Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/49424


Title: 非國家行為者之跨國運作--以國際透明組織之全球反貪運動為例
Transnational Advocacy of Non-State Actors--A Case Study on Transparency International's Global Anti-corruption Movement
Authors: 葛傳宇
Ko, Chuan Yu
Contributors: 李明
Lee, Ming
葛傳宇
Ko, Chuan Yu
Keywords: 貪污
骯髒聯盟
國際透明組織
跨國倡議網絡
OECD反賄公約
過程追蹤法
corruption
dirty alliance
Transparency International
transnational advocacy network
OECD Anti-Bribery Convention
process-tracing
Date: 2009
Issue Date: 2010-12-08 11:00:01 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 跨國公司與開發中國家官員之賄賂關係被稱為骯髒聯盟。非國家行為者是形塑與改變國際規範之重要參與者,本研究檢視重點在於國際透明組織為切斷骯髒聯盟之供需關係,如何運用其獨特之跨國倡議網絡模式,透過建立聯盟(coalition-building)途徑,促成國際公約並且改變簽署國之國家行為。該非政府組織影響國際關係之具體成果為1997年簽署之OECD反賄公約,該公約是第一個從供應方(supply-side)切斷跨國商業賄賂鏈之國際規範,其立法歷程與會員國之國家偏好改變足以證明國際透明組織之影響力。
主流學派之結構現實主義者主張國際關係是結構決定論,以強權國家為主要的、具決定性之行為者,國家偏好是外生給定的利益排序。本研究主張以建構主義為基礎之全球反貪運動則是反其道而行,國際透明組織建構之跨國倡議網絡,擅用人氣政治與切身性政治,以合作取代對抗,有效促成已開發國家採取集體行動,簽署OECD反賄公約。當強權之間拒絕改變現狀時,非國家行為者之理念說服行動可以逐一改變國家偏好,進而改變國際規範。在倡議國際反貪議題上,國際透明組織的確是國際新規範之催生者。
本文採案例研究,主體為國際透明組織,客體為OECD反賄公約,交叉運用深度訪談與調查式過程追蹤研究,密集而深入取得相關當事人提供之第一手資料,彌補既有文獻靜態分析之不足。
Non-state actors are essential participants in shaping and changing international norms. There has been a long-standing practice of a tacit “dirty alliance” between multinational corporations and developing countries officials. This research focuses on Transparency International(TI), which seeks to sever the supply and demand chain relationships of the dirty alliance by mobilizing a unique model of transnational advocacy network (TAN), engaging coalition-building, lobbying for a new set of international norms and persuading the changes of signatory states’ behavior. The fruits are the adoption of the 1997 OECD Anti-Bribery Convention, which is the first supply-side norm to cut off transnational business bribery chain. Both the key events of the legislative process and the changes of state preferences among the signatories validify the argument for the TI’s significant influence.
Contrary to mainstream international relations theories such as structural realism claiming structural determinism, predominant role of powerful states, and exogenously given nature of state preferences, this research proves constructivism prevails. TI’s TAN model artistically exercises popularity politics as well as proximity politics, advocates cooperation instead of confrontation against bribe-givers and bribe-takers, and effectively persuades developed countries to take collective actions by adopting and ratifying the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. While powerful states resist changing the status quo, non-state actors indeed demonstrate their capability of persuading states to change their preferences. TI is entitled to be the midwife in formulating new international norms against transnational corruption.
This research applies case study methodology, making TI as the subject and the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention as the object. Diligent analysis and interpretations are based on the cross-references of in-depth interviews and investigative process-tracing method to extract the primary data from relevant parties so as to supplement the deficiencies of the available literatures.
