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Title: 一個有關開票的問題
About A Ballot Problem
Authors: 楊蘭芬
Contributors: 李陽明
Keywords: 好路徑
a good path
leading all the way
Date: 2008
Issue Date: 2009-09-19 12:08:46 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本篇論文主要在討論兩個人參選時的開票情況,研究「n+m人投票且無人投廢票的情況下,其中一人至少得n票且一路領先的開票方法數等於此人得n票的所有開票方法數」 ,第一章介紹研究動機及他人所使用的方式,使用路徑的方法證明一人得n票,另一人得m票,n≥m,得n票的人一路領先且勝出的方法數等於 C_n^(m+n)-C_(n+1)^(m+n)=C_m^(m+n)-C_(m-1)^(m+n),再用計算相消的方式算出,此人至少得n票且一路領先的開票方法數等於此人得n票的所有開票方法數。
The theme of this thesis is mainly to discuss of situation of counting and announcing the ballots in an election with two candidates. In explaining the contents of the "Total n+m votes, there’s no invalid vote. One candidate wins at least n votes and lead all the way. Under this circumstance this number of the way will be equal to all numbers of the way for these n votes of this candidate.” At first, we will introduce the methodology of the other adopt, the methodology of previous path of way proves one candidate known to have n votes, another candidate has m votes, the method of candidate with n votes who leads all the way and won will be equal to C_n^(m+n)-C_(n+1)^(m+n)=C_m^(m+n)-C_(m-1)^(m+n), and then result of calculating cancellation will prove this candidate will have at last n votes and leads the way to victory will be equal to all the methodologies of counting and announcing the ballots in this election.
A method of flip the path will be introduced in the second chapter.
Corresponding to the road map of ballot counting for the candidate who has n votes and lead the way to victory, the road map of same one with n votes without leading the way through a step-ping, flip the way of origami will be mathematically proves such reflect of the way will be reflect one to one and onto. By means of the discrete method is able to prove this result and the method to verify availability
Finally, I would like to propose a surmise: If the number of candidates increased to 3, the methodology of the one who leads all the way should be able to use three-dimensional space of a block diagram of the path to prove. Although this thesis does not to continue pondering the interesting question, but also left a new research direction.
Reference: [1] John H. Conway and Richard Guy, The Book of Numbers. New York: Copernicus, 1996.
[2] Tom Davis. Catalan Numbers. .November 26, 2006.
[3] Catalan Eugene. (1844): Note extraite d’une lettre adress´ee,J. Reine Angew. Math., 27 :192.
[4] Martin Gardner (1988), Time Travel and Other Mathematical Bewilderments, New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.
[5] Richard P. Stanley (1999), Enumerative combinatorics. Vol. 2, Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics, 62, Cambridge University Press, .
[6] Alan Tucker. Applied Combinatorics. New York: John Wiley & Sons,Inc,1995.
Description: 碩士
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Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[應用數學系] 學位論文

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