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Title: 邁向人權國家?陳水扁與馬英九的人權政策比較
Towards a human rights state? A comparison of Taiwan’S human rights policies under Chen Shui-Bian and Ma Ying-Jeou
Authors: 丹趵曼
Daniel Bowman
Contributors: 廖福特
Liao, Fort Fu-te
Daniel Bowman
Keywords: 人權
Human Rights
International Human Rights Covenants
National Human Rights Commission
Death Penalty
Date: 2009
Issue Date: 2010-12-09 16:58:36 (UTC+8)
Abstract: This thesis examines Taiwan’s human rights development from 2000 until 2010. It looks at and compares the policies and action of Presidents Chen Shui-bian and Ma Ying-jeou in terms of three indicators of human rights: the implementation of the international human rights treaties (ICCPR and ICESCR), the establishment of a national human rights commission and the status of the death penalty. The case of Australia and its position in relation to the three key areas of this human rights study are analyzed for comparative purposes. Additionally, important historical human rights milestones and the beginnings of Taiwan’s democratization are introduced by way of an overview but the focus of this thesis is on the events of the last decade. In doing so, the overall aim of this study is to assess whether Taiwan has achieved its stated goal of becoming a human rights state.
Reference: 1. Books, Chapters and Articles
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Central European and Eurasian Law Initiative, 2003. ICCPR Legal Implementation Index. Washington: American Bar Association.
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Human Rights Protection and Promotion Committee, Executive Yuan. 2009. 2007-2008 National Human Rights Report.
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2. Treaties, UN Resolutions and Declarations
Declaration and Programme of Action. 2000. UN World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance.
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, opened for signature 19 December 1966, 999 UNTS 171 (entered into force 23 March 1976).
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, opened for signature 19 December 1966, 993 UNTS 3 (entered into force 3 January 1976).
Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, opened for signature 19 December 1966, (entered into force 23 March 1976)
Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Aiming at the Abolition of the Death Penalty, opened for signature 15 December 1989 (entered into force 11 July 1991)
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, UN General Assembly Resolution 217 A, 10 December 1948
UN General Assembly Resolution 48/134 (20 December 1993)
3. Legislation
ROC (Taiwan)
Enacted law
Constitution of the Republic of China 1947
Act for the Control and Punishment of Banditry 1943
Act to Implement the ICCPR and ICESCR 2009
Civil Code 1929
Criminal Code 1929
Criminal Code of the Armed Forces 1929
Criminal Procedure Law 1935
Mobilization for the Suppression of Communist Rebellion Provisional Act (Martial Law) 1948
Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion 1948
Draft law
Human Rights Protection and Promotion Committee, 2001. Draft Organic Law on the National Human Rights Commission
Human Rights Protection and Promotion Committee, 2001. Draft Law on the Powers of the National Human Rights Commission
Human Rights Protection and Promotion Committee, 2003. Draft Basic Law on Human Rights.
Human Rights Protection and Promotion Committee, 2005. Draft Bill of Rights
Human Rights Protection and Promotion Committee, 2006. Draft Human Rights Law
Ministry of Justice, 2000. Draft National Human Rights Commission Investigative Powers Enactment Law
Ministry of Justice, 2001. Draft Basic Law on the Protection of Human Rights
Australian Legislation
Commonwealth Legislation
Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900
Age Discrimination Act 2004
Australian Bill of Rights Bill 1985
Disability Discrimination Act 1992
Human Rights Bill 1973
Human Rights Commission Act 1981
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Act 1986 (renamed Australian Human Rights Commission Act 1986)
Human Rights (Sexual Conduct) Act 1994
Race Discrimination Act 1975
Sex Discrimination Act 1984
State and Territory Legislation
ACT Human Rights Act 2004
Queensland Anti-Discrimination Act 1991
Tasmanian Criminal Code Act 1924
Victorian Charter of Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006
4. Cases – Australian High Court
Brandy v HREOC [1995] HCA 10
Croome v Tasmania (1997) 191 CLR 119
Mabo v State of Queensland (1992) 175 CLR 1
5. Newspaper and press reports
An, C.-H. and Wu, S. 2010. MOJ Looking to Replace Death Penalty with Non-Parole Life Sentence. Taiwan News, 15 April.
Bradsher, K. and Moore, J. 2009. An Interview with Ma Ying-jeou. New York Times. 22 February.