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何景熙,<征地糾紛與農地產權--成都平原鄉村案例分析>。《當代中國研究》,2006年第1期(總第92期)。http://www.usc.cuhk.edu.hk/wk_wzdetails.asp?id=5077
余秋雨,<中國傳統的廉政文化>。2009年5月10日。 http://www.nbcp.gov.cn/article/lltt/200903/20090300002185.shtml
李少軍,<國際關係學的研究方法>。《國際政治學概論》第二版,中國政治學網,華中師範大學,2007年6月6日。 http://www.cp.org.cn/show.asp?NewsID=2748
汪丁丁,<關於腐敗的經濟學分析>,2000年。 http://202.199.160.3/sxyizhan/wangdingd/corruption.doc
周其仁,<農地產權與征地制度>,2005年。 http://chinahexie.org/ReadNews.asp?NewsID=1718
俞可平, <全球化時代的國家主權>。2004年7月2日。http://www.chinaelections. com/NewsInfo.asp?NewsID=3203 (來源:文匯報2004年11月15日。)
唐仁俊,<我國當前務實外交所面臨困境及因應措施>,529期,2000年,頁 17-29。 http://www.cafa.edu.tw/emmy/10/%BD%D7%A4%E5/emmy/ass5/%BD%D7%A4%E5%B6%B0/%A7%DA%B0%EA%B7%ED%ABe%B0%C8%B9%EA%A5~%A5%E6%A9%D2%AD%B1%C1{%A4%A7%A7x%B9%D2%A4%CE%A6]%C0%B3%B1%B9%ACI.htm
張五常,<中國的經濟制度>(2008年)。2009年5月17日。 http://ronaldmkk.dyndns.org/econblog/index.php?p=3&cat=23
黃志芳,<當前外交政策>。2007年7月27日。 http://www.mofa.gov.tw/webapp/ct.asp?xItem=23202&ctNode=716&mp=5
劉 豐、張睿壯,<關於幾個重要國際關係術語中文譯法的討論>。《學術批評網》(2005年),2009年12月12日。http://www.acriticism.com/article.asp?Newsid=6242&type=1000
劉孟奇,<貪汙的東亞弔詭(2004年)>。2009年1月29日。 http://blog.roodo.com/lakatos/archives/83325.html
(六) 網頁資料
年興紡織股份有限公司,<Jeans Wear: Production Capability>,2007年6月10日 from http://www.nht.com.tw/en/products-2.htm
法源法律網,<貪汙治罪條例立法理由>,2009年, Publication from 法源資訊股份有限公司:http://db.lawbank.com.tw/FLAW/FLAWDOC01.asp?lsid=FL001430 &lno=11
中國預防腐敗網,<縣委書記稱收年禮不算受賄 五年收近兩百萬案件追蹤>,2009年5月10日。 http://www.yffbw.com/Chinese/Detail.asp?BigClassName=案件追蹤&ArticleID=490
(七) 新聞與雜誌
大陸中心,<北京家樂福 爆高層索賄>。《蘋果日報》,2007年8月27日from http://1-apple.com.tw/apple/index.cfm?Fuseaction=Article&loc=TP&PageType=int&sec_id=7&NewsType=twapple&showdate=20070827&art_id=3764798
大陸中心╱綜合外電報導,<澳門貪官A33億 重判28年半>。《蘋果日報》,2009年4月23日from http://1-apple.com.tw/dsp_PrintArt.cfm?NewsType=twapple& IssueID=20090423&Art_ID=31569827&app_id=1
中國時報,<美准台灣代理商拿回扣>,Retrieved 2009年11月8日from http://n.yam.com/chinatimes/politics/200907/20090715329896.html,2009年7月13日。
中國時報,<辜成允龍潭案 辜成允:佣金4億 匯扁家人頭戶>。Retrieved 2009年1月12日from http://news.chinatimes.com/2007Cti/2007Cti-News/2007Cti-News- Print/0,4634,110501x112008111500097,00.html,2008年11月15日。
王滬生,<陳良宇背後有多少女人>。《多維時報 (Thye Duowei Tims)》,2006年11月10日,版 A3。
白德華,<中紀委領導 納入監檢系統 國家預防腐敗局 五一前掛牌>。《中國時報》,2007年4月20日from http://www.tol.com.tw/CT_NS/CTContent.aspx?nsrc =B&ndate=20070420&nfno=N0040.001&nsno=1&nkeyword=%b9w%a8%be%bbG%b1%d1%a7%bd&SearchArgs=Keyword%3d%b9w%a8%be%bbG%b1%d1%a7%bd%26Attr%3d%26Src%3d7%26DateFrom%3d20070324%26DateTo%3d20070422%26ShowStyle%3d2%26PageNo%3d1%26ItemsPerPage%3d10&App=NS
江春男,<司馬觀點:中國首富自殺未遂>。《蘋果日報》,2007年4月29日from http://tw.nextmedia.com/applenews/article/art_id/31586198/IssueID/20090429
