Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ah.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/50054


Title: Examinig china's soft power in Southeast Asia
Authors: 萬愛本
Contributors: 姜家雄
Chiang, Alex
萬愛本
Keywords: Soft Power
China
US
the Philippines
Date: 2009
Issue Date: 2010-12-09 16:58:59 (UTC+8)
Abstract: “soft power is the ability to get what a country wants through attraction rather than coercion or payment.”
- Joseph S. Nye Jr.
From Nye’s original soft power idea, the term now has been increasingly attached to China’s conduct of its diplomacy in various parts of the globe from Southeast Asia to Africa and South America. This research examines China’s soft power in Southeast Asia and its effectiveness relative to the pursuit and advancement of the country’s regional objectives and aspirations. The primary consideration here would be the US approach towards the region and how, if any, this has affected Southeast Asian governments’ reception and perception of China’s drive for increased influence and potential domination of regional affairs. Striking a comparison between Beijing’s standing in Southeast Asia before and after its soft power application would likely provide a logical explanation on the effectiveness of its intensified diplomacy in attracting regional countries.

Also of particular importance to this research would be the US policy towards the region and the underlying rationale behind its stance, as well as Southeast Asia’s attitude regarding Washington’s regional approach. Undoubtedly, America’s image in the region has been tainted by the previous governments’ missteps and unpopular actions, but there is no denying that Southeast Asian governments still rely on the US military apparatus for regional stability and security. This has been made more complex by China’s growing penetration in Southeast Asia, but might as well provide enough reason for the US to engage Southeast Asia a lot more. Knowing the political, economic and historical correlation of individual regional countries vis-à-vis the US and China might shed some light as to their mindset relative to the competition of these two external powers for increased influence in Southeast Asia.

Being the US’ most reliable ally in Southeast Asia, the Philippines offers the most compelling case for this study. How the Philippines react, and what other factors influence its behavior, as far its relations with both the US and China provides some relevant information in the overall calculation of Beijing’s attractiveness among regional countries. Particularly relevant to this estimation is determining China’s rationale behind its goal of attaining unparalleled relations with the Philippines as well as Manila’s motivation in reciprocating Beijing’s offer of friendship. Equally important is the evolution of the Philippine-US relations and what drives these two countries to reinvigorate their security partnership, previously the cornerstone of American military supremacy in Southeast Asia, amid China’s charm offensive.

In the end, this study finds that it appears that the Philippines’ strategy vis-à-vis its relations with both the US and China has been to secure the best possible concessions from both countries while playing a delicate balancing game to accommodate their intensified competition for influence in the country. Although there have been remarkable improvement in relations between the Philippines and China, privately Manila is still uneasy with the potential security repercussions that Beijing’s rise might engender in the long run, especially with regards to their conflicting claims over the SCS. As it seems, the Philippines’ increased confidence in dealing with China can be rooted on its ability to keep the American military deeply engaged in the country.

As has been notable in the Philippine experience, Southeast Asia appeared determined to sustain the power equilibrium with regards to external powers, and all indications point to China as the concentration of this strategy. The ASEAN recognized that Beijing’s soft power has already put it in a position to compete with Washington for increased influence in the region. Southeast Asia wants to accommodate this, but judged that it would be safer to include other powers in the equation to ensure that the ASEAN still has control in managing these powers’ engagement. Having said this, while there is no doubt that China’s soft power has served its regional purpose well, Southeast Asia’s desire to sustain the regional balance of power, apparently with the US still at the top, would continue to put some limits to Beijing’s charm offensive in the region.
Reference: “A Dual Challenge Southeast Asia in the Twenty-First Century: Issues and Options for US Policy.” The Stanley Foundation (March 11-12, 2004), http://www.stanleyfoundation.org/publications/pdb/SEAa04pb.pdf.
ASEAN Statistical Yearbook, 2008 @ http://archive.asean.org/Publication-ASEAN-SYB-2008.pdf.
ASEAN Statistical Yearbook, 2003 @ http://www.aseansec.org/pdf/ASEAN_statistical2003.pdf
“A Turning Point in US-RP Relations.” Asian Journal (November 10, 2009), http://www.asianjournal.com/editorial/5-editorial/3518-a-turning-point-in-us-rp-relations.html?showall=1.
