Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/36072


Title: 公共行政的黑堡觀點及其認識論之研究
The Study in Blacksburg Perspective and It's Epistemology of Public Administration
Authors: 許立一
Li-Yi Hsu
Contributors: 林鍾沂
吳秀光

Chung-Yi Lin
Samuel S. Wu

許立一
Li-Yi Hsu
Keywords: 黑堡宣言
黑堡觀點
民主行政
後實證主義
結構主義
後結構主義
現代主義
後現代主義
blacksburg manifesto
blacksburg perspective
democratic administration
postpositivism
structuralism
poststructuralism
modernism
postmodernism
Date: 2001
Issue Date: 2009-09-18 17:02:05 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 公共行政在治理過程(process of governance)中應該居於何種地位與扮演什麼角色?其是否完全與政治無關,而且不負任何社會公義之價值議題的倡導責任?它應該如同市場取向的行政學者所言——追求小政府(minimal government),還是應該竭盡所能地回應社會的需求?公共行政人員應該著重專業技術,還是倫理思考?一九八○年代初期,六位美國維吉尼亞多元理工學院暨州立大學(Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)的學者,有感於當時的行政學術之發展似乎無法釐清前述的課題,而新公共行政(New Public Administration)的主張並未能在實務上發揮作用,又鑑於當時一股貶責官僚(bureaucracy bashing)之風盛行。是以,他(她)們撰寫了一篇名為〈公共行政與治理過程:轉變政治對話〉(Public Administration and the Governance Process: Shifting the Political Dialogue)的文章。因為維吉尼亞州立大學的所在地名為黑堡,故該文亦被學者簡稱為黑堡宣言(Blacksburg Manifesto)。黑堡宣言試圖針對前述課題,提出一些規範性的主張,俾以解決當代公共行政所遭遇的學術與實務的雙重困境。該宣言認為重建公共行政在治理過程中的正當性,乃是化解危機的核心。
本論文研究的範圍不限於黑堡宣言一文,而是該宣言首席撰寫者Gary L. Wamsley所稱之黑堡觀點(Blacksburg Perspective)。所謂黑堡觀點,乃是以黑堡宣言為主軸,所發展出來的一系列的論述(discourse)。換言之,就是在黑堡宣言提出重建公共行政(refounding public administration)之主張後,陸續衍生的一些相關研究以及其中所提出的觀念。本論文希望探究:黑堡觀點針對上述課題所提供的論述為何?進而藉由認識論(epistemology)的分析,瞭解它立於何種哲學基礎之上,俾以達成所宣稱的境界?同時,也希望能夠檢視黑堡觀點本身的限制所在,提供後續相關研究的思考線索。最後,作者更嘗試提出一些補充性的見解,希望能在學術上有所貢獻。
基於上述的研究動機和目的,本論文的各章的鋪陳內容如下:
第一章緒論,說明本論文的研究動機與目的、基本概念界定、研究主題以及方法;
第二章黑堡觀點的內涵,將探討黑堡觀點在美國行政學術中的定位及其思想淵源,並還原黑堡宣言一文的重要主張,進而以黑堡觀點反思傳統的行政理論和新公共管理;
第三章黑堡觀點的認識論之分析,則分別探討其所蘊含的結構主義與後結構主義之色彩,進而提出前述兩種思維是否能夠共存的見解;
第四章民主行政的實踐,則是根據第二、三章的論述為基礎,進一步耙梳黑堡觀點之下的民主行政之內涵,包括公共行政參與治理的正當性、公共利益、公共對話、公民意識、公共行政人員等課題;
第五章結論,以前述的民主行政之實踐意涵,歸納黑堡點的特色及其在公共行政理念上的影響,並指出其理論的內在弔詭。然後,對照我國行政實務,試舉例說明黑堡觀點的啟發。最後,指出本論文的研究限制以及作者對後續研究的建議。
本論文的特色在於,超越相關的研究,針對黑堡觀點的認識論進行分析,此實為一種開創性的研究。抑有進者,作者認為本論文應能夠產生如后的貢獻:
第一,提供不同於時下流行之管理途徑的觀點,刺激學界思索其它的研究途徑;
第二,為後續有興趣於此一途徑的研究者,奠定初步的基礎,至少本論文在理論耙梳和認識論的分析方面,應該有所助益;
第三,作者提出對於黑堡觀點之內在弔詭的反省,以及從實務的角度思考黑堡觀點的實踐意涵,希望能夠做為後續研究的線索和方向。

第一章 緒 論••••••••••••••••••••••••1
第一節 研究動機•••••••••••••••••1
第二節 研究目的•••••••••••••••••3
第三節 基本概念的界定••••••••••••••4
第四節 研究主題與方法••••••••••••••16
第二章 黑堡觀點的內涵••••••••••••••••••23
第一節 黑堡觀點的興起及其與新公共行政的關係•••25
第二節 黑堡宣言的主張••••••••••••••44
第三節 以黑堡觀點反思傳統的行政理論•••••••61
第四節 以黑堡觀點反思新公共管理•••••••••83
第三章 黑堡觀點的認識論之分析••••••••••••117
第一節 黑堡觀點的結構主義色彩••••••••••118
第二節 黑堡觀點的後結構主義傾向•••••••••151
第三節 結構主義與後結構主義的共容性之探討••••187
第四章 黑堡觀點之民主行政的實踐••••••••••••197
第一節 公共行政參與治理的正當性•••••••••198
第二節 公共利益•••••••••••••••••218
第三節 公共對話•••••••••••••••••251
