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Title: 1964年東京灣事件與美國對越南政策
The 1964 Tonkin Gulf Incident and American Policy toward Vietnam
Authors: 黃詩雯
Contributors: 陳鴻瑜
黃詩雯
Keywords: 東京灣事件
東京灣決議案
甘乃迪
詹森
越南政策
Date: 2006
Issue Date: 2009-09-17 17:49:27 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 1964年的東京灣事件可說是美國參加越戰的一個觸發點。雖然美國在甘迺迪總統時期就已經以派駐軍事顧問團的方式介入越南內部事務;但美國真正派軍隊進入越南,實地參與越戰的進行,卻要等到東京灣事件發生,國會通過《東京灣決議案》(Joint Resolution of Congress H.J. RES 1145, The Tonkin Gulf Resolution)後,才正式點燃美國與北越間的戰火。因此有人將《東京灣決議案》通過的日子—1964年8月7日,作為越戰正式爆發的日子。
本論文著重焦點是1964年的東京灣事件,美國政府於2004年、2005年與2006年先後針對東京灣事件將許多過去重要的機密檔案進行解密,使大眾能一窺四十年前歷史的真相。雖然在東京灣事件之後,不斷有懷疑的聲浪出現,但過去研究皆未能夠提出足夠官方證據證明此事件的真偽。本論文藉由資料收集、整理、分析,將此一歷史事件完整的呈現;並以此事件為點,向外擴大到探討此點對於美國的越南政策的確發生了變化。這樣的變化,對美國、南北越,甚至是國際社會來說,也帶來某種程度的衝擊。
本文在寫作時前半部份主要利用歷史分析法,還原東京灣事件之始末;後半部份則運用文獻分析,著重於資料的歸納與分析,探討美國政府對越南政策上,如何進行內部各單位、部會之間的意見交換及辯論,以有助於觀察美國對越南政策形成之背景與經過。
Reference: 壹、中文
一、專書
Macridis, Roy ed., 胡祖慶譯,《當代各國外交政策》,台北:國立編譯館,1991年。
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Schulzinger, Robert D. 著,席代岳譯,《鏖鬥的年代—1941-1975年間的美越關係》,台北:麥田,2001年。
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武文祥,譚逸譯,《越戰的回顧與檢討》,台北:黎明文化,1985年。
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時殷弘,《美國在越南的干涉和戰爭》,北京:世界知識出版社,1993年。
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陳鴻瑜,《中華民國與東南亞各國外交關係史(1912-2000)》,台北:鼎文,2004年。
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關中,《美國外交政策之檢討》,台北:財團法人民主文教基金會,1992年。
二、期刊雜誌
老氣編譯,〈陷入泥沼的第一步—「東京灣事件」始末〉,《世界博覽》,2004年12期,頁34-37。
林博文,〈越戰是伊戰的一面鏡子〉,《亞洲週刊》,2003年4月,17:15,頁36-38。
唐仁俊,〈美國參加越戰的回顧與省思〉,《空軍學術月刊》,2001年11月,540,頁30-40。
戴雲青,〈四國檔案曝光,解讀越戰秘辛〉,《亞洲週刊》,2000年5月,14:19,頁16-19。
嚴偉江,〈「東京灣事件」:幕後故事〉,《國際展望》,2002年17期,頁70-72。
三、報紙
人民日報
四、碩士論文
吳家新,《越戰對美、蘇、中共三角關係之影響》,政治大學外交系戰略與國際事務在職專班碩士論文,2002年。
陳偉英,《美國詹森總統對越戰政策(1964-1968)之研究》,政治大學政治研究所,碩士論文 1971年。
黃榮護,《越戰對美國外交政策的影響》,政治大學外交研究所,碩士論文,1986年。
簡長盛,《詹森總統與越戰之研究》,淡江大學美國研究所,碩士論文,1984年。
貳、英文
一、官方出版品
Eisenhower Press Conference, 7 April 1954, in Foreign Relations of the United States 1952-54, vol. 13: Indochina (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1982)
Howells, W. Dean and Dorothy Avery, and Fred Greene, Vietnam in 1961-1968 As Interpreted in INR's Production, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 121, (May, 2004)
Joint Resolution of Congress H.J. RES 1145,(Department of State Bulletin, August 24, 1964)
Prados, John, ed., JFK and the Diem Coup, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book (November 2003)
Prados, John, ed., The Gulf of Tonkin Incident, 40 Years Later: Flawed Intelligence and the Decision for War in Vietnam. National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 132 (August 2004)
U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The Situation in South Vietnam, OCI No. 1291/64, (30 July-5 August 1964)
U.S. Congress (88th Congress, 2nd Session) Foreign Relations Committee, Executive Sessions of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Historical Series, v. XVI. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1988)
U.S. Congress, (90th Congress, 1st Session) Foreign Relations Committee, Background Information Relating to Southeast Asia and Vietnam (3d Revised Edition) (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, July 1967)
U.S. Congress (90th Congress, 2nd Session), Foreign Relations Committee, The Gulf of Tonkin, the 1964 Incidents. Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate (Washington: Government Printing Office, February 1968)