Baker, Carl. “China-Philippines Relations: Cautious Cooperation.” Asia Pacific Center for Security Studies (October 2004), http://www.apcss.org/Publications/SAS/AsiaBilateralRelations/China-PhilippinesRelationsBaker.pdf.
Bello, Walden. “China Lassoes its Neighbors.” Institute for Policy Studies (March 8, 2010), http://www.ips-dc.org/articles/china_lassoes_its_neighbors.
____________, “The China-ASEAN Free Trade Area: Propaganda and Reality,” Focus of the Global South (January 2010), http://www.tni.org/article/china-asean-free-trade-area-propaganda-and-reality.
Bert, Wayne. “The Southeast Asian Nations: Views of China and the US.” In The United Stated States, China and Southeast Asian Security A Changing of the Guard. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003.
Brady, Brendan. “Beijing’s Moneyed Advance on Southeast Asia.” CBC News (March 8, 2010), http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2010/03/05/f-china-economic-muscle.html.
Bower, Ernest. “President Obama Engages Southeast Asia.” Real Clear World (November 12, 2009), http://www.realclearworld.com/articles/2009/11/12/president_obama_engages_southeast_asia_97350.html.
Capie David and Amitav Acharya. “A Fine Balance: US Relations with Southeast Asia Since 9/11.” CERI (December 2002), http://www.ceri-sciencespo.com/archive/jan03/artca.pdf.
Chanborey, Cheunboran. “China’s Soft Power in Southeast Asia.” The Cambodian Journal of International Affairs, Volume 2, Number 1 (2009), http://www.cicp.org.kh/download/CJIA/CICP_Cambodian%20Journal%20of%20International%20Affairs_Vol%202%20Number_Final%20.
Chew, Emrys. “US Foreign Policy and Southeast Asia: From Manifest Destiny to Shared Destiny.” S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (October 29, 2009), http://www.rsis.edu.sg/publications/WorkingPapers/WP185.pdf.
“China and Southeast Asia.” The Stanley Foundation , 44th Strategy for Peace Conference (October 16-18, 2003), http://www.stanleyfoundation.org/publications/archive/SPC03Bpb.pdf.
“China-ASEAN Trade on Fast track.” People’s Daily Online (August 9, 2004), http://english.people.com.cn/200408/09/eng20040809_152306.html.
“China Gets Trade Route Instead of Dam on the Mekong River.” The Vancouver Sun (January 29, 2007), http://www.canada.com/vancouversun/news/story.html?id=cdfb5693-b84c-4b3b-97dc-7ccda28b79a3&k=95889&p=1.
“China Offers Funds to Boost ASEAN.” BBC News (April 13, 2009), http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7996300.stm.
Cheol, Kim Jae. “Competition Among China, Japan, Korea to Woo ASEAN.” East Asian Integration Studies (June 3, 2009), http://asianintegration.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=38&Itemid=26.
Cheow, Eric Teo Chu. “China’s Rising Soft Power in Southeast Asia.” Global Communications Platform (May 6, 2004), http://www.glocom.org/debates/20040506_cheow_china.
Cliff, Roger, Mark Burles, Michael S. Chase, Derek Eaton, and Kevin L. Pollpeter. “Entering the Dragon’s Lair Chinese AntiAccess Strategies and their Implications for the United States.” RAND Corporation (2007), http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2007/RAND_MG524.pdf.
“Clinton Cheered as She Wraps Up Indonesia Visit.” AFP (February 19, 2009), http://www.blnz.com/news/2009/02/19/Clinton_cheered_wraps_Indonesia_visit_0285. html.
“Clinton Signs Landmark US-ASEAN Friendship Pact.” Agence France-Presse (July 22, 2009), http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/world/07/22/09/clinton-signs-landmark-us-asean-friendship-pact.
Cordenillo, Raul L. “The Economic Benefits of ASEAN of the ASEAN-China Free Trade Area.” Bureau of Economic Integration ASEAN Secretariat (January 18, 2005), http://www.aseansec.org/17310.htm.
“Country Profile: Philippines.” Backgrounder (2001), http://www.ops.gov.ph/china2001/backgrounder.htm.
Dagdag, Edgardo E. “Philippine-US Defense Relations After 1991.” Asian Center University of the Philippines (December 2005).
