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Title: 重塑愛麗絲:愛麗絲在仙境與鏡中世界的自我及空間經驗
Refiguring the two Alices: Alice’s Spatial Experiences and self in wonderland and looking-glass
Authors: 陳凱琳
Chen, Kai Lin
Contributors: 何艾克
Heroux, Erick
陳凱琳
Chen, Kai Lin
Keywords: 路易士‧卡洛爾
平滑空間
褶縐空間
閾限
儀式理論
身體再現
Lewis Carroll
smooth space
striated space
liminality
rites of passage
bodily representation
Date: 2011
Issue Date: 2012-04-12 13:47:09 (UTC+8)
Abstract: 路易士‧卡洛爾的《愛麗絲夢遊記》(Alice in Wonderland, 1865) 及《穿越明鏡》(Through the Looking-Glass, 1871) 是十九世紀極為出名的兒童文學。兩本書中都描述一位名為愛麗絲的女孩如何進入一個奇幻的國度而展開旅程,以及當中她所遇見的各種角色。這兩本書不只豐富有趣,更充滿了諧擬以及邏輯和文字遊戲,使其成為現今許多學者研究的對象。但是,兩本書的相似性使得一般讀者或是學者在閱讀時,都將其視為同一則故事。然而,在仔細探索後,會發現卡洛爾在寫作過程中,很明顯地把兩本書做了區分。本論文因此試圖將兩本書進行比較分析,來重新檢視兩個奇幻世界以及兩個愛麗絲的差異性。
本文第一章為概論,簡單介紹卡洛爾及其兩本作品。第二章運用德勒茲和加達利的概念,針對仙境與鏡中世界的空間的進行比較。從文本例證中可看出,第一本書中的仙境近似一個「平滑空間」(smooth space),而第二本中的鏡中世界則如同一個「褶縐空間」(striated space)。此差異性更凸顯了這兩段故事的不同。第三章主要應用透納的理論來探討主角愛麗絲與兩個空間的關係。透納利用范‧杰內普的「儀式理論」(rites of passage)發展出「閾限」(liminality)的觀念,並用此觀念來解讀正在進行生命儀式的個體以及其所屬的階段。許多學者認為兩段故事是在描述愛麗絲長大的過程,因此她的旅程可被視為她經歷生命儀式─成年禮的歷程。然而,雖然兩本書中的兩個空間均可被視為一種「閾限空間」(liminal space),但只有鏡中世界塑造了一個成功的生命儀式,使愛麗絲在最後得以達到象徵性的成年。另一方面,由於仙境中缺乏線性進展,無法構成一個有效的生命儀式,導致第一本書中的愛麗絲到最後還是以小孩之姿結束在此空間的旅程。第四章援引兩位學者的文章來探討愛麗絲在兩個空間中身體呈現的差異以及和愛麗絲自我發展的相關性。由於愛麗絲在仙境中維持一個小孩的身分,她的身體與行為不會造成社會的威脅,在空間中也就不會受任何拘束。反之,在愛麗絲即將長大的鏡中世界中,其女性的身體卻必須受到限制。因此,在鏡中世界的愛麗絲不僅身體未出現任何變化,她的任何身體的慾望也必須受到克制。這與在第一本書中的身體再現是全然迥異的。第五章則是本文的結論;總結這兩本書的差異性,而身為讀者的我們也應正視其中的區別,進而能夠更加了解卡洛爾筆下的兩個奇幻世界以及兩位均名為愛麗絲的主角。
Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass have brought laughter to children as they journey with Alice through the fantasy worlds ever since their first publication in the 19th century. Filled with Carroll’s witty parodies and plays of logic, the books quickly become two of the most widely studied children fantasies. Both books are about a little girl named Alice who crosses a barrier and enters a fantastical dream world, in which she meets a variety of strange creatures. With the similarity of structures, the two books are often regarded as one single work in modern days. However, upon close examination, it is quite evident that the two works are of entirely different entities, and should be read accordingly. In my thesis, I explore the possibility of reading the books separately by comparing and contrasting Carroll’s creation of the two worlds, as well as the two different developments of Alice within the books.
In chapter one, I give an overall summary of the author and a brief introduction of the background of the Alices. Chapter two focuses on the two spaces of Wonderland and Looking-Glass World. Using Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari’s notion of smooth and striated space, this chapter delineates how Wonderland is more like a smooth space with its rhizomatic routes and a lack of center, whereas the linearity of Looking-Glass World appears to be closer to a striated space. This critical difference highlights the individualization between the two worlds.
Chapter three investigates the relationship between Alice and the two spaces by adopting Victor Turner’s concept. Drawing on Arnold van Gennep’s notion of the rites of passage, Turner proposes the concept of liminality, which is the state of an individual when he or she is undergoing a rite of passage. Most scholars suggest that both Alice books depict Alice’s development to adulthood, which makes Alice’s journeys through the two worlds rites of passage. However, while both spaces can be said to be liminal spaces for Alice, only Looking-Glass World constitutes a completed rite of passage for her, in which she reaches a symbolic maturity at the end. With no linear progression, Wonderland fails to be a rite of passage, and hence Alice comes out still as the child she is going in.
Chapter four concentrates on the bodily manifestation of Alice, and how they relate to the difference in Alice’s self development in the two books. Drawing on Donald Rackin’s and Anna Krugovoy Silver’s articles, I find that Alice’s exuberant bodily manifestation and vigorous expression of bodily desires in Wonderland is due to the fact that Alice remains a young child, and that her immature body does not cause a threat to the Victorian society. Hence, Carroll allows her to be the fully embodied girl in the first book. In Looking-Glass World, in which Alice is on the verge of growing up, her body must be restrained. Thus, her body stays static and her bodily desires are contained, very different from the bodily representation in the first book.
In Wonderland and Looking-Glass, Carroll has created two very enchanting stories, with two distinctive fantasy worlds and two separate developments of Alice. Conclusively, I believe that Carroll meant for them to be treated as two separate books, with two different spaces of the dream worlds and two protagonists by the name of Alice.
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Description: 碩士
國立政治大學
英國語文學研究所
96551002
100
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0096551002
Data Type: thesis
Appears in Collections:[英國語文學系] 學位論文

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