U.S. Congress, Senate, Foreign Relations Committee, The U.S. Government and the Vietnam War: Executive and Legislative Roles and Relationships, Part II, 1961-1964 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985)
U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States (abbr FRUS), 1961-1963, Vol. II Vietnam 1962, (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1991)
U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States (abbr FRUS), 1964-1968, Vol.ⅩⅩⅩ, (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1998)
U. S. Department of State, Memorandum of Conversation, Vietnam, August 28, 1963, (JFKL: Roger Hilsman Papers, Country Series, box 4, folder: Vietnam: White House Meetings 8/26/63-8/29/63, State Department Memcons)
U.S. Department of Defense, The Pentagon Papers, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971)
二、專書
Andrade, Dale and Kenneth Conboy, “The Secret Side of the Tonkin Gulf Incident,” from Naval History, August 1999, in Morales, Gilbert ed., Critical Perspectives on the Vietnam War (New York : Rosen Pub. Group, 2005).
Ball, George W., The Past Has Another Pattern (NY: W. W. Norton& Company Inc., 1983).
Berman, Larry, Lyndon Johnson’s War: the Road to Stalemate in Vietnam (New York : Norton, 1989).
Berman, William C., William Fulbright and the Vietnam War (Ohio: The Kent State University Press, 1988).
Blight, James G. and Janet M. Lang, The Fog of War: Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara (Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.,2005).
DeBenedetti, Charles and Charles Chatfield, An American Ordeal: the Antiwar Movement of the Vietnam Era (NY: Syracuse University Press, 1990).
Duiker, William J., U.S. Containment Policy and the Conflict in Indochina (California: Standford University Press, 1994).
Ellsberg, Daniel, Secrets: A Memoir of Vietnam and the Pentagon Papers (New York: Penguin Putnam Inc., 2002).
Fall, Bernard B., The Two Viet-Nams: A Political and Military Analysis (New York: Praeger, 1963).
Ford, Harold P., CIA and the Vietnam Policymakers: Three Episodes, 1962-1968 (Center for the Study of Intelligence, 1998).
Hess, Gary R., Vietnam and the United States: Origins and Legacy of War (Boston : Twayne Publishers, 1990).
Holsti, K. J., International Politics: A Framework for Analysis (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 3rd ed., 1977).
Katsiaficas, George N., Vietnam Documents: American and Vietnamese Views of the War (N.Y. : M.E. Sharpe, 1992).
Kattenburg, Paul M., The Vietnam Trauma in American Foreign Policy, 1945-1975 (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1980).
Marolda Edward J. and Oscar P. Fitzgerald, The United States Navy and the Vietnam Conflict, VolⅡ: From Military Assistance to Combat, 1959-1965 (Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 1986).
Mattehews, Lloyd and Dale Brown ed., Assessing the Vietnam War, (New York: Pergamon-Brassey, 1987).
McNamara, Robert and James Blight and Robert Brigham et al., Argument Without End: In Search of Answers to the Vietnam Tragedy (New York: Public Affairs, 1999).
McMahon, Robert J., The Limits of Empire: the United States and Southeast Asia since World War Ⅱ (Columbia University Press, 1999).
Mitchell, C. R., The Structure of International Conflict (NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1981).
Moïse, Edwin E, Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996).
Morales, Gilbert Jr. ed., Critical Perspectives on the Vietnam War (New York : Rosen Pub. Group, 2005).