Dalpino, Catharin. “Two Leaps in US-ASEAN Relations.” Asia Security Initiative (October 11, 2009), http://asiasecurity.macfound.org/blog/entry/two_leaps_in_us-asean_relations/.
Danckert, Sarah. “Is China Exploiting ASEAN.” Business Spectator (February 5, 2010), http://www.businessspectator.com.au/bs.nsf/Article/Is-China-exploiting-ASEAN-pd20100205-2CRBK?OpenDocument&src=spb.
De Castro, Renato R. “China, the Philippines and the US Influence in Asia.” American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, Number 2 (2007), http://www.aei.org/outlook/26450.
__________________. “Confronting China’s Charm Offensive in East Asia: A Simple Case of Fighting Fire with Fire?” Issues and Studies, Volume 45, Number 1, pp.71-116 (March 2009).
__________________. “Overseas Woes and Domestic Tactics in the Philippines.” Global Asia (2009), http://www.globalasia.org/V4N3_Fall_2009/Renato_Cruz_De_Castro.html.
__________________. “The Limits to Twenty-First Century Chinese Soft-power Statecraft in Southeast Asia.” Issues and Studies, Volume 43, Number 4 (2007), http://iir.nccu.edu.tw/attachements/journal/add/4/43-4-77-116.pdf.
Dillon, Dana R. and John J. Tkacik, Jr. “China and ASEAN: Endangered American Primacy in Southeast Asia.” The Heritage Foundation (2005), http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2005/10/China-and-ASEAN-Endangered-American-Primacy-in-Southeast-Asia.
Docena, Herbert. “In the Dragon’s Lair: US Prowls for China in the Philippines.” World Prout Assembly (February 28, 2008), http://www.worldproutassembly.org/archives/2008/02/in_the_dragons.html.
______________. “At the Door of All the East The Philippines in the United States Military Strategy.” Focus on the Global South (November 2007), http://www.scribd.com/doc/23203884/The-Philippines-in-US-Military-Strategy.
______________. “How the US Got its Philippine Bases Back.” World Sprout Assembly (November 28, 2007), http://www.worldproutassembly.org/archives/2007/11/how_the_us_got.html.
Dumbaugh, Kerry. “China’s Foreign Policy: What Does it Mean for US Global Interests?.” CRS Report for Congress (July 18, 2008), http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34588.pdf.
Fisher, D. Richard Jr. “Rebuilding the US-Philippines Alliance.” The Heritage Foundation (1999), http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/1999/02/Rebuilding-the-US-Philippine-Alliance.
“Free Trade Agreement Between China, ASEAN Grouping Comes into Force.” The China Post (January 1, 2010), http://www.chinapost.com.tw/business/asia/asian-market/2010/01/01/238917/Free-trade-agreement.htm.
Frost, Ellen L. “ China’s Commercial Diplomacy in Asia.” In China’s Rise and the Balance of Influence in Asia, edited by William W. Keller and Thomas G. Rawski. Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2007.
Fullbrook, David. “China to Europe via a New Burma Road.” Asia Times (September 23, 2004), http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/FI23Ad06.html.
Gill, Bates and Yanzhong Huang. “Sources and Limits of Chinese Soft Power.” Survival, Volume 48, Number 2 (2006), 17-36, http://www.comw.org/cmp/fulltext/0606gill.pdf.
Goh, Evelyn. “China and Southeast Asia.” Foreign Policy in Focus (2006), http://www.fpif.org/articles/china_and_southeast_asia.
_____________. “Meeting the China Challenge: The US in Southeast Asian Regional Strategies.” East-West Center, Policy Studies 16 (2005), http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs/PS016.pdf.
_____________. “Southeast Asian Responses to China’s Rise.” In The Rise of China and International Security America and Asia Respond, edited by Kevin J. Cooney and Yoichiro Sato. New York: Routledge, 2009.
He, Kai. “America’s Institutional Balancing Pragmatic Engagement.” In Institutional Balancing in the Asia Pacific Economic Interdependence and China’s Rise. New York: Routledge, 2009.
Hofang, Shen. “Managing Philippines-China Relations Through Dialogue.” In Harmony and Development ASEAN-China Relations, edited by Lai Hongyi and Lim Tin Seng. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, 2007.
