985). Journal Writing in Kindergarten. Language Arts v62 n3 p255-61 March
Ho, Chia-hui. (2003). A study of the Application of Weekly Dialogue Journals in an EFL Junior-High-Classroom. MA thesis. National Kaohsiung Normal Universsity.
Holliday, Adrian. (2002). Doing and writing qualitative research. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Hsiung, Wen-long. (2002). An analysis on listening comprehension difficulties in junior high school students. MA thesis. National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Hsu, His-ling. (2003). Integrating theory of multiple intelligences to the teaching of English nursery rhymes: an action research of EFL beginners in elementary school. MA thesis. National Taipei Teachers College.
Hu, Ling-sheue. (2000). The effects of knowledge of topical background and textual vocabulary on EFL students’ listening performance. MA thesis. National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Huang, C., S. (1999). Upgrading listening comprehension I. Taipei, Taiwan: The
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
英國語文學系英語教學碩士在職專班
90951014
94
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0909510142
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[英國語文學系] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
51014201.pdf44KbAdobe PDF1321View/Open
51014202.pdf16KbAdobe PDF1295View/Open
51014203.pdf69KbAdobe PDF1420View/Open
51014204.pdf25KbAdobe PDF2421View/Open
51014205.pdf62KbAdobe PDF8318View/Open
51014206.pdf63KbAdobe PDF2038View/Open
51014207.pdf66KbAdobe PDF1500View/Open
51014208.pdf45KbAdobe PDF2142View/Open
51014209.pdf93KbAdobe PDF2945View/Open


All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


社群 sharing