第四節 公民意識•••••••••••••••••275
第五節 公共行政人員•••••••••••••••293
第五章 結 論•••••••••••••••••••••••317
第一節 黑堡觀點的特色及其影響••••••••••317
第二節 黑堡觀點的內在弔詭與限制•••••••••326
第三節 黑堡觀點對我國行政實務的啟發•••••••334
第四節 本論文的研究限制與對後續研究的建議••••355
參考資料••••••••••••••••••••••••••361
This thesis concerned about the legitimacy of public administration in the process of governance. Since administrative management and behavioralism rise the efficiency became the subject matter in public administration. However, Blacksburg Manifesto reminds us the public administration can not be equal with management and efficiency are not public administration's only value. So, the author of this thesis is interested in Blacksburg Perspective's refounding public administration.
This study includes Blacksburg Perspective's discourse about public administration and these discourses' epistemology. Firstly, the author summarizes Blacksburg Manifesto and induces characters of the Manifesto. Secondly, he criticizes traditional public management and new public management bases on the Blacksburg Perspective. Thirdly, to analyze the epistemology of Blacksburg Perspective includes structuralism and poststructuralism. Fourthly, this study introduces the implications of democratic public administration of Blacksburg Perspective. Fifthly, the author bases on Blacksburg Perspective rethink administrative practice in his country. Finally, to examine theoretical paradoxes of Blacksburg Perspective.
The Author hopes this study is helpful for students are interested in this relative field about democratic public administration and by this thesis we can think about how to refound the legitimacy of public administration in process of governance.
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2000/12/12 「要刮別人薪水先刮自己的」,3版。
2000/12/13 「公務員薪事」(圖表統計),2版。
1984 《英國經驗論哲學資料選輯》,台北:仰哲出版。
2001/3/22 「周伯倫:行政院長都換人難道文官不能動」,2版。
(四)古籍
毛文銓(清雍正四年正月初四日)
網頁 「奏報請撫臺灣生番摺」,刊載於http://www.sinica.edu.tw/~pingpu/library/
fulltext/npmdatabase/yun021.htm。
吳承恩(明代)
網頁 《西遊記》,刊載於http://www.angelibrary.com/oldies/xiyouji/
xiyouji.html。
佛教經典
網頁 《大乘遍照光明藏無字法門經》,刊載於http://www.a-mita.com.tw/
李永熾譯 F. Fukuyama著
libe/hung_a_l_70.html。
網頁 《達摩血脈論》,刊載於http://mail.ht.net.tw/~yoga/d6.htm。
網頁 《達摩無心論》,刊載於http://mail.ht.net.tw/~yoga/d7.htm。
二、英文部分
(一)專書
Bailey, M. T., & Mayer R. T. (1992). (Eds.). Public Management in an Interconnected World: Essays in the Minnowbrook Tradition. New York: Greenwood Press.
Bailey, M. T. (1992). Beyond Rationality: Decisionmaking in a Interconnected World. In M. T. Bailey & R. T. Mayer (Eds.). Public Management in an Interconnected World (33-52). New York: Greenwood Press.