Hofileña, Chay Florentino. “Philippines: “Quick Fix from America.” World Press (August 2002), http://worldpress.org/Asia/681.cfm.
Hongyi, Lai. “China’s Evolving Relations with Southeast Asia: Domestic and Strategic Factors.” In Harmony and Development ASEAN-China Relations, edited by Lai Hongyi and Lim Tin Seng. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, 2007.
Huisken, Ron. “Southeast Asia: Major Power Playground or Finishing School.” Strategic and Defense Studies Center (April 2008), http://rspas.anu.edu.au/papers/sdsc/wp/wp_sdsc_408.pdf.
Kornberg, Judith F. and John R. Faust. China and World Politics: Policies, Processes, Prospect, Second Edition. London: Lyne Rinner Publishers, 2005.
Kerrey, J. Robert and Robert A. Manning. “The United States and Southeast Asia: A Policy Agenda for the New Administration.” Council on Foreign Relations (2001), http://www.cfr.org/publication/3979/united_states_and_southeast_asia.html.
Kurlantzick, Joshua. “China’s Charm: Implications of Chinese Soft Power.” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Policy Paper Number 47, (June 2006), http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=view&id=18401&prog=zch.
________________. Charm Offensive: How China’s Soft Power Is Transforming the World. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.
________________. “China’s Growing Influence in Southeast Asia,” In China’s Expansion into the Western Hemisphere: Implications for Latin America and the US, edited by Riordan Roett and Guadalupe Paz. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 2008.
Landingin, Roel. “Chinese Foreign Aid Goes Off track in the Philippines.” Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (Undated), http://www.realityofaid.org/userfiles/roareports/roareport_452449c76e.pdf.
Lijun, Sheng. “China’s Peaceful Rise and its Political and Security Implications for Southeast Asia.” In Harmony and Development ASEAN-China Relations, edited Lai Hongyi and Lim Tin Seng. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, 2007.
Long, Joey. “The 2010 US Quadrennial Review: Implications for Southeast Asia.” S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (February 17, 2010), http://www.rsis.edu.sg/publications/Perspective/RSIS0192010.pdf.
Lontayao, Rommel C. “9.7 Million Filipinos Rate Themselves as Poor.” The Manila Times (November 6, 2009), http://www.manilatimes.net/index.php/top-stories/5406-97-million-filipinos-rate-themselves-as-poor.

Lum,Thomas, Larry Niksch. “The Republic of the Philippines: Background and US Relations.” CRS Report for Congress (2009), www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/ RL33233.pdf.
___________, Wayne M. Morrison and Bruce Vaughn. “China’s Soft Power in Southeast Asia.” CRS Report for Congress (2008), http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34310.pdf.
Macan-Markar, Marwaan. “Sparks Fly as China Moves Oil Up Mekong.” Asia Times (January 9, 2007), http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Southeast_Asia/IA09Ae01.html.
Mauzy, Diane K. and Brian L. Job. “US Policy in Southeast Asia Limited Re-engagement After Years of Benign Neglect.” Asian Survey, Volume 47, Issue 4, (2007), http://www.hks.harvard.edu/fs/pnorris/Acrobat/Burma_Mauzy_Job.pdf.
McDevitt, Michael .“The 2010 QDR and Asia: Messages for the Region.” Pacific Forum CSIS (March 15, 2010), http://csis.org/files/publication/pac1012.pdf.
Medeiros, Evan S. “Strategic Hedging and the Future of Asia-Pacific Stability.” The Washington Quarterly (Winter 2005-2006), http://www.twq.com/06winter/docs/06winter_medeiros.pdf.
Morada, Noel M. “The Rise of China and Regional Reponses: A Philippine Perspective.” The National Institute for Defense Studies, Joint Research Series Number 4 (2009), http://www.nids.go.jp/english/publication/joint_research/series4/pdf/4-4.pdf.
“More Chinese Tourists to Visit RP.” Manila Bulletin (February 17, 2010), http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/243865/more-chinese-tourists-visit-rp.
Nye, Joseph, S. Jr. Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power. New York: Basic Books, 1991.
______________. “The Olympics and Chinese Soft Power.” The Huffington Post (June 10, 2009), http://www.huffingtonpost.com/joseph-nye/the-olympics-and-chinese_b_120909.html.