Chang, R. and Loa, I.-S. 2010. Justice Chief Defends Stay of Executions. Taipei Times, 11 March. p. 1
Chiang, H.-J. 2010. Finding a Death Penalty Minister is not Easy, Ma’s Government and Judiciary to become more Conservative. (In Chinese) Zhongguo Shibao (中國時報) China Times, 16 March.
Cohen, J.A. 2010. Tied to the Cause. South China Morning Post, 17 March.
Cohen, J.A. and Chen, Y.-J. 2010. Slippery Slope. South China Morning Post, 13 May.
Cohen, J.A. and Chen, Y.-J. 2009. Will Beijing Follow Taiwan’s Lead on Human Rights? South China Morning Post, 28 May.
Death Penalty Dispute / Presidential Office and Executive Yuan ‘put out the flame’ – Wang Ching-feng steps down. 2010. (In Chinese) Ziyou Shibao (自由時報) Liberty Times, 12 March.
Huang, P. 2009. A Breakthrough in Human Rights. Taipei Times, 8 April, p. 8
Huang, S. 2010. Activists, Academics Accuse the President of Neglecting the Rights of Aborigines. Taipei Times, 12 May. p. 2
Huang, S. 2010. Capital punishment to be Abolished Gradually. Taipei Times, 2 February. p. 3.
Jennifer Wang and Wang Ching-feng: Government policy vs. social movements, 2010. (In Chinese) Lianhe Bao (聯合報) United Daily, 10 May.
Justice Minister Defends Stance on Executions, 2010. (In Chinese) Zhongyang Tongxunshe (中央通訊社) Central News Agency, 10 March.
Justice Minister Wang Resigns, Firmly Opposed to Capital Punishment. 2010. Taiwan News, 13 March.
Lee M.-C., Tsao Y.-F. and Wu, S. 2010. EU Urged to Delink Death Penalty from Visa Waiver. Taiwan News, 2 May.
Lee, S.-H. and Wu, S. 2010. Four Death Row Inmates Executed: MOJ. 2010. Taiwan News, 30 April.
Lin, Y.-F. 2008. President: Reducing the Death Penalty, the way forward. (In Chinese) Zhongyang Tongxunshe (中央通訊社) Central News Agency, 18 June.
Loa, I.-S. 2010. Rights Covenants Still Little Understood. Taipei Times, 22 March. p. 3
Ma Calls for a Rational Debate on Capital Punishment. 2010. (In Chinese) Zhongguo Shibao (中國時報) China Times, 16 March.
New Cabinet Members Head into Office, 2008. Mayer, D. (Tr.) Taiwan Panorama. 7 June.
New Justice Minister Will Not Execute All 44 Inmates at Once. 2010. The China Post, 21 March.
No Timetable for Further Executions: Justice Minister. 2010. The China Post, 5 May.
On Ma Ying-jeou’s Secong Wave of Cabinet Appointments, 2008. Chu, B. (Tr.) China Times. 29 April.
President Ma Signs Instruments of Ratification on UN Human Rights Covenants. 2009. KMT News Network. 15 May.
President Says Death Penalty Should be Administered According to the Law. 2010. Formosa News. 11 March.
President Vows to Put an End to the Death Penalty. 2003. Taipei Times, 3 October. p. 4
Presidential Office, 2008. President Ma Attends 2008 Asia Democracy and Human Rights Award Ceremony. [Press Release] 10 December
Rights Ratification Documents sent to UN. 2009. China Post, 15 June.
Taiwan Executes Four. 2010. The China Post, 2 May.
Taiwan Justice Minister: execution of death penalty is not infraction of international covenants: Liberty Times. 2010. Taiwan News, 23 March.
Taiwan Justice Minister Threatens to Resign Rather than Approve Executions. 2010. Taiwan News, 10 March.
Taiwan Premier-Designate Wu Den-yih presents Cabinet lineup, 2009. Taiwan News, 9 September.
The Debate over the Death Penalty in Taiwan, 2010. Taiwan News, 2 February.
Tseng Yung-fu Named New Justice Minister. 2010. The China Post, 20 March.
Wang, C.-F. 2010. Reason and Tolerance – the suspension of carrying out the death penalty. (In Chinese) Reprinted in Lianhe Bao (聯合報) United Daily, 11 March.
Wang, C.-M. 2010. Regardless of Losing Votes and Impacting the Polls: President Ma – Reforms will be Promoted. (In Chinese) Now News, 19 May.