Baradat, L. P. (1991). Political Ideologies. (4th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall Inc..
Barbalet, J. M. (1988). Citizenship. Minneapolis, Minn.: The University of Minnesota Press.
Barber, B. (1986). Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age. Berkeley, C. A.: University of California Press.
1993 《歷史之終結與最後一人》,台北:時報文化。
Barnard, C. I. (1938). The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Barth, T. J. (1996). Administering in the Public Interest: the Facilitative Role for PublicAdministrators. In G. L. Wamsley & J. F. Wolf (Eds.), Refounding Democratic Public Administration: Modern Paradoxes, Postmodern Challenges (168-197). Thousand Oaks, C. A.: Sage Publications, Inc..
Baum, H. (1990). Appendix: Selected Responses to the Blacksburg Manifesto. In Gary L. Wamsley et al. (Co-authored), Refounding Public Administration. (307). Newbury Park, C. A.: Sage.
Baynes, K. (1992). The Normative Grounds of Social Criticism: Kant, Rawls, and Habermas. Albany, N. Y.: State University of New York Press.
Behn, R. D. (1991). Leadership Counts: Lessons for Public Managers from the Massachusetts Welfare, Training, and Employment Program. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Bellah, R. N., Madsen, R., Sullivan, W. M., Swidler, A., & Tipton, S. M. (1985). Habits of the Heart. Berkeley and Los Angeles, C. A. : University of California Press.
——— (1992). The Good Society. New York, N. Y.: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc..
Bergquist W. (1993). The Postmodern Organization: Mastering the Art of Irreversible Change. San Francisco, C. A.: Jossey-Bass Inc..
Bernstein, R. J. (1976). The Restructuring of Social and Political Theory. London, U. K.: Metheu & Co. Ltd..
——— (1983). Beyond Objectivism and Relativism: Science, Hermeneutics, and Praxis. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press.
李茂興、李慕華、林宗鴻譯 S. P. Robbins著
——— (1991). The New Constellation: the Ethical-Political Horizons of Modernity/Postmodernity. Cambridge, U. K.: Polity Press.
Blaikie, N. (1993). Approaches to Social Enquiry. Oxford, U. K.: Polity Press.
Bottomore, T. B., & Mulkay, M. J. (Eds.). (1984). The Limits of Rationality: An Essay on the Social and Moral Thought of Max Weber. London, U. K.: George Allen & Unwin Ltd..
Botwinick, A. (1993). Postmodernism and Democratic Theory. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Bozeman, B. (1993). (Ed.). Public Management: the State of the Art. San Francisco, C. A.: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
——— (1993). Introduction: Two Concepts of Public Management. In B. Bozeman (Ed.), Public Management: the State of the Art (1-5). San Francisco, C. A.: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Bradley, D. R. (1990). Appendix: Selected Responses to the Blacksburg Manifesto. In Gary L. Wamsley et al. (Co-authored), Refounding Public Administration. (307). Newbury Park, C. A.: Sage.
Bryman, A. (1988). Quantity and Quality in Social Research. London: Unwin Hyman Ltd..
Burrell, G., & Morgan, G. (1979). Sociological Paradigms and Organisational Analysis: Elements of the Sociology of Corporate Life. Hants, England: Gower Publishing Company Limited.
Callinicos, A. T. (1989). Against Postmodernism: A Marxist Critique. Cambridge, U. K.: Polity Press.
1992 《組織行為》,台北:揚智文化。
Canetti, E. (1963). Crowds and Powers. New York, N. Y.: Viking.
Catron, B. L. (1990). Appendix: Selected Responses to the Blacksburg Manifesto. In Gary L. Wamsley et al. (Co-authored), Refounding Public Administration. (308). Newbury Park, C. A.: Sage.
Chandler, R. C. (Ed.). (1987). A Centennial History of the American Administrative State. New York: Macmillan.
Cilliers, P. (1998). Complexity and Postmodernism: Understanding Complex Systems. New York, N. Y.: Routledge.
Clay, J. A. (1996). Public-Institutional Processes and Democratic Governance. In G. L. Wamsley, & J. F. Wolf (Eds.), Refounding Democratic Public Administration: Modern Paradoxes, Postmodern Challenges (92-113). Thousand Oaks, C. A.: Sage.