______,<司馬觀點:憶苦思甜>。《蘋果日報》,2007年7月16日from http://1-apple.com.tw/apple/index.cfm?Fuseaction=Article&loc=TP&PageType=new&sec_id=5&NewsType=twapple&showdate=20070716&art_id=3647025
李順德,<烽火不如攻擊 邱義仁為外交正名>。《聯合報》,2007年8月4日from http://www.udn.com/2007/8/4/NEWS/NATIONAL/NAT1/3956636.shtml
阮毅成,<中央工作日記(五十二) >。《傳記文學(2009年12月號)》第95卷第6期 總號571號,頁 127-132。
周 偉、胡錦武,<贛南第一腐敗大案局長調查:查到我說明我倒楣> (轉載自瞭望新聞週刊2005年4月16日)。中國重拳打擊腐敗 近期高官落馬一覽2009年2月5日from http://news.xinhuanet.com/newscenter/2005-04/16/content_2837 568.htm
林桂明,<腐敗是中國的日常生活>。《多維時報》,2009年1月23日,A8版。
奚旭初,<扶貧竟然扶出中國最大黑槍製販基地>。《星島環球網》,2006年6月1日。http://www.stnn.cc/global/china/t20060601_244402.html
秦 暉,<中國問題就是農村問題>。《華夏時報》,2002年3月15日。
張新光,<論中國農地產權制度市場化改革的思想障礙>。《光明觀察(轉載自世紀中國),2004年。
曹 健,<掃雪不乾淨 屋主恐惹官司>。《世界日報》,2009年2月3日,B3版。
許玉鳳、翁良傑,<「牛仔王」陳榮秋前進中美洲>。 《貿易雜誌》第57期,2000年,頁22-26。Retrieved from http://www.ieatpe.org.tw/magazine/57f.htm。
陳之驊、孫壯志,<探析蘇東劇變中的腐敗因素>。摘自《中國紀檢監察報-理論探討》,2009年5月8日from http://www.nbcp.gov.cn/article/lltt/200905/2009050 0002545.shtml
陳世欽,<「阿薩姆」爭獨立 好茶快喝不到>。《聯合報》,2006年 from http://mag.udn.com/mag/world/storypage.jsp?f_ART_ID=52110
陳長文,<美德本身就是一種報償>。《民生報》,2006年11月21日。
陸以正,< 大陸對非洲「微笑攻勢」所向無敵>。《華府郵報 Washington China Post》,2006年11月24日,頁9。
曾慧燕,<楊繼繩為3600萬餓殍立墓碑>。《世界週刊》,2008年11月9日,頁25-30。
無名氏,<戒嚴到解嚴的蠢話與笑話>。《蘋果日報》,2007年7月16日from http://1-apple.com.tw/apple/index.cfm?Fuseaction=Article&loc=TP&PageType=new&sec_id=5&NewsType=twapple&showdate=20070716&art_id=3647021
項程鎮,<賴英照:大法官釋憲 曾遇4次重挫>。《自由時報》,2009年12月26日from http://www.libertytimes.com.tw/2009/new/dec/26/today-p4.htm
黃 焜,<福建工商局長周金夥從容出逃美國>。《多維時報 The Duowei Times》,2006年6月16日,A1版。
新華網,<中國重拳打擊腐敗 近期高官落馬一覽>, 2009年2月5日 from http://news.xinhuanet.com/legal/2003-10/30/content_1150976.htm
楊少強,<諾貝爾從未設經濟學獎>。《商業週刊》,第986期,2006年10月16日,頁166。
達賴喇嘛、法比安‧瓦奇., 《達賴新經:達賴喇嘛人間對話》。蕭錦錦譯,第一版, 臺北:天下雜誌社,2003年。
綜合報導<台司法信心評比 亞太第七>。《蘋果日報》,2007年8月28日from http://1-apple.com.tw/apple/index.cfm?Fuseaction=Article&Sec_ID=5&ShowDate=20070828&NewsType=twapple&Loc=TP&Art_ID=3768580
聞亦道,<Old-Boy Network 老同學人脈網>。《商業週刊》,第986期,2006年10月16日,頁168。
鄭為元,<第一次國共戰爭中紅軍的建制>。《傳記文學》,第89期,2006年8月,頁 17-44。
薛建國,<浙江義烏多名貪官收煙票落馬:煙店成洗錢銀行>。《錢江晚報 國內新聞》,2009年5月10日from http://www.cns.hk:89/gn/news/2009/02-20/157188 2.shtml
聶立濤,<全球公司海外行賄調查:中國排名29位得4.94分>。《環球時報》,2006年10月24日from http://blog.roodo.com/gamy543/archives/2446843.html
蘋 論,<台灣應同時親善美中>。《蘋果日報》,2007年7月25日from http://1-apple.com.tw/apple/index.cfm?Fuseaction=Article&loc=TP&PageType=new&sec_id=5&NewsType=twapple&showdate=20070725&art_id=3672088
黨國印,<確立農民的土地財產權>。《南方週末》,1999年4月2日, 13版。
(八) 深度訪談
張旭成,深度訪談張旭成(前國家安全會議副秘書長), 2007年7月26日,葛傳宇(Ed.) (未發表訪談稿)。地點:臺北市青島東路3之2號7樓。
廖 燃,深度訪談Telephone Conversation on TI-China Chapter。2007年7月4日,葛傳宇 (Ed.). 地點:臺北。
______,深度訪談Personal Communication: RE: on TI-China Chapter。2007年7月4日,葛傳宇 (Ed.). 地點:臺北。
______,深度訪談Personal Communication: RE: TI and OECD。2007年7月5日,葛傳宇 (Ed.). 地點:臺北。
暱名前聯合國官員,深度訪談--善治。2008年7月 24日,葛傳宇 (Ed.)。地點:WISC 2008, Ljubljana, Slovenia。
(九) 博碩士論文
