Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
|Title:||Early twentieth century narcotics control: international conferences on opium under the league of nations and narcotics control on Taiwan under Japan|
Chou ,Whei Ming
League of Nations
|Issue Date:||2011-10-05 14:56:26 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract:||The aim of the research is to identify and apprehend all the factors in terms of administration, economy, culture, and ideas within and without Taiwan that influenced drugs control there in the early twentieth century. The means is to explore narcotics control on the island with special consideration to international conferences on opium. The period covers the late Qing dynasty (1850-1895), early Japanese period (1895-1920), and late Japanese period (1920-1940). The conclusion will discuss the relationship between narcotics control and the conferences, compare practical measures and cultures of drugs, and compare abstract ideas that defined the practical side. The research is original because it studies previously unexplored cultural and intellectual history. It is also a synthesis of a rarely researched topic: namely: the international conferences angle on drugs control on the island during Japanese rule (hence its emphasis in the thesis title). |
The main findings regarding the Qing dynasty is that the administration was weak and opium culture was acceptable, fashionable and useful. The administration was weak because officials were undermined by informal administrators who were gentry. The gentry occupied a privileged socio-legal position and were relied upon by officials for implementing policy. It was also weak because it could not enforce the law: edicts stipulating prohibition of opium smoking and emigration to Taiwan were ignored. Opium culture was rendered fashionable and acceptable by the literati who smoked it. Opium also served as a treatment for many illnesses. It was popular especially among professional men in Taiwan. Opium was largely available since the treaty ports were opened in 1858. A favourable balance of trade meant the Chinese could afford opium.
The early Japanese period had a strong administration and definitive new ideas. The administration was strong because of its army, Law 63, and the hokō and police systems. It successfully established the opium monopoly system. It was a licensing and rationing system that was on the whole effective, but it was flawed because of its recording and commission on sales system. Biological principles and economic warfare defined the opium policy. The former meant that the Taiwanese would be made fitter over time by gradually suppressing opium. The latter referred to selling opium as a means to enhance national survival in the newly perceived protracted war where resources were crucial for victory. Fear of national destruction through Japanese adopting the smoking habit triggered the formulation of an opium policy. Occasional and habitual smokers were homogenised through media. Opium smokers were presented negatively. Iwai Tatsumi had opium revenue become Government-General revenue. It was important until 1930. A black market of opium for secret smokers flourished possibly with the approval of the administration for profit or social stability.
The late Japanese period was marked by introduction of powerful foreign ideas and cultural change. The ideas were self-determination and humanitarianism. The former incited anti-colonialism. That forced the administration to adopt a concessionary attitude towards the Chinese in order to maintain peaceful rule. It promoted accelerated assimilation that undermined the discriminatory biological principles that was the bedrock of the gradual suppression policy. Humanitarianism put opium on the international public and national government agendas. It stimulated reform such as the 1928 Taiwan Opium Ordinance, 1929 Addict Registration Campaign and expedited the 1930 Rehabilitation Programme. Du Congming established the first rehabilitation centre after administration funded research into opium. Cultural change is expressed in the ambiguous attitude towards opium crystallizing into a fiercely anti-opium one held by Chinese. Opium was rendered unacceptable and traitorous. The Japanese viewed opium addiction as a disease; hence addicts were medicalised. Allegedly Japanese officials and businessmen respectively approved of and engaged in the export of crude morphine and cocaine from Taiwan. The opium monopoly system allegedly provided cover for the import of excessive quantities of opium. Weak regulations in Japan meant exporting cocaine was not problematic. Increasingly opium businesses became unprofitable or were closed excepting wholesalers. Revenue from opium was minute but still useful.