Moss, George and Paul Conway, A Vietnam Reader : Sources and Essays (N.J. : Prentice Hall, 1991).
Prados, John, ed., The White House Tapes (New York: The New Press, 2003).
Prados, John and Margaret P. Porter, Inside the Pentagon Papers (Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2004).
Rosenberger, Walter and Herbert C. Tobin et al., “Military Coup in Saigon- Murder of President Ngo and M. Ngo Dinh Nhu,” in Keesing’s Contemporary Archives, (London : Keesing's Limited, 1964).
Rotter, Andrew J., The Path to Vietnam: Origins of the American Commitment to Southeast Asia (New York: Cornell University Press, 1987).
Siff, Ezra Y., Why the Senate Slept: the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution and the Beginning of America’s Vietnam War (CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999).
Schulzinger, John, A Time for War: The United States and Vietnam, 1941-1975 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).
Sorensen, Theodore, Kennedy (New York: Harper & Row, 1965).
Tucker, Spencer C., Vietnam (London: University College London Press, 1999).
Turner, Kathleen J., Lyndon Johnson’s Dual War (Chicago: the University of Chicago Press, 1985).
Williams, William Appleman et al. America in Vietnam: A Documentary History (NY: Doubleday, 1985).
Wittkopf, Eugene R., Charles W. Kegley, Jr., and James M. Scott, American Foreign Policy: Pattern and Process (New York: Thomson Learning, 2003).
Zhai, Qiang, China and the Vietnam Wars, 1950-1975 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000).
三、期刊雜誌
Economic Review, The, “Reviews that book ‘Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War,” Economist, Vol. 343, Issue 8013 (April 1997), p. Survey.
Fall, Bernard B., "Power and Pressure Groups in North Vietnam," The China Quarterly, No.9 (London: January-March, 1962), pp. 37-46.
Hanyok, Robert J., “Skunks, Bogies, Silent Hounds, and the Flying Fish: The Gulf of Tonkin Mystery, 2-4 August 1964,” Cryptologic Quarterly (February 2001), pp.1-55.
Johns, Andrew L., “Doves Among Hawks: Republican Opposition to the Vietnam War, 1964-1968,” Peace & Chance, Vol. 31, No.4 (October 2006), pp.585-628.
Nguyen Ngoc Bich, “Vietnam—An Independent Viewpoint,” China Quarterly, No.9 (London: January-March, 1962), pp.105-111.
四、報紙
Shane, Scott, Vietnam Study, Casting Doubts, Remains Secret, The New York Times, October 31, 2005.
________. Washington hid damaging Vietnam finding, The Sydney Morning Herald, November 1, 2005.
________. Vietnam War Intelligence 'Deliberately Skewed,' Secret Study Says, The New York Times, December 2, 2005.
Stockdale, Admiral James B., "Another Gulf, Other Blips on a Screen," The Washington Post, August 7, 1988.
五、網路專文
Cotter, Michael W., “Weapons of Mass Destruction and Tonkin Gulf,” American History, Vol.8, No.3 (August 2003).
http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/archives_roll/2003_07-09/cotter_wmd/cotter_wmd.html
Ellsberg, Daniel, “Reflections on Vietnam and the Iraq War,” Washington D.C.: Foreign Policy in Focus (June 2005)
http://www.fpif.org/fpiftxt/889
六、網路檢索
林登‧詹森圖書館
http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/
美國克雷蒙森大學—摩伊斯(Edwin E. Moïse)教授編錄之越戰參考書目
http://www.clemson.edu/
美國聖軛山學院—費拉羅 (Vincent Ferraro)教授編錄之美國越南政策網頁http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/vietnam.htm
美國國家安全局
http://www.nsa.gov/home_html.cfm
美國國務院外交關係電子文獻
http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/history/vol_i/255_308.html
威爾遜國際學術中心—冷戰國際史計畫
http://wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?topic_id=1409&fuseaction=topics.home
紐約時報
http://www.nytimes.com/
喬治華盛頓大學—國家安全文獻
http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/
維吉尼亞大學米勒研究中心—白宮錄音帶
http://www.whitehousetapes.org/
維基百科
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
德州理工大學—越南計畫
http://www.vietnam.ttu.edu/index.htm
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
外交研究所
93253005
95
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0093253005
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[外交學系] 學位論文

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