金亨俊,《中共國有企業改革過程中腐敗行為之研究 -代理人理論之分析》。臺北:國立政治大學公共行政學系碩士論文,2001年。
二、外文書目
(一) 官方文書
CIA. The World Factbook, 2009. Retrieved January 14, 2010, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2001rank.html?countryName=Panama&countryCode=pm®ionCode=ca&rank=99#pm
Eizenstat, S. E. OECD Convention on Combating the Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions by Stuart E. Eizenstat, Under Secretary of State for Economic, Business and Agricultural Affairs. The Senate Foreign Relations Committee, June 9,1998. Retrieved April 2, 2006, from http://www.fas.org/irp/congress/1998_hr/s980609-stat.htm
ENA. Treaty establishing the European Community, 1957. Retrieved July 1, 2007, from http://www.ena.lu/mce.cfm
EU2007. 50th anniversary of Treaties of Rome. Retrieved July 1, 2007, from http://www.eu2007.de/en/The_Council_Presidency/treaties_of_rome/index.html
International Trade Administration. OECD Antibribery Convention, 2009. Retrieved January 2, 2010, from http://www.t-tlaw.com/intl-01.htm
INTERPOL. Conventions regarding Anti-Corruption Publication. Retrieved December 12, 2009: http://www.interpol.int/Public/Corruption/Conventions/default.asp
OAS. INTER-AMERICAN CONVENTION AGAINST CORRUPTION, 1996. Retrieved December 12, 2009. from http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/Treaties/b-58.html.
OECD. CONVENTION ON COMBATING BRIBERY OF FOREIGN PUBLIC OFFICIALS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS and related Documents, 1998. Retrieved November 11, 2008. from http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/4/18/38028044.pdf.
______. OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE (ODA), 2003. Retrieved December 21, 2009, from http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=6043
______. Country reports on the implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Retrieved December 20, 2009, from http://www.oecd.org/document//24/0,3343,en_ 2649_34859_1933144_1_1_1_1,00.html
______. OECD Working Group on Bribery in International Business Transactions. Retrieved December 20, 2009, from http://www.oecd.org/document/5/0,3343,en_ 2649_34859_35430021_1_1_1_1,00.html
______. Recommendation of the Council for Further Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Retrieved December 21, 2009. from http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/11/40/44176910.pdf.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Robert Aumann’s and Thomas Schelling’s Contributions to Game Theory: Analyses of Conflict and Cooperation, 2005. Retrieved December 21, 2009, from http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/2005/ecoadv05.pdf
The White House. Presidential Decision Directive/NSC-63: Critical Infrastructure Protection, 1998. Retrieved. June 4, 2006 from http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/pdd/pdd-63.htm.