The main points of the international conferences concern their aims, origins, results, the League of Nations and Japanese policy. The aims were to eliminate opium smoking and suppress narcotics. They originated from American President Theodore Roosevelt who was prompted by American missionary Charles Brent. British diplomat Sir Malcolm Delevingne was instrumental in calling for the 1924-25 Geneva conferences. The results are vast and complex. The sound ideas were: a) licensing; b) rationing; c) recording; d) government monopoly; e) standardised import and export certificates; f) independent body to handle estimates from consumer countries and orders to supplier countries; g) education. The main problems were: a) the agreements were only obligatory; b) diplomatic language afforded the ability to neglect reforms; c) there was not a timetable for limiting supply. The League of Nations was established in order to avert war. It was revolutionary because it provided a platform for open and multilateral diplomacy, and redefined acceptable behaviour of nations. It added a new dimension to traditional closed and bilateral diplomacy where states had freedom of action. The League was a phenomenal propaganda machine because it was admirable, authoritative and hence held global media attention. The Japanese view was originally typified by indifference and strategic interest. The latter is regarding the Anglo-Japanese alliance. It developed to become morally concerned and concerned as per foreign pressure over the illicit traffic of narcotics from Japan. Indifference was due to the fact that in Japan drugs were not an electoral issue. Moreover, the government was dominated by businesses which had an economic interest in the trade. Lastly it was offensive to undermine business in Japanese culture. Moral concern arose in terms of humanitarianism under the League of Nations. Additionally social hygiene viewing opium as a treatable threat to survival was applied to the eradication of opium.
The conclusion reveals the relationship between conferences and narcotics control on the island to be mutual, direct, indirect and significant. The Chinese and Foreign Powers created and surmounted the opium crisis in Taiwan. Japanese rule provided for suitable conditions for the Chinese to resist opium. Administration and culture are the most influential factors in narcotics control. Foreign ideas of self-determination and humanitarianism defeated Japanese ideas and compelled reform of the opium system. Mobilisation of public opinion is vital for cultural change. The opium monopoly system was on the whole efficacious. Lastly, the statistics on opium are dubious as they are provided by Kaku Sagatarō who may have been involved in the illicit traffic of narcotics.
|Reference:||ALLEE, Mark A. 1997 (ed). Law and Local Society in Late Imperial China. SMC Publishing Inc.: Taiwan ROC.|
BEASLEY, William G. 2000. The Rise of Modern Japan: Political, Economic and Social Change Since 1850. St. Martin’s Press: UK.
BOOTH, Martin. 1998 (ed). Opium: A History. St. Martin’s Press: US.
British Library. 27/10/2010 . China Trade and the East India Company. http://www.bl.uk/reshelp/findhelpregion/asia/china/guidesources/chinatrade/index.html
BROOK, Timothy & SCHMID, André. 2000. Nation Work: Asian Elites and National Identities. University of Michigan Press: US.
BROOK, Timothy & WAKABAYASHI, T. Bob. 2000. Opium Regimes: China, Britain and Japan, 1839-1952. University of California Press: US.
BROWN, Melissa J. 1997. We Savages Didn’t Bind Feet: The Implications of Cultural Contact and Change in Southwestern Taiwan for an Evolutionary Anthropology. UMI Dissertation Services: US.
BUELL, Raymond L. 1993. The League of Nations: A Summary of its Organization and Accomplishments during Ten Years. UMI: A Bell & Howell Co.: US.
CHANG, Chung Li. 1970 (ed). The Chinese Gentry: Studies on Their Role in Nineteenth-Century Chinese Society. University of Washington Press: US.
CHANG, Hanyu & MYERS, Ramon H. “Japanese Colonial Development Policy in Taiwan, 1895-1906: A Case of Bureaucratic Entrepreneurship”; in: The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 22, No. 4 (Aug, 1963).
CHEN, Ching-Chih. “The Japanese Adaptation of the Pao-Chia System in Taiwan, 1895-1945”; in: The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 34, No. 2 (Feb., 1975).
CHEN, Edward I-Te. “Japan’s Decision to Annex Taiwan: A Study of Itō-Mutsu Diplomacy, 1894-95”; in: Journal of Asian Studies. Vol XXXVII, No. 1. November 1977
CHUANG, Yih-chyi. 2010. “Economic Development of Taiwan” class notes taken by author. International Masters in Asia-Pacific Studies, National Chengchi University: Taiwan ROC.