Clegg, S. R. (1994). Max Weber and contemporary sociology of organizations. In L. J. Ray & M. Reed (Eds.), Organizing Modernity (pp. 46-80). New York, N. Y.: Routledge.
Cohen, I. J. (1989). Structuration Theory: Anthony Giddens and the Constitution of Social Life. London, U. K.: Macmillan Education Ltd..
Cooke, D. O. (1990). Appendix: Selected Responses to the Blacksburg Manifesto. In Gary L. Wamsley et al. (Co-authored), Refounding Public Administration. (310). Newbury Park, C. A.: Sage.
Crook, S., Pakulski, J., & Waters, M. (1992). Postmodernization: Change in Advanced Society. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications Inc..
Dahl, R. A. (1989). Democracy and its Critics. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
李連江
Dallmayr, F. R. (1981). Beyond Dogma and Despair: Toward a Critical Phenomenology of Politics. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press.
——— (1987). Critical Encounters: Between Philosophy and Politics. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press.
Davis, G., & Weller, P. (1996). (Eds.). New Ideas, Better Government. St. Leonards, Australia: Allen & Unwin Pty Ltd..
Denhardt, R. B. (1993). Theories of Public Organization. C. A.: Wadsworth, Publishing Inc..
Dennard, L. F. (1990). The Maturation of Public Administration: the Search for a Democratic Identity. In G. L. Wamsley, & J. F. Wolf (Eds.), Refounding Democratic Public Administration: Modern Paradoxes, Postmodern Challenges (293-326). Thousand Oaks, C. A.: Sage.
Dimock, M. (1990). Appendix: Selected Responses to the Blacksburg Manifesto. In Gary L. Wamsley et al. (Co-authored), Refounding Public Administration. (308). Newbury Park, C. A.: Sage.
Downs, A. (1967). Inside Bureaucracy. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Dryzek, J. S. (1990). Discursive Democracy: Politics, Policy, and Political Science. Cambridge, U. K.: Cambridge University Press.
Dudley, L. (1996). Fencing in the Inherently Governmental Debate. In G. L. Wamsley, & J. F. Wolf (Eds.), Refounding Democratic Public Administration: Modern Paradoxes, Postmodern Challenges (68-91). Thousand Oaks, C. A.: Sage.
Dunleavy, P., & O’Leary, B. (1987). Theories of the State: The Politics of Liberal Democracy. New York, N. Y.: The Macmillan Press Ltd..
1993 《新保守主義》,台北:揚智出版。
Dunleavy, P. (1991). Democracy, Bureaucracy and Public Choice: Economic Explanations in Political Science. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
Dunn, W. N. (1994). Public Policy Analysis: An Introduction (2nd Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc..
Dye, T. R. (1992). Understanding Public Policy (7th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc..
Edge, H. L. (1994). A Constructive Postmodern Perspective on Self and Community: from Atomism to Holism. Lewiston, N. Y.: The Edwin Mellen Press.
Etzioni-Halevy, E. (1993). The Elite Connection: Problems and Potential of Western Democracy. Cambridge, U. K.: Polity Press.
Farmer, D. J. (1995). The Language of Public Administration: Bureaucracy, Modernity, and Postmodernity. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama Press.
——— (1998). (Ed.). Papers on the Art of Anti-Administration. Burke, V. A.: Chatelaine Press.
Fay, B. (1976). Social Theory and Political Practice. New York, N. Y.: Holmes & Meuer Publishers, Inc..
——— (1987). Critical Social Science: Liberation and Its Limits. Cambridge, U. K.: Polity Press.
Flathman, R. (1966). The Public Interest: An Essay Concerning the Normative Discourse of Politics. New York, N. Y.: Wiley.
吳曲輝等譯 J. H. Turner著
Fox, C. J., & Miller H. T. (1995). Postmodern Public Administration: Toward Discourse. Newbury Park, C. A.: Sage Publication, Inc..
Frederickson, H. G. (1997). The Spirit of Public Administration. San Francisco, C. A.: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Gaarder, J. (1995). Sophie’s World (P. Moller, Trans.). London, U. K.: Phoenix, Orion Books Ltd.. (Original work published 1991).