The World Bank. Anti-corruption Policies and Programs: A Framework for Evaluation, Vol. 1, 1997. Retrieved February, 2009, from http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/WBI/EXTWBIGOVANTCOR/0,,contentMDK:21440877~isCURL:Y~menuPK:1977002~pagePK:64168445~piPK:64168309~theSitePK:1740530,00.html
______. Anticorruption in Transition: a Contribution to Policy Debate. Retrieved December 21, 2009. from http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/governance/pdf/contribution.pdf.
______. Governance & Anti-Corruption. Retrieved February, 2009, from http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/WBI/EXTWBIGOVANTCOR/0,,menuPK:1740542~pagePK:64168427~piPK:64168435~theSitePK:1740530,00.html
______. World Bank Hails Transparency International's Annual Report: “Important Contribution Toward Curbing Corruption” - World Bank President. Retrieved December 10, 2009. from http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:20395101~menuPK:34463~pagePK:64003015~piPK:64003012~theSitePK:4607,00.html
UNDP. Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in Asia and the Pacific. Delhi: Macmillan, 2008.
UNESCAP. Whast is Good Governance? . Retrieved December 15, 2009. from http://www.unescap.org/pdd/prs/projectactivities/ongoing/gg/governance.asp.
United States General Accounting Office. Technology Assessment: Cyber Security for Critical Infrastructure Protection, 2004.
United States Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Subcommittee on African Affairs, 2009. Resource curse or blessing? Africa's management of its extractive industries: hearing before the Subcommittee on African Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, One Hundred Tenth Congress, second session, September 24, 2008). Available from http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS109502
______. General Accounting Office. World Bank: management controls stronger, but challenges in fighting corruption remain : report to congressional committees. Washington, D.C. (P.O. Box 37050, Washington 20013): The Office, 2000.
______. Office of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction. U.S. anticorruption efforts in Iraq sustained management commitment is a key to success, Sigir 08-008, 2008, pp. 12. Available from http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS98070
UNODC. United Nations Convention against Corruption. Retrieved December 21, 2009, from http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/index.html
US Department of Commerce. The National Export Strategy. Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce, 1996.
US Department of State. 2005 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of State, 2006.
USDOJ. INTERNATIONAL ANTI-BRIBERY ACT OF 1998: Legislative History. Retrieved May 5, 2006, from http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/fraud/fcpa/leghist.htm
______. BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and International Corruption, 2001. http://www.justice.gov/criminal/fraud/fcpa/append/ix/appendixd.pdf
______. Capital Crimes. USAM. Retrieved April 22, 2006, from http://www.usdoj.gov/usao/eousa/foia_reading_room/usam/title9/10mcrm.htm#9-10.080
______. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: Antibribery Provisions. Retrieved December 18, 2009. from http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/fraud/docs/dojdocb.html
(二) 專著
Ahmed, Fethi Ben Jomma. The Dilemma of Corruption in Southeast Asia. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press, 2005.
Aiolfi, G. and M. Pieth. International Aspects of Corporate Liability and Corruption. S. Tully, eds. Research Handbook on Corporate Legal Responsibility: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005.
Almond, G. A., P. G. Bingham, Jr., K. Strom and R. J. Dalton eds. Comparative Politics: A Theoretical Framework. New York, NY: Priscilla McGeehon, 3rd edition, 2000.
Anheier, H., M. Glasius and M. Kaldor eds. Global Civil Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Armor, D. J. Forced Justice: School Desegregation and the Law: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Arts, B., M. Noortmann and B. Reinalda eds. Non-State Actors in International Relations: Ashgate, 2002.
Art, R. J. and R. Jervis eds. International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues (國際政治經典選讀), 7th edition (英文版). Beijing: Peking University Press, 2005.
Bardach, E. A Practical Guide for Policy Analysis: the Eightfold Path to More Effective Problem Solving, 2nd edition. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press, 2005.
Baylis, J. and S. Smith eds. The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, Vol. 53. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Becker, G. S. and G. J. Stigler. Law Enforcement, Malfeasance, and Compensation of Employees. Journal of Legal Studies, 1974.