DAVIDSON, James W. F.R.G.S. 1903. The Island of Formosa: Historical View from 1430 to 1900. History, People Resources and Commercial Prospects. Consul of the United States for Formosa
DIKŐTTER, Frank, LARS Laamann & ZHOU, Xun. 2004. Narcotic Culture: A History of Drugs in China. Hurst & Company: UK.
Encyclopaedia of Taiwan. 2010-11. http://taiwanpedia.culture.tw
FOLEY, Hamilton. 1969 (first published: 1923). Woodrow Wilson’s Case for the League of Nations: Compiled with his Approval by Hamilton Foley. Princeton University Press: US.
GOODMAN, Jordan et. al. 2007 (ed.). Consuming Habits: Global and Historical Perspectives on How Cultures Define Drugs. Taylor & Francis: UK.
HAO, Yen-p’ing. 1986. The Commercial Revolution in Nineteenth-Century China: The Rise of Sino-Western Mercantile Capitalism. SMC Publishing Inc. Taiwan, ROC.
HO, Samuel P.S. “The Economic Development of Colonial Taiwan: Evidence and Interpretation”; in: The Journal of Asian Studies. Vol. 34, No. 2 (Feb., 1975).
HUANG, Zhaotang. 2002. Taiwan Zongdufu (Taiwan Government-General). Qianwei Publishing: Taiwan ROC.
HSU, Hungbin. 2008. From Smokers to Addicts: A History of Opium and Its Users in Taiwan. University of London Thesis: UK.
HSU, Immanuel C.Y. 1995. The Rise of Modern China: Fifth Edition. Oxford University Press: UK.
International Opium Commission. 1909. Report of the International Opium Commission, Shanghai, China, February 1 February 26, 1909. Vol. 1. Report of the Proceedings P.S. King & Son. Publishers, Parliamentary and General Booksellers: UK.
Japanese Foreign Ministry. 1925. Kokusai Ahen Kaigi (International Opium Conferences).
Japanese Foreign Ministry. 1930. Mayaku Seizō Seigen Kaigi (Conference on the Limitation of the Manufacture of Morphine).
Japanese Foreign Ministry. 1930. Bankokku Kokusai Ahen Kaigai (Bangkok International Opium Conference).
JARMAN, Robert L. 1997. Taiwan: Political and Economic Reports, 1861-1960.Archive Editions Limited: UK.
JENNINGS, John M. 1997. The Opium Empire: Japanese Imperialism and Drug Trafficking in Asia, 1895-1945. Praeger Publishers: US.
KARCH, Steven B. 2006 (ed). A Brief History of Cocaine. Taylor & Francis: UK.
KERR, George H. 1974. Formosa: Licensed Revolution and the Home Rule Movement, 1895-1945. University Press of Hawaii Honolulu: US.
KŌ, Bunyū. 2005. Taiwan ha Nihonjin ga Tsukutta: Yamato-damashii he no On; Chūkashisō he no Urami (Taiwan was made by the Japanese: Toward the Kindness of the Great Japanese Spirit and the Cruelty of Chinese Thought). Tokuma Shoten.
KUHN, Cynthia et al. 2008 (ed). Buzzed: The Straight Facts about the most used and abused Drugs from Alcohol to Ecstasy. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.: US.
LAMLEY, Harry Jerome. 1964. The Taiwan Literati and Early Japanese Rule, 1895-1915. A Study of their Reactions to the Japanese Occupation and Subsequent Responses to Colonial Rule and Modernization. University of Washington. UMI Dissertation Services: US.
League of Nations. 1923. International Opium Convention – Signed at The Hague, January 23rd, 1912: Protocols of Cloture – Signed at The Hague on January 23rd, 1912; July 9th, 1913; and June 25th 1914.
League of Nations. 1925. First Opium Conference, Geneva, November 3rd 1924 – February 11th 1925: Minutes and Annexes.
League of Nations. 1925. Records of the Second Opium Conference, Geneva, November 17th 1924 – February 19th 1925: Volume I: Plenary Meetings, Texts of The Debates.
League of Nations. 1931. Commission of Enquiry into the Control of Opium-Smoking in the Far East: Report to the Council. Vol. 1-3.
