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Title: 中文祈使句
Imperatives in Chinese
Authors: 楊佩霖
Yang, Pei Lin
Contributors: 謝妙玲

Hsieh, Miao Ling
Her, One Soon

Yang, Pei Lin
Keywords: 祈使情態
imperative mood
negative imperatives
generative grammar
deontic modal
illocutionary force
Date: 2009
Issue Date: 2010-12-09 12:36:02 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 韓(1999)提出祈使句是指句中主要動詞是祈使情態(imperative mood)的句子,與其他句型相較下,在其他語言中祈使句具有特別的動詞構詞或句法表現;然而,中文祈使句並無任何構詞或句法機制以表現祈使情態,因此,中文祈使句的句法表現和直述句相似。本論文動機為觀察到中文祈使句與其他語言祈使句的相異處,進而研究中文如何區別中文祈使句與其他句型的差異。同時,前人對於中文祈使句的研究多從描述性觀點出發,缺理論辯證,以致分析上產生缺失;因此,本文試從衍生句法的觀點分析中文祈使句的句法結構。
本論文主要有三個研究目的: 首先,本論文研究中文祈使句的句法特徵。其次,本論文研究如何區別中文祈使句與其他句型的差異,並發現中文的附加問句可以用來區別祈使句與直述句。並且,本論文發現中文的否定祈使句“別”字句與義務性情態詞“要/不要”在句法表現上雖有相同處,但亦表現出多方面的句法相異處。再者,本論文從衍生句法的觀點研究中文祈使句的句法結構。因為中文缺乏句法標記與構詞變化,因此無法從句法層面看出中文祈使句的話語效力 (force)與情態(mood), 但藉由時制定位(tense anchoring)與祈使句的關係,本論文提出中文祈使句結構中具有祈使算子(imperative operator)。
Han (1999) proposes imperatives are sentences whose main verbs are in the form of the imperative mood. Imperative sentences possess a distinct morphology within the verb or may be distinguished by their syntactic realization from other clause types. However, Chinese imperatives do not demonstrate verb-inflection nor do they impose morphological mechanisms to indicate mood; thus, it seems that imperatives in Chinese are similar to declaratives. This thesis observes the differences between imperatives in Chinese and in other languages, and these differences lead us to conduct a study on how Chinese distinguishes imperatives from other clause types. Moreover, this thesis finds that the previous analyses of Chinese imperatives lack theoretical grounds, as several problems and wrong prediction arise under those analyses. Thus, this study researches on the structure of Chinese imperatives from the perspective of generative grammar.
The thesis has three main goals. First, this thesis investigates the syntactic characteristics of Chinese imperatives. Second, this thesis seeks to discern how Chinese distinguishes imperatives from other clause types. This study utilizes tag questions to distinguish imperatives and declaratives. Furthermore, this study finds that the imperatives bie1 and deontic Modalsobligation yao sentences are alike in some ways, but different in other ways. Third, from a generative perspective, this thesis proposes a syntactic structure of imperatives in Chinese. Although it seems difficult to find syntactic evidence of the imperative force and mood as well as a structure of imperatives because Chinese imperatives lack a morpho-syntatic strategy, this thesis proposes that Chinese possesses an imperative operator in imperatives, by examining the evidence from tense anchoring and imperatives.
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