______________. “Squandering the US Soft Power Edge.” International Educator (2007), http://www.nafsa.org/_/File/_/frontlines_jan_feb.pdf.
“Obama Asks US Congress to Remove Conditions on Military Aid.” The Philippine Star (November 10, 2009), http://www.philstar.com/Article.aspx?articleId=522045&publicationSubCategoryId=63
“Obama Meets Friends, Foes in Southeast Asia Summit.” Bangkok Post (November 15, 2009), http://www.bangkokpost.com/news/asia/160092/obama-meets-friends-foes-in-southeast-asia-summit.
“Obama Renews Focus on Southeast Asia.” Newsweek (November, 2009), http://www.newsweek.com/blogs/wealth-of-nations/2009/11/09/obama-renews-focus-on-southeast-asia.html.
“Obama Renews Focus on Southeast Asia.” Newsweek (November 9, 2009), http://www.newsweek.com/blogs/wealth-of-nations/2009/11/09/obama-renews-focus-on-southeast-asia.html.
Palanca, Ellen. “Philippines-China Relations ‘Golden Age’ of Partnership.” In Harmony and Development ASEAN-China Relations, edited by Lai Hongyi and Lim Tin Seng. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, 2007).
Pan, Esther. “China’s Soft Power Initiative.” Council on Foreign Relations (May 18, 2008), http://www.cfr.org/publication/10715/chinas_soft_power_initiative.html.
Perwita, Anak Agung Banyu. “ASEAN-US Relations: Challenges Ahead.” Paper Presented at the ASEAN Think Tank Forum “ASEAN and its External Relations, (August 5-6, 2009), http://www.siiaonline.org/files/Prof.%20Anak%20Agung%20Banyu%20Perwita.pdf.
Philippines’ National Statistics Coordination Board @ http://www.nscb.gov.ph/secstat/d_trade.asp.
Piboontanaswat, Nipa and Kevin Hamlin.“China Passes Germany to Become Third Largest Economy,” Bloomberg (January 14, 2009), http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=a9P1peF6QeOg&refer=home.
Plummer, Michael G. “How (and Why) the United States Should Help to Build the ASEAN Economic Community.” East-West Center (2008), http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs/dialogue002.pdf.
“Quadrennial Defense Review Report.” US Department of Defense (February 6, 2006), http://www.defense.gov/qdr/report/Report20060203.pdf.
“Record Number of Foreign Students in China in 2009.” Global Times (March 23, 2010) http://www.globaltimes.cn/www/english/sci-edu/china/2010-03/515173.html.
Requejo, Rey E. “High Court Upholds Visiting Forces Pact.” Manila Standard Today (March 3, 2010), http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/insideNation.htm?f=2010/march/3/nation1.isx&d=2010/march/3.
Richardson, Michael. “Listing Its Concerns, Southeast Asia Girds for Miyasawa Visit.” The New York Times (January 8, 1993), http://www.nytimes.com/1993/01/08/news/08iht-japa_0.html?pagewanted+1
Roy, Denny Roy. “Southeast Asia and China: Balancing or Bandwagoning.” Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International Strategic Affairs, Volume 27, Number 2 (2005), http://www.ou.edu/uschina/texts/Roy2005SEAsiaChina.pdf.
“RP’s Arroyo Heralds ‘Golden Age’ with China Ahead of Visit.” China Post (October 27, 2006), http://www.chinapost.com.tw/asiapacific/detail.asp?ID=93823&GRP=C.
Saravanmuttu, Johan. “Uncle Sam Swaggers Back.” Aliran Monthly (2002), http://www.aliran.com/oldsite/monthly/2002/7f.html.
Sta. Ana III, Filomeno and Alvin Firmeza. “China’s Investments and Development Assistance in the Philippines: Boon or Bane?” (April, 2008), http://www.oxfam.org.hk/fs/view/downloadables/china-footprint/China_Investments_Development_Philippines.pdf.
Storey, Ian. “China’s Charm Offensive Losses Momentum in Southeast Asia (Part II).” Jamestown Foundation, China Brief, Volume 10 (May 13, 2010), http://www.jamestown/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=36372.
Storey, Ian. “Trouble and Strife in the South China Sea Part II: The Philippines and China.” The Jamestown Foundation, China Brief Volume 8, Issue 9 (April 28, 2008), http://www.jamestown.org/programs/chinabrief/single/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=4886&tx_ttnews[backPid]=168&no_cache=1.
