Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/49906


Title: 中文祈使句
Imperatives in Chinese
Authors: 楊佩霖
Yang, Pei Lin
Contributors: 謝妙玲
何萬順

Hsieh, Miao Ling
Her, One Soon

楊佩霖
Yang, Pei Lin
Keywords: 祈使情態
否定祈使句
衍生句法
義務性情態詞
話語效力
imperative mood
negative imperatives
generative grammar
deontic modal
illocutionary force
Date: 2009
Issue Date: 2010-12-09 12:36:02 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 韓(1999)提出祈使句是指句中主要動詞是祈使情態(imperative mood)的句子,與其他句型相較下,在其他語言中祈使句具有特別的動詞構詞或句法表現;然而,中文祈使句並無任何構詞或句法機制以表現祈使情態,因此,中文祈使句的句法表現和直述句相似。本論文動機為觀察到中文祈使句與其他語言祈使句的相異處,進而研究中文如何區別中文祈使句與其他句型的差異。同時,前人對於中文祈使句的研究多從描述性觀點出發,缺理論辯證,以致分析上產生缺失;因此,本文試從衍生句法的觀點分析中文祈使句的句法結構。
本論文主要有三個研究目的: 首先,本論文研究中文祈使句的句法特徵。其次,本論文研究如何區別中文祈使句與其他句型的差異,並發現中文的附加問句可以用來區別祈使句與直述句。並且,本論文發現中文的否定祈使句“別”字句與義務性情態詞“要/不要”在句法表現上雖有相同處,但亦表現出多方面的句法相異處。再者,本論文從衍生句法的觀點研究中文祈使句的句法結構。因為中文缺乏句法標記與構詞變化,因此無法從句法層面看出中文祈使句的話語效力 (force)與情態(mood), 但藉由時制定位(tense anchoring)與祈使句的關係,本論文提出中文祈使句結構中具有祈使算子(imperative operator)。
Han (1999) proposes imperatives are sentences whose main verbs are in the form of the imperative mood. Imperative sentences possess a distinct morphology within the verb or may be distinguished by their syntactic realization from other clause types. However, Chinese imperatives do not demonstrate verb-inflection nor do they impose morphological mechanisms to indicate mood; thus, it seems that imperatives in Chinese are similar to declaratives. This thesis observes the differences between imperatives in Chinese and in other languages, and these differences lead us to conduct a study on how Chinese distinguishes imperatives from other clause types. Moreover, this thesis finds that the previous analyses of Chinese imperatives lack theoretical grounds, as several problems and wrong prediction arise under those analyses. Thus, this study researches on the structure of Chinese imperatives from the perspective of generative grammar.
The thesis has three main goals. First, this thesis investigates the syntactic characteristics of Chinese imperatives. Second, this thesis seeks to discern how Chinese distinguishes imperatives from other clause types. This study utilizes tag questions to distinguish imperatives and declaratives. Furthermore, this study finds that the imperatives bie1 and deontic Modalsobligation yao sentences are alike in some ways, but different in other ways. Third, from a generative perspective, this thesis proposes a syntactic structure of imperatives in Chinese. Although it seems difficult to find syntactic evidence of the imperative force and mood as well as a structure of imperatives because Chinese imperatives lack a morpho-syntatic strategy, this thesis proposes that Chinese possesses an imperative operator in imperatives, by examining the evidence from tense anchoring and imperatives.
Reference: Auwera, J. and L. Lejeune. 2005. The prohibitive. World atlas of language structures,
ed. by Martin Haspelmath, Matthew Dryer, David Gil and Bernard Comrie, 290-293. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Auwera, J. 2006. Why Language prefer prohibitive? Journal of Foreign Language 1:1-25.
Austin, J. L. 1962. How to do things with words. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.
Arbini, R. 1969. Tag-questions and tag-imperatives in English. Journal of Linguistics 5:193-320.
Beukema, F. and Coopmans, P. 1989. A Government-Binding perspective on the imperative in English. Journal of Linguistics 25:417-436.
Bennis, H. 2001. Featuring the subject in Dutch imperatives. In Wim van der Wurff (ed.) Imperative Clauses in Generative Grammar. Leiden. 19-37.
Chen-Main, J. 2005. Characteristics of Mandarin imperatives. In C. Brandstetter and D. Rus, eds., Georgetown University Working Papers in Theoretical Linguistics, IV, Georgetown University Department of Linguistics.
Cinque, G. 1999. Adverb and functional heads: a cross-linguistic perspective. Oxford
Studies in Comparative Syntax. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
Han, C.H. 1998. The structure and interpretation of imperatives: mood and force in Universal Grammar. PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
Han, C. H. 2001. Force, negation, and imperatives. The Linguistic Review, 18:289-325.
Han, C.H. 1999. Deontic modality, lexical aspect and the semantics of imperatives. In
Linguistics in morning calm 4. Hanshin Publications, Seoul.
Han, C.-H 2000. The structure and interpretation of imperatives: mood and force in Universal Grammar. Garland Publications, New York.
Haegeman, L. 2002. Anchoring to speaker, adverbial clause and the structure of CP. GUWPIL 2, 117-180. University Press, Cambridge.
Huang, S., 2005. Universal quantification with skolemization: evidence from Chinese and English. The Edwin Mellen Press, New York.
Huddleston, R. 1970. Two approaches to the analysis of tags. Journal of Linguistics 6:215-222.
Iatridou, S. 1990. About Agr(P). Linguistic Inquiry 21: 551-577.
Klima, E. S. 1964. Negation in English. The structure of language: reading in the philosophy of language, ed. by J. A. Fodor and J.J. Katz. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hall.