Gane M., & Johnson, T. (1993). Foucault’s New Domains. New York, N. Y.: Routledge.
Garson, G. D., & Overman, E. S. (1983). Public Management Research in the United States. New York, N. Y.: Praeger Publishers.
Garston, N. (Ed.) (1993). Bureaucracy: Three Paradigms. Norwell, Massachusetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Garvey, G. (1993). Facing the Bureaucracy: Living and Dying in a Public Agency. San Francisco, C. A.: Jossey- Bass Publishers.
Giddens, A. (1976). New Rules of Sociological Method. London, U. K.: Hutchinson.
——— (1979). Central Problems in Social Theory: Action, Structure and Contradiction in Social Analysis. Berkeley, C. A.: University of California Press.
——— (1984). The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Berkeley, C. A.: University of California Press.
1992 《社會學理論的結構》,台北:桂冠圖書。
——— (1987). Social Theory and Modern Sociology. Stanford, C. A.: Stanford University Press.
——— (1990). The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge, U. K.: Polity Press.
Goodin, R. E. (1996). Institutions and Their Design. In R. E. Goodin (Ed.), The Theory of Institutional Design (1-53). Cambridge, U. K.: The University of Cambridge Press.
Goodnow, F. J. (1992). Politics and Administration. Reprinted In J. M. Shafritz & A. C. Hyde (Eds.), Classics of Public Administration (3rd Ed.) (25-28). Pacific Grove, C. A.: Book/Cole Publishing Company.
Goodsell, C. T. (1990). Public Administration and the Public Interest. In G. L. Wamsley et al. (Eds.), Refounding Public Administration (96-113). Newbury Park, C. A.: Sage.
——— (1994). The Case for Bureaucracy: a Public Administration Polemic (3rd Ed.). Chatham, N. J.: Chatham House Publishers, Inc..
——— (1998). Public Architecture as Social Anchor in the Postmodern Age. In D. J. Farmer (Ed.). Papers on the Art of Anti-Administration. Burke, V. A.: Chatelaine Press.
Gore, A. (1993). Report of the National Performance Review: Creating a Government that Works Better & Costs Less. Washington, DC: The White House.
Gray, J. (1993). Beyond the New Right. New York, N. Y.: Routledge.
Green, R. T., & Hubbell, L. (1996). On Governance and Reinventing Government. In G. L. Wamsley, & J. F. Wolf (Eds.), Refounding Democratic Public Administration: Modern Paradoxes, Postmodern Challenges (38-67). Thousand Oaks, C. A.: Sage.
吳庚
Grindle, M. S., & Thomas, J. W. (1991). Public Choices and Policy Change: the Political Economy of Reform in Developing Countries. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Gulick, L. (1992). Notes on the Theory of Organization. In J. M. Shafritz & A. C. Hyde (Eds.), Classics of Public Administration (3rd Ed.) (80-89). Pacific Grove, C. A.: Book/Cole Publishing Company.
Haber, H. F. (1994). Beyond Postmodern Politics: Lyotard, Rorty, Foucault. New York, N. Y.: Routledge.
Halachmi, A., & Bouckaert, G. (Eds.). (1995). The Enduring Challenges in Public Management: Surviving an Excelling in a Changing Word. San Francisco, C. A.: Jossey-Bass Inc..
Ham, C., & Hill, M. (1997). The Policy Process in the Modern Capitalist State (3rd Ed.). New York, N. Y.: Harvester Wheatsheaf Ltd..
Harmon, M. M. (1981). Action Theory for Public Administration. New York, N. Y.: Longman Inc..
Harmon, M. M., & Mayer, R. T. (1986). Organization Theory for Public Administration. Boston: Little, Brown & Company.
Hassard, J. (1993). Postmodernism and Organization Analysis: An Overview. In J. Hassard, & M. Parker (Eds.), Postmodernism and Organizations (1-24). New York, N. Y.: Routledge.
Heckscher, C., & Donnellon, A. (Eds.) (1994). The Post-Bureaucratic Organization. Newbury Park. C. A.: Sage Publications Ltd..
Heller, A., & Feher, F. (1988). The Postmodern Political Condition. Cambridge, U. K.: Polity Press.
1993 《韋伯的政治理論及其哲學基礎》,台北:聯經出版。
Henry, N. (1992). Public Administration and Public Affairs (5th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc..
