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Title: 選區服務與立法問政:選制變遷前後的比較
Other Titles: Constituency Service and Law-Making:A Comparison before and after the Reform of Electoral System
Authors: 盛杏湲
Contributors: 行政院國家科學委員會
Keywords: 政治學
Date: 2011
Issue Date: 2011-11-14 16:52:50 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 本研究計畫的主要目的在於檢視立委在面對新選制之下,其立法問政與選區服務行為的變遷與持續。過去在複數選區單記不可讓渡投票制(SNTV)之下,立委有強烈的動機去建立個人選票,亦即讓選民投票是基於立委本身的特質而非政黨或其它的原因。為了達到此一目標,立委會非常關注其選區,不僅會在選區積極地服務選區民眾,並會在立法過程中積極的參與,利用機會帶特殊的好處到選區,以換取選民在選舉時的支持。甚至於,當選區立場與政黨的立場不一致時,立委會忠於其選區而非其政黨,即便他們極少會公然反對政黨,但是極可能消極的不支持。在2005年6月7日通過的修憲案將立委選舉制度改為單一選區相對多數與政黨比例代表的混合制。那麼,當選舉制度變革之後,立委的角色與行為是否也會跟著轉變?又如何轉變?本計畫以兩年為期,將以第三至第七屆立法院為研究焦點,具體的研究時點係從1996年2月到2012年1月,如此方能充分掌握立委在舊選舉制度到新選舉制度之下的轉變。本研究計畫將兼採質化與量化三種研究方法:首先是對立委助理作調查訪問,藉以瞭解立委的政治目的、法案偏好、選區服務;第二是對立委進行深入訪談,藉以瞭解立委如何感受選區、立委在選區服務與立法問政如何取捨與背後的考量因素;第三是對立委的提案進行內容分析,以瞭解立委提案的偏好、選擇與提案多寡。本研究預期在新選制下立委愈可能增強了立委原有的追求個人選票與經營選區的動機。這是因為:由於每一選區僅有單一立委,立委的可課責性連結更為緊密,因此更容易因立法而宣稱功勞,且更難逃避責任;其次,立委在尋求黨內提名時面臨極大的黨內競爭。然而,立委為了獲得百分之五十以上的選票,有擴張選民基礎的動機,因此在立法問政時,不僅會提出提供特定少數人利益的提案,也會有動機去提出提供普遍利益的提案。
The purpose of this project is to examine the change and continuity of Taiwanese legislators on their behavior of lawmaking and constituency service. Under the old electoral system (single non-transferable vote system, SNTV), Taiwanese legislators had strong incentives to build the base of personal vote. Legislators thus tried to attract electoral support through their personal qualities, qualifications, activities, and records, rather than through their party’s reputation. When legislators pursued such a strategy, they tended to be more considerate of their constituency, conducting casework or supporting the adoption of pork barrel projects in exchange for the electoral support of their constituents. Whenever a conflict between legislators’ party and their constituency occurs, they would tend to display more loyalty towards their constituency, rather than to their party. Even though they seldom opposed their party in public, they did not follow the party line. In June 2005, the electoral system had reformed from SNTV to a mixed system of single member district plural system plus a closed-listed PR system. Then, do legislators’ representative styles and behavior change because of the reform of electoral system? If they do change, then how do they change? This two-year project focuses on a longitudinal analysis from the third to the seventh Legislative Yuan. The research period of time ranges from February 1996 to January 2012. Three major methods will be used. The first method is a survey on legislators’ assistants to know legislators’ political purposes, bill preferences, and constituency services. The second method is to conduct intensive interviews on legislators to know the ways they perceive constituency and the rationale of their choice and behavior. The third method is a content analysis on legislators’ proposing bills to know legislators’ preferences, choices, and efforts in the Legislative Yuan. I expect that Taiwanese legislators under a new system are more constituency-oriented than those under the old system. This is so because legislators need to garner votes by themselves, and they easily claim credits and hardly avoid constituent’s blames. Also, legislators face large intra-party competition when they pursue nomination within party. However, since legislators need to get more than 50 percent of votes to get re-elected, they not only have incentives to propose bills bringing benefits to the particularized group of people as before, but also have strong incentives to propose bills bringing benefits to the general public.
Relation: 基礎研究
研究期間:10008~ 10107
Source URI:*&check=0&pnchDesc=%E9%81%B8%E5%8D%80%E6%9C%8D%E5%8B%99%E8%88%87%E7%AB%8B%E6%B3%95%E5%95%8F%E6%94%BF%3A%E9%81%B8%E5%88%B6%E8%AE%8A%E9%81%B7%E5%89%8D%E5%BE%8C%E7%9A%84%E6%AF%94%E8%BC%83
Data Type: report
Appears in Collections:[政治學系] 國科會研究計畫

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