Li, C. J. 1998. Tag questions in Mandarin Chinese. National Cheng-chi University. M.A. Thesis. Taipei.
Li, C. and Thompson, S. 1981. Mandarin Chinese: a functional reference grammar. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.
Lin, J. W. and J. C. C. Tang, 1995. Modals as verbs in Chinese: a GB perspective. Collection of Sinica Academia 66. 53.
Lin, T.-H. Jonah. 2006. Multiple modal constructions in Mandarin Chinese and their finiteness properties. Ms, National Tsing Hua University.
Li, B. 2006. Chinese final particle and the syntax of the periphery. Leiden University Press, Neverlands.
Longobardi, G. 1994. Reference and proper names: a theory of N-movement in syntax and logical Form. Linguistic Inquiry 25(4): 609-665.
Longobardi, G. 2000.The structure of DPs: principles, parameters, and problems. In Baltin, M. and Collins, C. (eds), Handbook of Syntactic Theory, 562-603. Blackwell, Malden and Oxford.
Lyons, J. 1977. Semantics. Volumes I and II. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
McCloskey, J. 1997. Subjecthood and subject positions. In L. Haegeman, ed., Elements of Grammar, 197-235. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Plamer, F.R. 2001. Mood and Modality. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge.
Platzack, C. and Rosengren, I. 1998. On the subject of imperatives: a minimalist account of the imperative pronoun and negated imperatives. Journal of comparative Germanic Linguistics1: 177-224.
Pollock, J.-Y. 1989. Verb movement, universal Grammar, and the structure of IP.
Linguistic Inquiry 20: 365-424.
Portner, P. 2004. The Semantics of imperatives within a theory of clause types. In Kazuha Watanabe and Robert B. Young, eds., Proceedings of Semantics and Linguistic Theory 14. CLC Publications, Ithaca, New York.
Potsdam, E. 1996. Syntactic issues in the English imperative. PhD dissertation. University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz.
Ramsey, S.R. 1987. The languages of China. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Rizzi, L. 1997. The fine structure of the left periphery. In Haegeman, L., ed., Elements of Grammar: Handbook in Generative Syntax. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Rizzi, L. 1999. On the position "Int(errogative)" in the left position of the clause. Ms., Università di Siena.
Rivero, M.-L. 1994. Negation, imperative and Wackernagel effect. Rivista di Linguistica 6: 91-118.
Rivero, M.-L. and Terzi, A. 1995. Imperatives, V-movement, and logical mood. Journal of linguistics 31:301-332.
Sadock, J.M. and Zwicky, A. 1985. Speech act distinctions in syntax. In Shopen, Timothy (ed.), Language typology and syntactic description, pp.155-196. Combridge University Press.
Searle, J. R. 1969. Speech acts: an essay in the philosophy of language. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.
Tang, S.-W. and Lee, T.H.-T. 2000. Focus as an anchoring condition. Paper presented in the International Symposium on Topic and Focus in Chinese, The Hong. Kong Polytechnic University, June 21–23, 2000.
Tsai, W.-T. D. 2008. Tense anchoring in Chinese. Lingua 118:675-686.
Tsai, W.-T. D. 2009a. Actuality entailments and topography of Chinese modals. Paper presented at The Seven Glow in Asia, English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderadad, India.
Tsai, W.-T. D. 2009b. A Topography of Affective and Focus Constructions in Chinese. Lecture of Research Center of Theoritical Linguistics, Language University, Beijing, China
Tsai, W.-T. D. 2010. EPP as a Topic Feature: Evidence from Chinese Applicatives and Reflexive Adverbials Paper presented at The 7th Workshop on Formal Syntax & Semantics, Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica, Taipei.
Tsai, W.-T. D. and P. Portner. 2008. Adverb-Modal Interactions and Actuality Entailments in Chinese. Paper presented at IsCLL-11, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan.
W. van der Wurff. 2007. Imperative clauses in generative grammar: studies in honour of Frits Beukema. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Yuan, Y. 1993. Xiandai Hanyu qishiju yanjiu. University of Beijing Press, Beijing, China.
Zeijlstra, H.H. 2006. The Ban on True Negative Imperatives. In Empirical Issues in Syntax and Semantics 6: 405-424.
Zanuttini, R. 1997. Negation and Clausal Structure: a comparative study of
Romance languages. Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
Zanuttini, R. and Portner, P. 2003. Exclamative clauses: at the syntax-semantics
interface. Language 79:39-81.
Zanuttini, R. 2008. Encoding the addressee in the syntax: evidence from English imperative subjects. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 26:185-218.
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
語言學研究所
96555015
98
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0096555015
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[語言學研究所] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
501501.pdf656KbAdobe PDF1506View/Open


All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


社群 sharing