Hill, L. B. (1992). (Ed.). The State of Public Bureaucracy. New York, N. Y.: M. E. Sharpe, Inc..
Hollinger, R. (1994). Postmodernism and the Social Sciences: a Thematic Approach. Thousand Oaks, C. A.: Sage Publications Ltd..
Hood, C. (1998). The Art of the State: Culture, Rhetoric, and Public Management. Oxford, U. K.: Oxford University Press.
Hughes, O. E. (1998). Public Management and Administration (2nd Ed.). New York, N. Y.: St. Martin’s Press, Inc..
Ingraham, P. W., & Romzek, B. S. (1994). Issues Raised by Current Reform Efforts. In J. L. Perry (Ed.), New Paradigms for Government: Issues for the Changing Public Service (1-14). San Francisco, C. A.: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Jameson, F. (1981). The Political Unconsciousness: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act. Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press.
Jun, J. S. (1986). Public Administration: Design and Problem Solving. New York, N. Y.: Publishing Company.
Kettl, D. F. (1993). Searching for Clues about Public Management: Slicing the Onion Different Ways. In B. Bozeman (Ed.), Public Management: the State of the Art (55-68). San Francisco, C. A.: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
——— (1994). Managing on the Frontiers of Knowledge: the Learning Organization. In P. W. Ingraham et al. (Co-authored). New Paradigms for Government: Issues for the Changing Public Service (19-40). San Francisco, C. A.: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
吳瓊恩
Kettl, D. F., & Milward, H. B. (1996). (Eds.). The State of Public Management. Baltimore, Maryland: The John Hopkins University Press.
Kingdon, J. W. (1984). Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Kuhn, T. S. (1970). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (2nd Ed.). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Lane, L. M. (1996). The Public Administration and the Problem of the Presidency. In G. L. Wamsley, & J. F. Wolf (Eds.), Refounding Democratic Public Administration: Modern Paradoxes, Postmodern Challenges (225-259). Thousand Oaks, C. A.: Sage.
Law, J. Organization, Narrative and Strategy. In J. Hassard, & M. Parker (Eds.), Toward a New Theory of Organizations (248-268). New York, N. Y.: Routledge.
Linden, R. M. (1994). Seamless Government: Practical Guide to Re-engineering in Public Sector. San Francisco, C. A.: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Little, J. H. (1996). Thinking Government: Bring Democratic Awareness to Public Administration. In G. L. Wamsley, & J. F. Wolf (Eds.), Refounding Democratic Public Administration: Modern Paradoxes, Postmodern Challenges (327-350). Thousand Oaks, C. A.: Sage.
Luke, J. S. (1992). Managing Interconnectedness: the New Challenge for Public Administration. In M. T. Bailey & R. T. Mayer (Ed.). Public Management in an Interconnected World. (13-32). New York: Greenwood Press.
Lynn, Jr., L. E. (1996). Public Management as Art, Science, and Profession. Chatham, N. J.: Chatham House Publishers, Inc..
Lyotard, Jean-Francois (1984). The Postmodern Condition: a Report on Knowledge. (G. Bennington, & B. Massouri, Trans.). Minneapolis, Minn.: University of Minnesota Press.
1992 《行政學的範圍與方法》,台北:五南圖書。
——— (1988). The Differend: Phrase in Dispute. (G. Van Den Abbeele, Trans.). Minneapolis, Minn.: University of Minnesota Press.
Lyotard, Jean-Francois, & Thebaund, Jean-Loup (1985). Just Gaming. (W. Godzich, Trans.). Minneapolis, Minn.: University of Minnesota Press.
March, J. G., & Olsen J. P. (1989). Rediscovering Institutions: the Organizational Basis of Politics. New York, N. Y.: Free Press.
Marini, F. (1971). (Ed.). Toward a New Public Administration: the Minnowbrook Perspective. New York, N. Y.: Chandler Publishing Co..
——— (1971). The Minnowbrook Perspective and the Future of Public Administration Education. In F. Marini, (Ed.), Toward a New Public Administration: the Minnowbrook Perspective (346-367). New York, N. Y.: Chandler Publishing Co..
——— (1992). Introduction. In M. T. Bailey & R. T. Mayer (Ed.). Public Management in an Interconnected World. (1-9). New York: Greenwood Press.