Sukma, Rizal. “US-Southeast Asia Relations After the Crisis: The Security Dimension.” The Asia Foundation (March 22-24, 2000), http://www.asiafoundation.org/pdf/ussearelations_aria.pdf.
Suzuki, Shogo. “Chinese Soft Power, Insecurity Studies, Myopia and Fantasy.” Third World Quarterly, Volume 30, Number 4 (2009), 779-793.
Sutter, Robert. “The Obama Administration and US Policy in Asia.” Contemporary Southeast Asia, Volume 31, Number 2 (2009), pp. 189–216 (2009), http://www.viet-studies.info/kinhte/Obama_US_Asia_Poliicy_CSA.pdf.
Symonds, Peter. “Why has Southeast Asia Become the Second Front in Bush’s “War on Terrorism.” World Socialist Website (April 26, 2002), http://www.wsws.org/articles/2002/apr2002/asia-a26.shtml.
“Taiwan, Philippines sign four MOUs after economic cooperation.” Taipei Times (February 14, 2009), http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/biz/archives/2009/02/14/2003436103.
Tarrazona, Noel T. “US, China Vie for Philippine Military Influence.” Asia Times (September 20, 2007), http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Southeast_Asia/II20Ae01.html.
“The United States is Back.” Comparative Connections, Vol. 11, No.3 (2009), http://www.csis.org/files/publication/0903qus_seasia.pdf.
“US Removes Cambodia, Laos from Trade Blacklist.” Bangkok Post (June 13, 2009), http://www.bangkokpost.com/news/asia/145970/us-removes-laos-cambodia-from-trade-blacklist.

“US Security Policy for East Asia: Eight Years Under the Clinton Administration.” East-Asian Strategic Review (2001), http://www.nids.go.jp/english/publication/east-asian/pdf/2001/east-asian_e2001_8.pdf.
US to Open Mission to ASEAN in Jakarta.” ASEAN Affairs (July 22, 2009), http://www.aseanaffairs.com/press_releases/us_to_open_mission_to_asean_in_jakarta.
Wain, Barry. “Manila’s Bungle in the South China Sea.” Far Eastern Economic Review (March 10, 2008), http://www.paracelspratly.com/home/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=54.
Vaughn, Bruce and Wayne M. Morrison. “China-Southeast Asia Relations: Trends, Issues and Implications for the United States.” CRS Report for Congress (April 4, 2006), http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL32688.pdf.
_____________. “East Asian Summit: Issues for Congress.” CRS Report for Congress (December 9, 2005), http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/crs/rs22346.pdf.
“What Bases? They are Temporary Military Facilities.” The Mindanao Examiner (February 22, 2008), http://zamboangajournal.blogspot.com/2008/02/what-us-bases-they-are-temporary.html.
Wong, John, Zou Keyuan and Zeng Huaqun. “New Dimensions in China-ASEAN Relations.” In China-ASEAN Relations Economic and Legal Dimensions, edited by John Wong, Zou Keyuan, and Zeng Huaqun. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, 2004.
Wu, Friedrich, Poa Tiong Siaw, Yeo Han Sia, and Puah Kok Keong. “Foreign Direct Investments to China and Southeast Asia: Has ASEAN been Losing Out.” Economic Survey of Singapore (Third Quarter, 2002), http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/APCITY/UNPAN010347.pdf.
Yang, Jian. “The Rise of China: Chinese Perspectives.” In The Rise of China and International Security America and Asia Respond, edited by Kevin J. Cooney and Yoichiro Sato. New York: Routledge, 2009.
Yong, Gan Kim. “China-ASEAN Relations: A key to the Region’s Stability and Prosperity.” In Harmony and Development ASEAN-China Relations, edited by Lai Hongyi and Lim Tin Seng. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, 2007.
Yuan, Jing-dong. “China-ASEAN Relations: Perspectives, Prospects and Implications for US Interests.” Strategic Studies Institute, October 2006, 4.
Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
亞太研究英語碩士學位學程(IMAS)
97925032
98
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0097925032
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[亞太研究英語博/碩士學位學程(IDAS/IMAS) ] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
503201.pdf617KbAdobe PDF2036View/Open


All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


社群 sharing