Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
|Title:||Issues of Outsourcing and Cross-Strait Trades|
core and periphery pattern
|Issue Date:||2009-09-18 10:56:01 (UTC+8)|
關於委外代工對勞動市場的影響，文獻上大多觀察下列現象（Feenstra and Hanson, 1995; Wood,1995）：製造業的就業規模是否縮減、整體製造業的技術勞動就業比例是否逐漸增加、整體製造業的非技術勞動就業比例是否逐漸下降、以及技術勞動和非技術勞動之間的薪資差距是否也逐漸擴大（反應出就業比例的改變）。本文對台灣的勞動市場進行研究，的確發現上述現象的產生。根據研究結果顯示，政府沒有理由限制傳統產業外移到大陸，反而要創造更好的高科技環境，積極地留住台灣的高科技產業。亦即，不同的產業需要不同的產業政策加以因應，雙向產業政策將是需要的。例如傳統產業，政府可以將政策提升到「委外代工國」的立場考量，讓獲利率低、生產不效率的產業委由大陸製造；對高科技產業政策政府則可試著採取「被委外代工國」的立場，積極創造更科技的產業環境，留住台灣科技產業和保住台灣科技產業代工王國的版圖。
對委外代工與台灣邊緣化議題的探討，主要源起於泛藍和泛綠在兩次總統大選中的兩岸政策的爭議─是否要「三通」。事實上，針對台灣是否會被邊緣化兩大陣營均尚未整理出一個完整的說明。透過Krugman and Venables（1995）模型闡述可以清楚地了解：邊緣化只是運輸成本下降的一個過程，不會是最終的結果。同時，運輸成本的下降並不是會造成邊緣化的唯一決定因子。產業關聯性和產品之間的替代程度都扮演相當重要的角色。因此，對不同產業設定特定政策才能達到抗邊緣化的效果。
Outsourcing is the current trend between Taiwan and Mainland China in recent decade. Inclusive of importing intermediate inputs, setting up multinational firms, purchasing final goods produced abroad, outsourcing brings two topics worthy to discuss. My thesis is structured into two independent projects: one is to discuss the effects of outsourcing on unemployment and changes in relative wages, and the other focuses on the issue of whether outsourcing leads to Taiwan deindustrialization.
The main findings in the first project are consistent with the major conclusions suggested by several studies（Feenstra and Hanson, 1995; Wood,1995）that: declining share of manufacturing employment in total employment, increasing share of skilled workers’ in total manufacturing employment and in total wage bill, while the converse in unskilled workers. Therefore, we have no reasons to limit the unprofitable and traditional industries to move out. What we should do is to develop and expand the higher-skilled sector and to encourage high-technology industries to upgrade the production with the most comparative advantage. Different industrial policies applicable to different features of each industry are necessary. To announce a rough and uniform policy will probably do more harms than goods.
What unearthed from the second project is that concerns of economic periphery voiced by Pan-KMT and Pan-DPP alliances did not tell the full story. Krugman and Venables（1995）can be applied to show that economic periphery is just one of the points in the process of a dynamic development with reducing transportation cost. Besides, transportation cost is not the only contributor to “core and periphery” pattern. Share of intermediate input and elasticity of substitution for manufactured goods are also playing important roles. Therefore, different industries should be applicable for different policy arrangement.
|Reference:||Berman, Eli, John Bound and Zvi Griliches (1994), “Changes in the demand for skilled labor within U.S. manufacturing: Evidence from the Annual Survey of Manufacturing.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol.109, 367-397.|
Bjerring Olsen, Karsten, Rikke Ibsen, and N. Westergaard-Nielsen (2004), “Does outsourcing create unemployment? - The case of the Danish textile and clothing industry.” Department of Economics, Aarhus School of Business, Working Paper.
Caves, Richard E. (1974), “Multinational firms, competition, and productivity in host-country market.” Economica, vol.41, 176-193.
Chou, Yu San (2002), The Effect of Foreign Direct Investment on Deindustrialization: Take Taiwan Manufacturing for Example, in Chinese. Master Thesis in Department of Economics, National Taiwan University.
Feenstra, Robert C. and Gordon H. Hanson (1995), “Foreign investment, outsourcing and relative wages.” NBER Working Paper, No.5121.
Feenstra, Robert C. and Gordon H. Hanson (1996), “Globalization, outsourcing, and wage inequality.” American Economic Review, vol.86, 240-245.
Feenstra, Robert C. (1998), “Integration of trade and disintegration of production in the global economy.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 12, 31-50.
Feenstra, Robert C. and Gordon H. Hanson (1999), “The impact of outsourcing and high-technology capital on wages: Estimated for the United States, 1979-1990.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol.114, 907-940.
Grossman, Gene M. and Elhanan Helpman (2002), “Outsourcing in a global economy.” NBER Working Paper, No.8728.
Hanson, Gordon H., Raymond J. Mataloni, Jr. and Matthew J. Slaughter (2002), “Expansion strategies of U.S. multinational firms.” NBER Working Paper, No.8433.
Huang, Tsu Hsien (2003), The Effects of Outsourcing and Foreign Direct Investment on Productivity and Wages-An Empirical Study of Taiwan's Manufacturing, in Chinese. Master Thesis in Department of International Trade, Chung Yang Christian University.
Institute of Transportation (1994), The study on the potential harbor & shipping related problems of direct shipping with P. R. C., in Chinese. Ministry of Transportation & Communication, Taipei.
Johnson, George E. (1997), “Changes in earnings inequality: The role of shift demand.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 11, 41-54.
Kruger, Alan B. (1993), “How computers have changed the wage structure: Evidence from microdata, 1984-1989.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 108, 33-60.
Krugman, Paul (1991), “Increasing returns and economic geography.” Journal of Political Economy, vol.99, 483-499.
Krugman, Paul and Anthony J. Venables (1995), “Globalization and inequality of nations.” Quarterly Journal of economics, vol.110, 857-880.
Krugman, Paul and Robert Z. Lawrence (1994), “Trade, jobs, and wages.” Scientific American, vol.270, issue 4, 44-49.
Krugman, Paul (1998), “Space: the final frontier” Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol.12, 161-174.
Markusen, James R. and Anthony J. Venables (1995), “Multinational firms and the new trade theory.” NBER Working Paper, No.5036.
Sachs, Jeffrey D. and Howard J. Shatz (1996), “U.S. trade with developing countries and wage inequality.” American Economic Review, vol.86, issue 2, 234-239.
Slaughter, Matthew J. (1998), “International trade and labor-market outcomes: Results, Questions, and policy options.” The Economic Journal, vol.108, 1452-1462.
Venables, Anthony J. (1996), “Equilibrium locations of vertically linked industries” International Economic Review, Vol.37, 341-359.
Wang, Su Wan (1999), An Examination of The Capital-Skill Complementarity Hypothesis: A Study of Taiwan's Manufacturing Sector, in Chinese. Chung Hua Institution for Economic Research, Taipei.
Wood, Adrian (1995), “How trade hurt unskilled workers.” Journal of Economic Perspective, vol.9, No. 3, 57-80.
|Appears in Collections:||[財政學系] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.