May, T. (1995). The Moral Theory of Poststructuralism. University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press.
McCollough T. E. (1991). The Moral Imagination and Public Life. Chatam, N. J.: Chatam House Publishers.
McSwite, O. C. (1996). Postmodernism, Public Administration, and the Public Interest. In G. L. Wamsley & J. F. Wolf (Eds.), Refounding Democratic public Administration: Modern Paradoxes, Postmodern Challenges (198-224). Thousand Oaks, C. A.: Sage Publications, Inc..
McSwite, O. C. (1997d). Legitimacy in Public Administration: A Discourse Analysis. Thousand Oaks, C. A.: Sage Publications, Inc..
1996 《行政學》,台北:三民書局。
——— (1998). Stories from the “Real World”: Administering Anti-Administratively. In D. J. Farmer (Ed.). Papers on the Art of Anti-Administration. Burke, V. A.: Chatelaine Press.
Miller, H. T., & Fox, C. J. (1997). Postmodernism, “Reality”, & Public Administration: A Discourse. Burke, Virginia: Chatelaine Press.
Milward, H. B. (1994). Implications of Contracting Out: New Roles for the Hollow State. In J. L. Perry. (Ed.), New Paradigms for Government: Issues for the Changing Public Service (41-62). San Francisco, C. A.: Jossey- Bass Publishers.
Moore, M. H. (1995). Creating Public Value: Strategic Management in Government. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Morgan, D. F. (1994). The Public Interest. In , T. L. Cooper (Ed.) Handbook of administrative ethics. New York, N. Y.: Marcel Dekker.
Morgan, G. (1986). Image of Organization. Newbury Park, C. A.: Sage Publications Ltd..
——— (1993). Imanginization: The Art of Creative Management. Newbury Park, C. A.: Sage Publications Ltd..
——— (1998). Images of Organization: the Executive Edition. Thousand, C. A.: Sage Publications.
Nietzsche, F. (1967). The Will to Power (W. Kaufman & R. J. Hollingdale Trans.). New York, N. Y.: Vintage Books.
Oldfield, A. (1990). Citizenship and Community: Civic Republicanism and Modern World. New York, N. Y.: Routledge.
2001 《行政學》(二版),台北:三民書局。
O’Nell, J. (1995). The Poverty of Postmodernism. New York, N. Y.: Routledge.
Osborne, D., & Gaebler, T. (1992). Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector. New York: Addison- Wesley Publishing Company, Inc..
Ostrom, V. (1974). The Intellectual Crisis in American Public Administration. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press.
Palmer, D. D. (1999). Structuralism and Poststructuralism for Beginners. New York, N. Y.: Writers and Readers Publishing Inc..
Parkin, J. (1994). Public Management: Technocracy, Democracy and Organizational Reform. Brookfield, Vermont: Avebury Ashgate Publishing Limited.
Parsons, W. (1995). Public Policy: An Introduction to Theory and Practice of Policy Analysis. Brookfield, Vermont: Edward Elgar Publishing Company.
Perry, J. L. (1994). (Ed.). New Paradigms for Government: Issues for the Changing Public Service. San Francisco, C. A.: Jossey- Bass Publishers.
Peters, B. G. (1999). Institutional Theory in Political Science: the New Instituionalism. New York, N. Y.: Pinter.
——— (1996). Models of Governance for the 1990s. In D. F. Kettl, & H. B. Milward (Eds.), The State of Public Management (15-44). Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Peters, G., & Savoie, D. J. (1995). (Eds.). Governance in a Changing Environment. Montreal, Canada: Canadian Centre for Management Development.
林鍾沂
Pierre, J. (1995). The Markitization of the State: Citizens, Consumers, and the Emergence of the Public Market. In G. Peters, & D. J. Savoie (Eds.), Governance in a Changing Environment (55-81). Montreal, Canada: Canadian Centre for Management Development.
Poster, M. (1989). Critical Theory and Poststructuralism: in Search of Context. Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press.
——— (1990). The Mode of Information: Poststructuralism and Social Context. Cambridge, U. K.: Polity Press.