League of Nations. 1932. Conference on The Suppression of Opium-Smoking convened under Article XII of The Geneva Opium Agreement, 1925; Bangkok, November 9th to 27th, 1931; Minutes of The Meetings and Documents submitted to The Conference.
LEE, Peter. 2006. Opium Culture: The Art & Ritual of The Chinese Tradition. Park Street Press: U.S.
LIU, Mingxiu. 2008. Taiwan Tongzhi yu Yapian Wenti: Apian (Taiwan Rule and the Opium Issue: Opium). Qianwei Chuban: Taiwan ROC.
McALLISTER, William B. 2000. Drug Diplomacy in the Twentieth Century: An International History. Routledge: US.
MYERS, Ramon H. & PEATTIE, Mark R. 1984. The Japanese Colonial Empire, 1895-1945. Princeton University Press: US.
NORTHEDGE, F.S. 1986. The League of Nations: Its Life and Times, 1920-1946. Holmes & Meier Publishers: US.
Oxford English Dictionaries. http://oxforddictionaries.com
PARROTT, Andrew et. al. 2004. Understanding Drugs and Behaviour. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.: UK
RENBORG, Bertil A. 1944. International Drug Control: A Study of International Administration By and Through the League of Nations. Kraus Reprint Co.: US.
ROY, Denny. 2003. Taiwan: A Political History. Cornell University Press: UK & US.
RUBINSTEIN, Murray A. 2007 (ed). Taiwan: A New History. An East Gate Book: US.
SCHENCHKING, J. Charles. “The Imperial Japanese Navy and the Constructed Consciousness of a South Seas Destiny, 1872-1921”; in: Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 33, No. 4. October 1999.
SHEPHERD, John Robert. “The Island Frontier of the Ch’ing, 1684-1780”; in: RUBINSTEIN, Murray A. 2007 (ed). Taiwan: A New History. An East Gate Book: US.
SHIMAZU, Naoko. 1998. Japan, Race and Equality: The Racial Equality Proposal of 1919. Routledge: US & Canada.
TAKEKOSHI, Yosaburō. 1978 (ed). Japanese Rule in Formosa. SMC Publishing Inc. Taiwan, ROC.
The Philippine Commission. 1906. Report of The Committee Appointed by The Philippine Commission to Investigate The Use of Opium and The Traffic Therein and The Rules, Ordinances and Laws Regulating Such Use and Traffic in Japan, Formosa, Shanghai, HongKong, Saigon, Singapore, Burma, Java and The Philippine Islands. Bureau of Insular Affairs, War Department: US.
The Royal Commission on Opium. 2003 (ed).The Royal Commission on Opium, 1893-1895. Vol. 1-6. Ganesha Publishing: UK; Edition Synapse: Japan.
TS’AI, Caroline Huiyu. 2009. Taiwan in Japan’s Empire Building: An Institutional Approach to Colonial Engineering. Routledge: Academia Sinica on East Asia: US & UK.
TSURUMI, Yūsuke. 1965 (ed). (first published: 1944). Gotō Shinpei-den (Biography of Goto Shimpei). Keisō Shobō: Japan.
RUBINSTEIN, Murray A. 2007. Taiwan: A New History. Expanded Edition. M.E. Sharpe: US & UK.
WHELAN, Anthony. “Wilsonian Self-Determination and The Versailles Settlement”; in: The International and Comparative Law Quarterly¸ Vol. 43, No. 1 (Jan., 1994),
WU, Micha. 2007. Taiwan-shi Shōjiten (Small Dictionary on Taiwanese History). Chūgoku Shoten: Japan.
YUANLIU TAIWAN SHIJI HUIWEI BIANJI-ZU. 2005. Renshi Taiwan: Huiwei 1895-2000 (Know Taiwan: A Panorama 1895-2000). Yuanliu: Taiwan ROC.
ZHENG, Yangwen. 2001. The Social Life of Opium in China. Cambridge University Press: UK.
ZHOU, Huimin. 2011. Personal Communication from Academic Advisor to the Author.
|Appears in Collections:||[亞太研究英語博/碩士學位學程(IDAS/IMAS)] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 學術集成 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.