Wang Chien-shien: A National Human Rights Commission is more suitable in the Control Yuan, 2009. (In Chinese) Zhonghua Ribao (中華日報) China Daily News. 21 July.
Wang Ching-feng: An Individual Against the Death Penalty, 2008. (In Chinese) Pingguo Ribao (蘋果日報) Apple Daily, 23 April.
Wang Ching-feng: Don’t jump to conclusions about carrying out the death penalty, hopes for rectification, 2008. (In Chinese) Zhongyang Tongxunshe (中央通訊社) Central News Agency, 11 May.
Williams, G. 2010. No Death Penalty, No Shades of Grey. The Sydney Morning Herald, 2 March.
6. Speeches
Chen, S.-B. 2000. Taiwan Stands Up: Presidential Inauguaration Address, 20 May.
Ma, Y.-J. 2008. Taiwan’s Renaissance: Presidential Inaugural Speech, 21 May.
7. Online Resources
Attorney-General’s Department, 2006. Common Core Document comprising Fifth ICCPR Report and Fourth ICESCR Report. [Online] [Accessed 21 April 2010]
Attorney-General’s Department, 2010. Australia’s Human Rights Framework. [Online] [Accessed 21 April 2010]
Australian Human Rights Commission, 2010. About the Commission. [Online] [Accessed 11 May 2010]
Australian Human Rights Commission, 2010. Human Rights Publications. [Online] [Accessed 11 May 2010]
Australian Human Rights Commission, 2010. The International Bill of Rights. Human Rights Explained, 5. [Online] [Accessed 5 April 2010]
BBC, 2004. Interview: Chen Shui-bian. BBC News. 30 March. [Online] [Accessed 15 March 2010]
Cohen, J. and Chen, Y.-J. 2009. Jerome A. Cohen and Yu-Jie Chen on Taiwan’s Incorporation of the ICCPR and ICESCR into Domestic Law. US Asia Law NY. [Online] [Accessed 24 April 2010]
Commonwealth of Australia, 1973. Australian Parliamentary Library Records [Online] [Accessed 10 April 2010]
Commonwealth of Australia, 2009. National Human Rights Consultation. [Online] [Accessed 10 April 2010]
Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 2008. Australia’s System of Government. About Australia. [Online] [Accessed 11 May 2010]
Dieter, R.C. 2002. The Death Penalty and Human Rights: U.S. Death Penalty and International Law. Oxford Roundtable. [Online] [Accessed 7 May 2010]
Freedom House, 2010. Freedom in the World 2010 Survey [Online] [Accessed 5 April 2010]
Government Information Office, 2009. A Government that Respects Human Rights and Freedom of the Press. [Online] [Accessed 10/11/2009]
Government Information Office, 2007. President Chen Shui-bian Meets Dutch Human Rights Expert Dr. Theodoor C. Van Boven [Online] [Accessed: 10 April 2010]
Government Information Office, 2009. President Ma Signs Instruments of Ratification of Two Covenants on Human Rights. ROC Diplomatic Missions Portal. 20 May. [Online] [Accessed 15 June 2009]
Hammond-Chambers, R.J. 2001. Analysis of Taiwan’s December 1, 2001, Elections. US-Taiwan Business Council Fact Sheet [Online] [Accessed: 24 March 2010]
Huang, M. 2003. Advocacy, Debate and Prospects of Taiwan’s National Human Rights Commission: the view of NGOs. (In Chinese) [Online] [Accessed 20 May 2010]
Kekic, L, 2007. The Economic Intelligence Unit Index of Democracy. [Online] [Accessed 5 April 2010]
Law Council of Australia, 2010. Death Penalty Background. [Online] [Accessed 29 April 2010]
Ministry of Justice, 2009. ICESCR – Its value and stipulations on human rights. 10 April. [Online] [Accessed 8 October 2009]
Roy Morgan Research, 2009. Australians say penalty for murder should be
Imprisonment (64%) rather than the Death Penalty (23%). [Online] [Accessed 17 June 2010]
Strauss, J. 2005. Comparative Terror and Regime Consolidation on the Two Sides of the Taiwan Straits in the 1950s: Suppression of counterrevolutionaries and White Terrors [Online] [Accessed: 20/12/2008]
Ye, T.-C. 2009. (In Chinese) 以機構作為規範的配套:兩公約與國家人權委員會 [Online] Taiwan Association for Human Rights. [Accessed: 10 April 2010]
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