Powell, W. W., & DiMaggio, P. J. (1991). (Eds.). The New Institutionalism in Organization Analysis. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Power, M. (1990). Modernism, postmodernism, and organization. In J. Hssard, & D. Pym (Eds.), The Theory and Philosophy of Organizations: Critical Issue and New Perspectives (109-136). New York, N. Y.: Routledge.
Preston, N., Sampford, C., & Bois, C-A. (1998). Ethics and Political Practice: Perspectives on Legislative Ethics. New York, N. Y.: Routledge.
Price, D. K. (1990). Appendix: Selected Responses to the Blacksburg Manifesto. In Gary L. Wamsley et al. (Co-authored), Refounding Public Administration. (309). Newbury Park, C. A.: Sage.
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Rawls, J. (1971). A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, Massachusetts : Harvard University Press.
Reed, M. I. (1992). The Sociology of Organization. New York, N. Y.: Routledge.
1991 《公共政策與批判理論》,台北:遠流出版。
——— (1994). Max Weber and the Dilemmas of Modernity. In L. J. Ray, & M. Reed (Eds.), Organizing Modernity (158-197). New York, N. Y.: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
Reich, R. B. (Ed.). (1988). The Power of Public Ideas. Cambridge, Mass.: Havard University Press.
Rein, M. (1976). Social Science and Public Policy. New York: Penguin.
Reisman, D. (1990). Theory of Collective Action: Downs, Olson, and Hirsh. New York. N. Y.: St. Martin’s Press.
Rhodes, R. A. W. (1997). Understanding Governance: Policy Networks, Governance, Reflexivity and Accountability. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Open University Press.
Roberts, N. C., & King, P. J. (1996). Transforming Public Policy: Dynamics of Entrepreneurship and Innovation. San Francisco, C. A.: Jossey- Bass Publishers.
Rohr, J. A. (1986). To Run a Constitution: the Legitimacy of the Administrative State. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas.
——— (1990). The Constitutional Case for public Administration. In Gary L. Wamsley et al. (Co-authored), Refounding Public Administration (52-95). Newbury Park, C. A.: Sage.
Rosenbloom, D. H. (1998). Public Administration: Understanding Management, Politics, and Law in the Public Sector (4th Ed.). New York, N. Y.: McGraw-Hill Book Co..
Sarup, M. (1993). An Introductory Guide to Post-Structuralism and Postmodernism (2nd Ed.). Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press.
1991 《公共事務的設計與執行》,台北:幼獅文化。
Schatzki, T. R. (1993). Theory at Bay: Foucault, Lyotard, and Politics of the Local. In J. P. Jones III, W. Natter, & T. R. Schatzki, (Eds.). Postmodern Contentions: Epochs, Politics, Space (39-64). New York, N. Y.: The Guilford Press.
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Seligman, A. B. (1992). The Idea of Civil Society. New York, N. Y.: The Free Press.
Senge, P. M. (1990). The Fifth Discipline: the Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New York, N. Y.: Currency Doubleday.
Shafritz J. M., & Hyde A. C. (Eds.). (1992). Classics of Public Administration (3rd Ed.). Pacific Grove, C. A.: Book/Cole Publishing Company.
Shafritz J. M., & Ott, J. S. (Eds.). (1996). Classics of Organization Theory (4th Ed.). New York: Harcourt Brace College publisher.
Shand, D. (1996). Are We Reinventing Government? In G. Davis & P. Weller (Eds.), New Ideas, Better Government (64-73). St. Leonard, Australia: Allen & Unwin Pty Ltd..
Sherick, J. H. (1990). Appendix: Selected Responses to the Blacksburg Manifesto. In Gary L. Wamsley et al. (Co-authored), Refounding Public Administration. (307). Newbury Park, C. A.: Sage.
Sim, S. (1992). Beyond Aesthetics: Confrontations with Poststructuralism and Postmodernism. New York, N. Y.: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
1994 《政策分析的理論與實踐》,台北:瑞興圖書。
Simon, H. A. (1997). Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-Making Process in Administrative Organization (4th Ed.). New York, N. Y.: The Free Press.
Simons, H. W., & Billing, M. (Eds.). (1994). After Postmodernism: Reconstructuring Ideology Critique. Newbury Park, C. A.: Sage Publications Ltd..
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Description: 博士
國立政治大學
公共行政研究所
86256502
90
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#B2002000004
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[公共行政學系] 學位論文

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