Bellah, R. N. Beyond Belief: Essays on Religion in a Post-Traditional World. New York and London: Routledge, 1970.
_____. Ths Constitution of the People. Lawrence, KN: University Press of Kansas, 1990.
Bercovitch J., K.-B. Huang and C.-C. Teng eds. Conflict Management, Regional Security and Third Party Intervention in East Asia. London: Routledge, UK, 2007.
Booth, K. and T. Dunne eds. Worlds in Collision. London, 2002.
Boucher, David. Political Theories of International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Boulanger C. and A. Sarat eds. The Cultural Lives of Capital Punishment. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2005.
Braybrooke, D. and C. E. Lindblom. A Strategy of Decision: Policy Evaluation as a Social Process. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1963.
Buchanan, J. M. Constitutional Economics (K. Fong, Trans.). Beijing, China: Chinese Social Science Publication, 2004.
________. Has Economics Lost Its Way?: Reflection on the Economists' Enterprise at Century’s End. In H. S. F. R. Colloquium. ed. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University Institute for Humane Studies, 2006.
Buchanan, J., R. D. Tollison and G. Tullock eds. Toward a Theory of the Rent-Seeking Society. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1980.
Burchill, S., A. Linklater, R. Devetak, J. Donnelly, M. Paterson, C. Reus-Smit, et al. Theories of International Relations, 3rd edition. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
Campos, J. E. and S. Pradhan. The Many Faces of Corruption Tracking Vulnerabilities at the Sector Level. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2007.
Chandhoke, N. The Limits of Global Civil Society. M. Glasius, M. Kaldor and H. Anheier eds. Global Civil Society. London: The Center for the Study of Global Governance, LSE, 2002.
Castles, F. G. ed. The Comparative History of Public Policy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Cheung, S. N. S. The Myth of Social Cost. San Francisco, CA: CATO Institute, 1980.
________. Will China Go 'Capitalist' ? An Economic Analysis of Property Rights and Institutional Change. London: The Institute of Economic Affairs, 1982.
Claude, Inis L. Jr. Power and International Relations. New York: Random House, 1962.
Cooper, C. L. and D. M. C. Rousseau eds. Trends in Organizational Behavior: John Wiley and Sons, 1994.
Dallek, R. Nixon and Kissing: Partners in Power, 1st edition. New York, NY: Harper Collins, 2007.
de Soto, H. The Other Path: the Economic Answer to Terrorism. New York, NY: Basic Books, 1989.
________. The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else. New York, NY: Basic Books, 2000.
de Tocqueville, A. Influence of Democracy on the Feelings of The Americans. In Why Democratic Nations Show A More Ardent and Enduring Love of Equality Than of Liberty (Vol. II). New York, NY: D. Appleton and Company, 1904.
________. Democracy in America (G. Lawrence, Trans. Vol. II). New York, NY: Everyman's Library, Aflred A. Knopf, 1994.
Devetak, R. Critical Theory. S. Burchill, A. Linklater, R. Devetak, J. Donnelly, M. Paterson, C. Reus-Smit and J. True eds. Theories of International Relations, 3th edition. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
________ . Postmodernism. S. Burchill, A. Linklater, R. Devetak, J. Donnelly, M. Paterson, C. Reus-Smit and J. True eds. Theories of International Relations, 3th edition. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
Devine, F. and S. Heath. Sociological Research Methods in Context. London: Macmillan, 1999.
Diamond, L., D. Brumberg and M. F. Plattner eds. Islam and Democracy in the Middle East. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.
Diamond, L. and F. Marc. Plattner eds. The Global Resurgence of Democracy, 2nd edition. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, August 1996.
Diamond, L., M. F. Plattner, Y.-h. Chu and H.-m. Tien eds. Consolidating the Third Wave Democracies. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.
Dougherty, E. James, L. Robert and Jr. Pfaltzgraff eds. Contending Theories of International Relations: A Comparative Survey. New York, NY: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 2001.
Durand, A. History of the International Committee of the Red Cross. Volume II: from Sarajevo to Hiroshima. Geneva: Henry Dunant Institute, 1984.
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(四) 研討會論文
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Description: 博士
國立政治大學
外交研究所
93253501
98
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0093253501
Data Type: thesis
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